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KV 32779 e The School Committee of Boston have "authorized the introdúc-tion of this work into the Public Schools of the City. (H.2,1860)


GREENLEAF'S SERIES OF ARITHMETICS. 1. MENTAL ARITHMETIC, upon the Inductive Plan, designed for beginners. By Benjamin Greenleaf, A. M., Principal of Bradford (Mass.) Teachers Seminary.

2. INTRODUCTION TO THE NATIONAL ARITHMETIC, designed for Common Schools. Fifteenth improved stereotype edition. 196 pages, half-bound.

3. THE NATIONAL ARITHMETIC, for advanced scholars in Common Schools and Academies. Twenty-fifth improved stereotype edition. 324 pages, full bound.

COMPLETE KEYS TO THE INTRODUCTION AND NATIONAL ARITHMETICS, containing Solutions and Explanations, for Teachers only. (In separate volumes.)

*** The attention of Teachers and Superintendents of Schools generally is respectfully invited to this popular system of Arithmetic, which is well adapted to all classes of students. The whole or a part of this series has been recommended and adopted by the superintending school committees of the principal towns throughout New England, and is also used in the best public and private schools in various sections of the United States.

GREENLEAF'S NATIONAL ARITAMETIC is now extensively used as a text book in many distinguished seminaries of learning, including the following:- The several STATE NORMAL Schools in Massachusetts, under the direction of the State Board of Education; the NORMAL SCHOOLS in New York City; Rutger's Female Institute, New York; Brooklyn (N. Y.) Female Academy; Abbott Female Academy, and Phillips Academy, Andover; Chauncey Hall School, Boston; Bradford Female Seminary : Phillips Academy, Exeter; Young Ladies Institute, Pittsfield; Worcester County High School, Worcester; together with the best schools in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Richmond, Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, New Orleans, and other cities; and wherever the work has been introduced, it is still used with great success, which is deemed a sufficient recommendation.

POETICAL SELECTIONS From the best English and American Authors; designed as Exercises in Parsing, for Academies and Common Schools. Compiled by T. Rickard, A.M. and H. Orcutt, A. M. (Teachers.) *** A cheap work like the above, (comprised in a small volume,) has long been needed.

THE CLASSICAL READER: A Selection of Lessons in Prose and Verse, from the most esteemed English and American writers. Intended for the use of the higher classes in public and private seminaries.... By Rev. F. W. P. Greenwood, D. D. and George B. Emerson, A. M., of Boston. Tenth edition, stereotyped. With an engraved frontispiece.

Explanatory of the first principles of Human Organization as the basis of Physical Educa-
tion ; with numerous Illustrations, a full Glossary, or Explanation of Technical Terms, and
Practical Questions at the bottom of the page. Designed for Schools and Families. Tenth
stereotype edition, revised and enlarged.

By Benjamin Franklin Fisk. Twenty-sixth improved stereotype edition.

Fisk's Greek Grammar is used in Harvard University, and in many other distinguished collegiate and academic institutions in various parts of the United States.

Greek Exercises : containing the substance of the Greek Syntax, illustrated by passages
from the best Greek authors, to be written out from the words given in their simplest form.
By Benjamin Franklin Fisk. Consuetudo et exercitatio facilitatem maxime parit.'-- Quintil.
Adapted to the author's Greek Grammar.' Sixteenth improved stereotype edition.

*** Fisk's Greek Exercises are well adapted to illustrate the rules of the Grammar, and constitute a very useful accompaniment thereto.

Caii Julii Cæsaris Commentarii de Bello Gallico ad Codices Parisinos recensiti, a N. L.
Achaintre and N. E. Lemaire. Accesserunt Notula Anglicæ, atque Index Historicus et Geo-
graphicus. Curavit F. P. Leverett, A. M.

M. T. Ciceronis Orationes Quædam Selectæ, Notis Illustratæ. [By Charles Folsom, A. M.]
In Usum Academiæ Exoniensis. Editio stereotypa, Tabulis Analyticis instructa.

ALGER'S MURRAY'S READER, AND INTRODUCTION. Published by ROBERT S. DAVIS, School-Book Publisher, BOSTON, and sold by all the principal Booksellers throughout the United States.

17 Also constantly for sale, (in addition to his own publications,) a complete assortment of School Books and Stationery, which are offered to Booksellers, School Committees, and Teachers, on very liberal terms.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1846, by R. B. Davis, in the Clerk's

Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.

66 THE ENG'LISH READ'ER,” and “Se'QUEL” to that pěrför mance, having met with a favourable reception from the Publick, the Com-pi'ler has been induced to prepare a small . volume, on a similar plan, for the use of children, who have made but little progʻress in reading. It has been his aim to form a compila'tion, which would properly conduct the young léar'ner from the Spelling Book to “The Engʻlish Read'er;" and in prosecuting this design, he has been* particularly carerul to select such pieces as are adapted to the understanding, and pleasing to the taste, of children.

A work calculated for different classes of young readers, should contain pieces suited, in point of language and matter, to their various ages and capacities. The Cóm-pi'ler, in conformity with this idea, has endeavoured to arrānge the materials of each chapter, so as to form an easy gradation, which may be adapted to the different progʻress of the lčar'ners. Judicious Teachers will know how to apply this arrāngement to the years and abilities of their pupils.

