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(Ordinance of 1787.) for the common preservation, to take for securing the title in such soil, to the any person's property, or to demand bis bona fide purchasers. No tax shall be particular services, full compensation imposed on lands the property of the shall be made for the same. And, in United States; and in no case shall nonthe just preservation of rights and pro- resident proprietors be taxed higber perty, it is understood and declared, than residents. The navigable waters that no law ought ever to be made, or leading into tbe Mississippi and St. have force in the said territory, that Lawrence, and the carrying places beshall, in any manner whatever, inter- tween the same, shall be common highfere with, or affect, private contracts or ways, and forever free, as well to the engagements, bona fide, and without inbabitants of the said territory, as to fraud, previously formed.
the citizens of the United States, and ART. 3. Religion, morality, and those of any other states that may be knowledge, being necessary to good admitted into the confederacy, without government and the happiness of inan- any tax, impost, or duty therefor. kind, schools and tbe means of educa- ART. 5. There shall be formed in the tion shall forever be encouraged. The said territory, not less than three, nor utmost good faith shall always be obser more than five states: and the bounda. ved towards the Indians; their lands ries of the states, as soon as Virgiand property shall never be taken from nia shall alter her act of cession, and them without their consent: and in consent to the same, shall become fixed their property, rights, and liberty, they and established as follows, to wit: the never shall be invaded or disturbed, western state in the said territory,shall unless in just and lawful wars authori- be bounded by the Mississippi, the zed by congress; but laws founded in Ohio, and Wabash rivers; a direct line justice and humanity shall, from time drawn from tbe Wabash and Post Vidto time, be made, for preventing cents, due north, to the territorial line wrongs being done to them, and for pre between the United States and Canaserving peace and friendship with them. da, and by the said territorial line to
ART. 4. The said territory, and the the lake of the Woods and Mississippi. states which may be formed therein, The middle states shall be bounded by shall forever remain a part of this con- the said direct line, the Wabash, from federacy of the United States of Ame- Post Vincents to the Ohio, by the Ohio, rica, subject to the articles of confede- by a direct line drawn due north from ration, and to such alterations therein the mouth of the Great Miami to the as shall be constitutionally made; and said territorial line, and by the said to all the acts and ordinances of the Uni- territorial line. The eastern state shall ted States in congress assembled, con- be bounded by the last mentioned direct formable thereto. The inhabitants and line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the settlers in the said territory shall be said territorial line; provided bowerer, subject to pay a part of the federal and it is further understood and decladebts, contracted or to be contracted, red, that the boundaries of these three and a proportional part of the expenses states shall be subject so far to be alterof government, to be apportioned on ed, that, if congress shall hereafter them by congress, according to the find it expedient, they shall have ausame common rule and measure by thority to form one or two states in which apportiopments thereof shall be that part of the said territory which made on the other states; and the tax- lies north of an east and west line es for paying their proportion, sball be drawn through the southerly bend or laid and levied by the authority and extreme of lake Michigan. And direction of the legislatures of the dis- whenever any of the said states shall trict or districts, or new states, as in have sixty thousand free inhabitants the original states, within the time therein, such state shall be admitted, agreed upon by the United States in by its delegates, into the congress of congress assembled. The legislatures the United States, on an equal footing of those districts, or new states, shall with the original states, in all respects never interfere with the primary dispo- whatever; and shall be at liberty to sal of the soil by the United States in form a permanent constitution and congress assembled, nor with any re- state government; provided the constigulations congress may find necessary, tution and government, so to be form
(Indiana—Alabama.) ed, shall be republican, and in confor. ing with the original states, and to no mity to the principles contained in other purpose whatever; and an annual these articles; and, so far as it can be account of the application of the same consistent with the general interest of shall be transmitted to the secretary the confederacy, such admission shall of the treasury, by such officer of the be allowed at an earlier period, and state as the legislature thereof shall diwhen there may be a less number of rect, and in default of such return being free inbabitants in the state than sixty made, the secretary of the treasury is thousand.
bereby required to withhold the pay. Art. 6. There shall be neither sla- ment of any sum that may then be due, very nor involuntary servitude in the or which may thereafter become due, said territory, otherwise than in the until a return shall be made, as herein puuishment of crimes, whereof the par. required. ty shall have been duly convicted; provided always, that any person es
No. IV. caping into the same, from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed in LANDS SOUTH AND WEST OF anr one of the original states, such fu
THE OHIO. gitive may be lawfully reclaimed, and conveyed to the person claiming his or ACT of April 20th, 1818. her labor or service as aforesaid.
