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(ACT of September 24th, 1789.)

15. Sec. Xvii. All the said courts of the United States, shall have power to grant new trials, in cases where there has been a trial by jury, for reasons for which new trials have usually been granted in the courts of law, and shall have power to impose and administer all necessary oaths or affirmations, and to pnnish, by fine or imprisonment, at the discretion of said courts, all contempts of authority in any cause or hearing btfore the same; and to make and establish all necessary rules for the orderly conducting business in the said courts, provided such rules are not repugnant to the laws of the United States.

16. Sec. Xviii. When, in a circuit court, judgment upon a verdict in a civil action shall be entered, execution may, on motion of either party, at the discretion of the court, and on such conditions, for the security of the adverse party, as they may judge proper, be stayed forty-two days from the time of entering judgment, to give time to file, in the clerk's office of said court, a petition for a new trial. And if such petition be there filed within said term of forty-two days, with a certificate thereon, from either of the judges of such court, that he allows the same to be filed, which certificate he may make or refuse at his discretion, execution shall, of course, be further stayed to the next session of said court. And if a new trial be granted, the former judgment shall be thereby rendered void. [Infra, 24, &c.']

17. Sec. Xix. It shall be the duty of circuit courts, in causes in equity, and of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, to cause the facts on which they found their sentence or decree, fully to appear upon the record, either from the pleadings and decree itself, or a state of the case agreed by the parties, or their counsel, or, if they disagree, by a stating of the case by the court.

18. Sec. Xx. Where, in a circuit-court, a plaintiff in an action, originally brought there, or a petitioner in equity, other than the United States, recovers less than the sum,or value of five hundred dollars, or a libellant, upon his own appeal, less than the sum or value of three hundred dollars, he shall not be allowed, but, at the discretion of the court, may be adjudged to pay costs.

19. Sec. Xxi. From final decrees in a district court, in causes of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, where the matter in dispute exceeds the sum or value of three hundred dollars, exclusive of costs, an appeal shall be allowed to the next circuit court, to be held in such district.

20. Sec. Xxii. Final decrees and judgments, in civil actions in a district court, where the matter in dispute exceeds the sum or value of fifty dollars, exclusive of costs, may be re-examined, and reversed, or affirmed, in a circuit court, holden in the same district, upon a writ of error, whereto shall be annexed and returned therewith, at the day and place therein mentioned, an authenticated transcript of the record, and assignment of errors, and prayer far reversal, with a citation to the adverse party, signed by the (ACT of September 24th, 1789.)

judge of such district court, or a justice of the supreme court, the adverse party having at least twenty days' notice. And upon a like process, may final judgments and decrees in civil actions, and suits in equity in a circuit court, brought there by original process, or removed there from courts of the several states, or removed there by appeal from a district court, where the matter in dispute exceeds the sum or value of two thousand dollars, exclusive of costs, be re-examined and reversed, or affirmed, in the supreme court, the citation being in such case signed by a judge of such circuit court, or justice of the supreme court, and the adverse party having at least thirty days' notice. But there shall be no reversal in either court on such writ of error, for error in ruling any plea in abatement, other than a plea to the jurisdiction of the court, or such plea to a petition or bill in equity, as in the nature of a demurer, or for any error in fact. And writs of error shall not be brought but within five years after rendering or passing the judgment or decree complained of, or in case the person entitled to such writ of error be an infant, feme covert, non compos mentis, or imprisoned, then within five years as aforesaid, exclusive of the time of such disability. And every justice, or judge, signing a citation on any writ of error as aforesaid, shall take good and sufficient security, that the plaintiff in error shall prosecute his writ to effect, and answer all damages and costs, if he fail to make his plea good. [Infra, 51.]

21. Sec. xxni. A writ of error as aforesaid, shall be a supersedeas and stay execution, in cases only where the writ of error is served, by a copy thereof being lodged for the adverse party, in the clerk's office, where the record remains, within ten days, Sundays exclusive, after rendering the judgment or passing the decree complained of. Until the expiration of which term of ten days, executions shall not issue in any case where a writ of error may be a supersedeas; and where, upon such writ of error, the supreme or a circuit court shall affirm a judgment or decree, they shall adjudge or decree to the respondent in error just damages for his delay, and single or double costs at their discretion.

22. Sec. Xxiv. When a judgment or decree shall be reversed in a circuit court, such court shall proceed to render such judgment, or pass such decree, as the district court should have rendered or passed; and the supreme court shall do the same on reversals therein, except where the reversal is in favor of the plaintiff or petitioner in the original suit, and the damages to be assessed, or matter to be decreed, are uncertain, in which case they shall remand the cause for a final decision. And the supreme court shall not issue execution in causes that are removed before them by writs of error, but shall send a special mandate to the circuit court, to award execution thereupon.