Care has been taken to render the language of all the pieces correct and perspicuous ; that the young lear'ner may improve in style, as well as in reading, and insensibly acquire a taste for accurate composition.—To imbue the tender mind with the love of virtue and goodness, is an especial object of the present work : and with this view the pieces have been scrupulously selected; and, where necessary, purified from every word and sentiment that could offend the most delicate mind.

As a work tending to season the minds of children with piety and virtue, and to improve them in reading, language, and sentiment, the Com-pi'ler hopes it will prove a suitable Introduction to the “Engʻlish Reader,” and other publications of that nature; and also a proper book for those schools, in which, from their circumscribed plan of education, larger works of the kind cannot be admitted.

Advěr'tisement to the Second Eng’lish Edition. THE Compi'ler has added to this Edition more than twenty pages of matter, which he hopes will be found useful and interesting. He has also given to many of the pieces a new arrangement, calculated to render every part of the work more intel'li-gi-ble and pleasing lo young minds.


047 * 172

A 2

THE favourable reception, which the puhlick has given to the " Pronouncing Testament,” and the importance of children being early taught to pronounce according to the most approved standard of English orthöepy, have encouraged the Editor to apply the same principles to the Introduction, to the English Reader, and also to the Reader and the Sequel.

At this period of improvement in school instruction, nothing need be said in praise of Mr. Murray's Reading Books. They have already and deservedly attained a popularity and circulation, in our

country, surpassed or ever equal. led by no productions of similar design. The chastity of the language, the purity of the style, the grammatical precision, and the correctness of moral sentiment, which mark these exercises, will long preserve them from disuse or oblivion.

Mr. Murray, in his English Reader, remarks, that“ by attentively consulting Mr. Walker's Pronouncing Dictionary, the young reader will be much assisted in his endeavours to attain a correct pronunciation of the words belonging to the Engiish Language." This object is, in this publication, as in the Proo nouncing Testament, greatly facilitated by dividing and accenting the proper names and numerous other words difficult to pronounce, according to the orthöepy contained in Mr. Walker's Dictionary and Classical Key.

When the pronunciation of words could not be clearly and fully expressed, by the aid of the explanatory Key, the orthöepy of such words has been write ten in the bottom of the page, either as Mr. Walker has himself written il, or in strict conformity to those rules and principles which he has established, so far as by a critical and careful investigation of them, they have been under: stood. The words which have been marked at all, except those in the bottom of the page, have been marked nearly as often as they afterwards occur; but the neglecting to mark every vowel in an.accented word, or to Italicise every silent letter, would not materially affect the design which has been pursued.

The scheme of the vowel sounds in the explanatory Key, is nearly the same as that given by Mr. Walker, to which are prefixed Mr. Perry's marks. The pupil should be well acquainted with all the vowel sounds, as they are marked in the Key, and should be taught to give them separately, as they are written in the brackets, and in the order in which they stand.

As the Introduction is often used in the younger classes in schools, before children are furnished with Dictionaries, it has been conceived that the Appendix, containing a concise selection cf words, with definitions, would greatly increase its value. In this selection from the preceding lessons, care has been taken to adopt worls, the meaning of which is most obscure; and as most words have several definitions, that definition is in the Appendix, affixed first, which is appropriate to the word as it is used in this work. This circumstance will often essentially aid the young pupil in the right understanding of his lesson. In the Appendix, reference to words selected from each page, is made by the figures of that page placed over them.

The improvements of this Edition, will, it is hoped, give it a just preference, not onely by aiding the progress of the pupils, bu also by rendering the task of the teacher less fatiguing and more successful. · Boscuri, Sept. 1823.




Long Vowels.
Long ā, ē, i, o, ū, ñ, þ.
Grave à, ò.
Broad a, e, i, or i, ê, û, ñ.

Short Vowels.
Short ă, ě, 1, o, ŭ, :
Acute á, 6, 5, 6, 7, like ủ.
Inverted breve over a, like o.

1. a. The long slender Engʻlish ā, [ay] as in gāme, fāte, pā'per. * a. The short English a, (like short ě,] as in any, many, says,

Thames ;-pron. ěn'ne, měn'ne, sěz, Těmz. 2. à. The long it-ăl'i-ănt or middle à, Cah] as in stàr, fà'thěr, măm-ma'. 4. ă. The short sound of the st-ăl'i-án å, (ah] as in făt, måt, måp,

măr'ry. 3. å. The broad German, or open â, [aw] as in fâll, håll, wall, wå'tér. a. The short German â, (like short o) as in wad, wân, was, wash,

wâr'rănt;-pron. wod, won, wóz, wosh, wor'rănt. 1. ē. The long , (eh) as in mē, hēre, mē’tre, mē'di-úm. 2. ě. The short ě, (eh] as in běd, měn, mět, lět, gět, fěll. 1. 7. y. The long diphthongal i, [eye) as in dīne, tī’tle, şîre, cycle. 2. i. ì. The short simple č, [ik] as in pin, tỉt'tle, cýst, còm băl. 1. 7. The long open 7, [owe] as in nõ, note, nõ’tịce. 2. ò. The long close o, [oo] as in mòve, pròve. 3. ô. The long broad 6, [aw] as in nôr, fôr, ôr ; like the broad å. 4. ö. The short broad , (aw] as in not, hot, gót. 1. ū. w. The long diphthongal i, (you) as in cūbe, cū'pid, new. 2. ú. The short simple, ŭ, (uh] as in tứb, củp, súp. 3. û. w. The middle or obtuse í, [o in wolf) as in bûll, füll, nôû.