An act respecting the surveying and sale of Be it ordained by the authority the public lands in Alabama territory. aforesaid, That the resolutions of the 23d of April, 1784, relative to the sub
The powers and duties of the surject of this ordinance, bė and the same
veyor for the lands in the northern part
of the late Mississippi territory, shall exare bereby repealed and declared null
tend to the whole of the Alabama terand void. Done, &c.
ritory, and that only. And it shall be No. III.
his duty to cause such of the said lands,
to which the Indian title has been, or INDIANA.
shall hereafter be, extinguished, as the
President of the United States shall di. ACT of April 11th, 1818.
rect, to be surveyed and divided in the An act to provide for paying to the state of In- same manner, and under the same re
diaoa three per cent. of the net proceeds gulations, as are provided by law in arising from the sales of the United relation to other public lands. And States' lands within the same.
the said surveyor shall receive for his Sec. 1. That the secretary of the services, bereafter, an annual compentreasury sball, from time to time, and sation of two thousand dollars, and whenever the quarterly accounts of shall be allowed not exceeding two public monies of the several land offi- clerks, wbose wbole compensation ces shall be settled, pay three per cent. shall not exceed fifteen hundred dolof the nett proceeds of the lands of the lars per annum. United States, lying within the state of Sec. II. In every public sale hereIndiana, which, since the first day of after to be made of public lands, in the December, one thousand eight hundred territory of Alabama, there shall, in and sixteen, have been, or hereafter addition to the usual reservation of may be, sold by the United States, af section sixteen, in each township, for ter deducting all expenses incidental to the support of schools, be excepted the same, to such person or persons as from the sales such sections not exmay be authorised by the legislature of ceeding ten in any one land district, as the said state to receive the same; the President of the United States shall which sums thus paid, shall be applied have designated, for the purpose of layto making public roads and canals, ing out and establishing towns thereon; within the said state, in conformity to the which sections, so designated and reprovision on this subject, contained in served, for the purpose aforesaid, sball the act, entitled “ An act to enable be laid off into lots, and offered for sale, the people of the Indiana territory, to in the manner, and on the terms and form a constitution and state govern- conditions, and with the same limitament, and for the admission of such tion as to price, as is prescribed for the state into the union, on an equal foot laying off and sale of lots, by the fifth
(Articles of Confederation.) section of the act, entitled “ An act
No. V. to authorize the appointment of a surveyor for the lands in the northern ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION. part of the Mississippi territory, and the sale of certain lands therein des- TO ALL TO WHOM THESE PRESENTS cribed," passed on the third of March,
SHALL COME, one thousand eight hundred and seven
We, the undersigned, delegates of the teen. And there shall be reserved
states affixed to our names, send greelfrom sale in the Alabama territory, an entire township, which shall be located
ing: by the secretary of the treasury, for Whereas, the delegates of the Unithe support of a seminary of learning
ted States of America in congress aswithin the said territory; and also, any
sembled did, on the fifteenth day of one entire section which may be loca November, in the year of our Lord one ted under the direction of the Governor
thousand seven hundred and seventyof the said territory, for the seat of go
seveo, and in the second year of the vernment therein.