Note to the Key. The sound of the vowel 6 in môve, prove, &c. marked, by Mr. Perry, with the Broad accent, is, in this Key, marked with the Grave accent, ò thus, in mòve, pròve, &c.—The long and short sounds of u are placed together, consequently 4. å. in Mr. Walker's order is transposed.

IRREGULAR VOWEL SOUNDS, CHARACTERS, &c. 1. The Acute á, é, í, ó, and ý, in unaccented and monosyllables, frequently deşért their regular native sounds, and slide into that of short ů, as hěard in lī'ár, hér, bírd, dóne, màr'týr.

2. The Broad é sounds like the long Italian à, in Nin'e-vêh, and, like the long slender Engʻlish ā, in ére, there, where ; pronounced Nin'e-vah-āre, thāre, hware.

3. The mediate or unaccented i or y, sounds like the long ē. In all words which have any vowel with a marked accent, this i is the last part of the component sound of the long diphthongal 7 or y, or it is equivalent to the long sound of ē, as hěard in priv'i-ly, Běth'a-ny, pronounced priv'ê-lē, Běth'a-nē. * This vowel is here irregular or commutable in sound. It-tal'yăn.

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4. When joined with a final syllable in the pronunciation, i sometimes becomes a consonant, as in ft-àl'ian.

5. Ç or ch denotes a hard sound, like k, as heard in Christ.
6. Gor denotes a soft sound, like j, as heard in gėl'id, çỹp'sy.
7. ph generally sounds like f, as hěard in Phi-lē'món.
8. ş or ç denotes a soft or flat sound like z, as hčard in mūşe, siçe.

9. In a diphthong or triphthong, a vowel with a marked accent, shows that its fellow vowel or vowels àre silent, and that its own sound is the only proper one in that combination, as in yěast,* beaū'ty.

10. The vowel i is not silent, unless Italicised, and forms an exception to the last rule, as in fiēld, plăid. In some words, when it is not Italicised, it has only the power of e final, lengthening the preceding vowel, as in obtain, pron. ob-tāne'.

11. Italick letters, in words which are marked with the vowel accents, are likewise silent, as in rēa'çon.

12. [1] This oblique mark denotes the chief or primary accent to be on that syllable, over or immediately after which it is placed. Thus-Dā'vid, in right pronunciation, is accented on the first syllable.

13. The termination ah, in Hebrew proper names, when under the primary or secondary accent, is long, as in Tàh'e-ră, Běth'ra-bah ; but, when not under the accent, and final, it is short, as in Jē-ho'văh, Jū'dăh.

14. The Greek and Latin termination a, when not under the principal accent, by omitting the final h, invariably bears the mark of une short sound of the Italian ă, as in Běth-ěs'dă, ā-ôr'tă.

15. In words of this book having marked vowels, a, without an accent over it, always has its short Italian sound.

16. E before r, in a monosyllable, or in an accented syllable, or in a syllable before the accented one, has the sound of č in věr'y; e. g. wěre, měr'chånt, pěr-för'mănce, pěr-ăm-bū-lā'tion.

17. The Or'tho-e-py of words, written in the bottom of the page, governs those words through the book.

RULE, for pronouncing the language of Scripture. In the Sacred Writings, every participial ed, where it is not preceded by a vowel, ought to make a distinct syllable: as, " Who hath beliē'ved our report, and to whom is the arm of the Lord revēal'ed ?" But where it is preceded by a vowel, the e is suppressed, as in justified and glorified in the following passage: "Whom he did predestinate, them he also call'ed: and whom he call'ed, them he also justified ; and whom he justified, them he also glorified."

RULE, for reading common and familiar writings. When a verb ends with a sharp consonant, as S, P, k, s, h, and c soft, the termination ed, assumed by the preterite and participle, sounds like t ; as stuffed, tripped, cracked, passed, vouched, faced, pron. stuft, tript, crackt, past, voucht, faste. But when the verb ends in a flat consonant, b, g, v, s'; or a liquid, as l, m, n, r, the termingtion rd, preserves the Aal sound of d; as drubbed, pegged, lived, buzzed, blamed, joined, filled, barred, pron. drubb'd, pegg d, liv’d, buzz’d, blam'd, join'd, filld, barr’d.

Note. When verbs end in t or d, te or de, the participial ed is always hěard in a distinct syllable, as trust, trusted ; sound, sound'ed ; fute, flut'ed ; guide, guid'ed.

(Walker's Principles. * better written-yěst.

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