independence of America, agree te Sec. in. All the lands lying be certain articles of confederation and tween the basis meridian, and the first perpetual union between the states of standard meridian, in the Alabama New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, district, be attached to the land dis. Rhode Island, and Providence Planta. trict east of Pearl river. And the tions, Connecticut, New York, New lands so attached to the said district, Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maeast of Pearl river, after having been ryland, Virginia, North Carolina, surveyed according to law, shall, South Carolina, and Georgia, in the with the exception of section number words following, viz: . sixteen, in each township, which shall Articles of confederation and perpetual union be reserved for the support of schools between the states of New Hampshire, therein, and with the further exception Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Pro of such reservations as may be made,
vidence Plantations, Connecticut, New in pursuance of the second section of
no York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, this act, shall be offered for sale to the
hall be offered for sale to the Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South highest bidder, under the direction of
Carolina, and Georgia. the register of the land office, and the Art. 1. The style of this confedereceiver of public monies, at the place racy sball be, “ The United States of where the land office is kept, and on America." such day or days as shall, by proclama ART. 2. Each state retains its sovemation of the president of the United reignty, freedom, and iadependence, States, be designated for that purpose; and every power, jurisdiction, and the sales shall remain open two weeks right, which is not by this confederaand no longer. The lands shall not be tion expressly delegated to the United sold for less than two dollars an acre, States in congress assembled. and shall, in every other respect, be ART. 3. The said states hereby sesold in tracts of the same size, and on
verally enter into a firm league of the same terms and conditions, as bave friendship with each other for their been, or may be, provided for lands common defence, the security of their sold in the same district. All the lands liberties, and their mutual and general offered for sale, and remaining unsold, welfare; binding themselves to assist at the close of the said public sales, each other against all force offered to, inay be disposed of at private sale, by or attacks made upon thein, or any of the register of the land office, in the them, on account of religion, sovesame manner, and on the same terms reignty, trade, or any other pretence and conditions, as are or may be pro- whatever. vided for the sale of other lands in the ART. 4. The better to secure and same district; and patents shall be perpetuate mutual friendship and ingranted in the same manner, and on tercourse among the people of the difthe same terms, as for other lands in ferent states in tbis union, the free inhathe said district.
bitants of each of these states, paupers
(Articles of Confederation.) vagabonds, and fugitives from justice, lo determining questions in the Uniexcepted, shall be entitled to all pri. ted States in congress assembled, each vileges and immunities of free citizens state shall have one vote. in the several states: and the people of Freedom of speech and debate in each state shall have free ingress and congress shall not be impeached or regress to and from any other state, questioned in any court or place out and shall enjoy therein all the privi- of congress; and the members of conleges of trade and commerce, subject gress shall be protected in their persons to the same duties, impositions, and from arrests and imprisonments, durestrictions, as the inhabitants thereof ring the time of their going to and respectively, provided that such res from an attendance on congress, extrictions shall not extend so far as to cept for treason, felony, or breach of prevent the removal of property import the peace. ed into any state to any other state, Art. 6. No state, without the conof which the owner is an inhabitant; sent of the United States, in congress provided also, that no imposition, du- assembled, shall send any embassy to, ties, or restriction, shall be laid by any or receive any embassy from, or enter state on the property of the United into any conference, agreement, alliStates or either of them.
ance or treaty, with any king, prince, If any person guilty of or charged or state; nor shall any person holding with treason, felons, or other high mis- any office of profit or trust under the demeanor, in any state, shall flee from United States, or any of them, accept justice, and be found in any of the of any present, emolument, office, or United States, he shall, upon demand title of any kind whatever, from any of the governor or executive power of king, prince, or foreign state; por shall the state from which he fled, be deli- the United States in congress assemvered up, and removed to the state bay. bled, or any of them, grant any title of ing jurisdiction of his offence.
nobility. Full faith and credit shall be given No two or mure states shall enter inin each of these states to the records, to any treaty, confederation, or alliance acts, and judicial proceedings of the whatever between them, without the courts and magistrates of every other consent of the United States in constate.
gress assembled, specifying accurately Art. 5. For the more convenient the purposes for which the same is to management of the general interests be entered into, and how long it shall of the United States, delegates shall be continue.. annually appointed in such manner as No state shall lay any imposts or duthe legislature of each state shall di- ties, which may interfere with any stirect, to meet in congress on the first pulations in treaties entered into by Monday in November, in every year, the United States in congress assemwith a power reserved to each state to bled, with any king, prince, or state, recall its delegates or any of them, at in pursuance of any treaties already any time within the year, and to send proposed by congress to the courts of others in their stead for the remainder France and Spain. of the year.
No vessels of war shall be kept up No state shall be represented in in time of peace by any state, except congress by less than two nor by more such number only as shall be deemed than seven members; and no person necessary by the United States in conshall be capable of being a delegate gress assembled for the defence of for more than three years in any term such state or its trade; nor shall any of six years; nor shall any person, being body of forces be kept up by any state a delegate, be capable of holding any in time of peace, except such number ofhce under the United States, for only as, in the judgment of the United which he, or another for his benefit, States in congress assembled, shall be receives any salary, fees, or emolu. deemed requisite to garrison the forts ment of any kind.
. necessary for the defence of such state; Each state shall maintain its own but every state shall always keep up a delegates in a meeting of the states, well regulated and disciplined militia, and while they act as members of the sufficiently armed and accoutred, and committee of the states.
shall provide and have constantly ready
(Articles of Confederation.) for use, in public stores, a due number agreed upon by the United States in of field pieces and tents, and a proper congress assembled. quantity of arms, ammunition, and ART. 9. The United States in concamp equipage.
gress assembled shall have the sole and No state shall engage in any war exclusive right and power of determiwithout the consent of the United ning on peace and war, except in the States in congress assembled, unless cases mentioned in the sixth articlesuch state be actually invaded by eae of sending and receiving ambassadors mies, or shall have received certain -entering into treaties and alliances; advice of a resolution being formed by provided, that no treaty of commerce some nation of Indians to invade such shall be made whereby the legislative state, and the danger is so imminent as power of the respective states shall be not to admit of a delay till the United restrained from imposing such imposts States in congress assembled can be and duties on foreigners as their own consulted; nor shall any state grant people are subjected to, or from procommissions to any ships or vessels of hibiting the exportation or importation war, nor letters of marque or reprisal, of any species of goods or commodities except it be after a declaration of war whatsoever-of establishing rules for by the United States in congress as deciding in all cases, what captures on sembled, and then only against the land or water shall be legal, and in kingdom or state, and the subjects what manner prizes taken by land or thereof, against which war has been so naval forces in the service of the Unideclared, and under such regulations ted States shall be divided or appropri. as shall be established by the United ated-ofgranting letters of marque and States in congress assembled, unless reprisal in times of peace-appointing such state be infested by pirates, in courts for the trial of piracies and felo which case vessels of war may be fitted nies committed on the high seas, and out for that occasion, and kept so long establishing courts for receiving and as the danger shall continue, or until determining finally appeals in all cases the United States in congress assem of captures; provided, that no member bled shall determine otherwise.
of congress shall be appointed a judge ART. 7. When land forces are rai- of any of the said courts. sed by any state for the common de The United States in congress asfence, all officers of or under the rank sembled shall also be the last resort on of colonel, shall be appointed by the appeal in all disputes and differences legislature of each state respectively, now subsisting or that bereafter may by whom such forces shall be raised, or arise between two or more states corr in such manner as such state shall di- cerning boundary, jurisdiction, or any rect; and all vacancies shall be filled other cause whatever; which authority up by the state which first made the shall always be exercised in the manappointment.
ner following; whenever the legislative Art. 8. All charges of war, and all or executive authority or lawfui agent other expenses tbat shall be incurred of any state in controversy with anofor the common defence or general ther shall present a petition to congress, welfare, and allowed by the United stating the matter in question, and States in congress assembled, sball be praying for a hearing, notice thereof defrayed out of a common treasury, shall be given by order of congress to which sball be supplied by the several the legislative or executive authority states in proportion to the value of all of the other state in controversy, and a land within each state granted to or day assigned for the appearance of the surveyed for any person, as such land parties, by their lawful agents, wbo and the buildings and improvements shall then be directed to appoint by thereon shall be estimated, according joint consent commissioners or judges to such mode as the United States in to constitute a court for hearing and congress assembled shall from time to determining the matter in question; time direct and appoint
but if they cannot agree, congress shall The taxes for paying that proportion name three persons out of each of the shall be laid and leried by the authori. United Statas, and from the list of such ty and direction of the legislatures of persons each party shall alternately the several states, within the time strike out one, the petitioners begin