23. Sec. Xxv. A final judgment or decree in any suit, in the highest court of law or equity of a state in which a decision in (ACT of September 24th, 1789.)

the suit could be had, where is drawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute of, or an authority exercised under, the United States, and the decision is against their validity; or where is drawn in question the validity of a statute of, or an authority exercised under any state, on the ground of their being repugnant to the constitution, treaties, or laws, of the United States, and the decision is in favor of such their validity, or where is drawn in question the construction of any clause of the constitution, or of a treaty, or statute of, or commission held under, the United States, and the decision is against the title, right, privilege, or exemption, specially set up or claimed by either party, under such clause of the said constitution, treaty, statute, or commission, may be re-examined and reversed or affirmed in the supreme court of the United States, upon a writ of error, the citation being signed by the chief justice, or judge or chancellor, of the court, rendering or passing the judgment or decree complained of, or by a justice of the supreme court of the United States, in the same manner and under the same regulations, and the writ shall have the same effect, as if the judgment or decree complained of had been rendered or passed in a circuit court, and the proceeding upon the reversal shall also be the same, except that the supreme court, instead of remanding the cause for a final decision, as before provided, may, at their discretion, if the cause shall have been once remanded before, proceed to a final decision of the same, and award execution. But no other error shall be assigned or regarded as a ground of reversal, in any such case as aforesaid, than such as appears on the face of the record, and immediately respects the beforementioned questions of validity or construction of the said constitution, treaties, statutes, commissions, or authorities, in dispute. [Infra, 51, 67.]

24. Sec. Xxvi. In all causes brought before either of the courts of the United States, to recover the forfeiture annexed to any articles of agreement, covenant, bond, or other specialty, where the forfeiture, breach, or nonperformance, shall appear by the default or confession of the defendant, or upon demurrer, the court before whom the action is, shall render judgment therein for the plaintiff to recover so much as is due according to equity. And when the sum for which judgment should be rendered is uncertain, the same shall, if either of the parties request it, be assessed by a jury, [/n/rfl, 29.]

25. Sec. Xxvii. A marshal shall be appointed, in and for each district, for the term of four years, but shall be removeable from office at pleasure; whose duty it shall be to attend the district and circuit courts, when sitting therein, and also the supreme court in the district in which that court shall sit: [Infra.] and to execute, throughout the district, all lawful precepts directed to him, and issued under the authority of the United States, and he shall have power to command all necessary assistance in the execution (ACT of September 24th, 1789.)

of his doty, and to appoint, as there shall be occasion, one or more deputies, who shall be removeable from office by the judge of the district court, or the circuit court sitting within the district, at the pleasure of either. And before he enters on the duties of his office, he shall become bound for the faithful performance of the same, by himself and by his deputies, before the judge of the district court, to the United States, jointly and severally, with two good and sufficient sureties, inhabitants and freeholders of such district, to be approved by the district judge, in the sum of twenty thousand dollars, and shall take, before said judge, as shall also his deputies, before they enter on the duties of their appointment, the following oath of office: " /, A. B. do solemnly swear or affirm, that I will faithfully execute all lawful precepts directed to the marshal of the district of under the authority of

the United States, and true returns make, and in all things -well and truly, and without malice or partiality, perform the duties of the office of marshal (or marshal's deputy, as the case may be) of the district of during my continuance in said office, and

take only my lawful fees. So help me God."

Sec. xxvur. In all causes wherein the marshal, or his deputy, shall be a party, the writs and precepts therein shall be directed to such disinterested person as the court, or any justice or judge thereof may appoint, and the person so appointed is hereby authorized to execute and return the same. And in case of the death of any marshal, his deputy, or deputies, shall continue in office, unless otherwise specially removed; and shall execute the same in the name of the deceased, until another marshal shall be appointed and sworn: And the defaults, or misfeasances in office of such deputy or deputies in the mean time, as well as before, shall be adjuged a breach of the condition of the bond given, as before directed, by the marshal who appointed them; and the executor or administrator of the deceased marshal, shall have like remedy for the defaults and misfeasances in office of such deputy or deputies during such interval, as they would be entitled to if the marshal had continued in life, and in the exercise of his said office, until his successor was appointed, and sworn or affirmed: And every marshal, or his deputy, when removed from office, or when the term for which the marshal is appointed shall expire, shall have power, notwithstanding, to execute all such precepts as may be in their hands, respectively, at the time of such removal or expiration of office; and the marshal shall be held answerable for the delivery to his successor of all prisoners which may be in his custody at the time of his removal, or when the term for which he is appointed shall expire, and for that purpose may retain such prisoners in his custody, until his successor shall be appointed, and qualified as the law directs.

26. Sec. xxtx. In cases punishable with death, the trial shall be had in the county where the offence was committed; or where that (ACT of September 24th, 1789.)

cannot be done without great inconvenience, twelve petit jurors at least shall be summoned from thence. And jurors in all cases to serve in the courts of the United States, shall be designated by lot or otherwise, in each state respectively, according to the mode of forming juries therein now practised, so far as the laws of the same shall render such designation practicable, by the courts or marshals of the United States; and the jurors shall have the same qualifications as are requisite for jurors by the laws of the state of which they are citizens, to serve in the highest courts of law of such state, and shall be returned, as there shall be occasion for them, from such parts of the district, from time to time, as the court shall direct, so as shall be most favourable to an impartial trial, and so as not to incur an unnecessary expense, or unduly to burthen the citizens of any part of the district with such services. And writs of venire facias, when directed by the court, shall issue from the clerk's office, and shall be served and returned by the marshal in his proper person, or by his deputy, or, in case the marshal or his deputy is not an indifferent person, or is interested in the event of the cause, by such fit person as the court shall specially appoint for that purpose, to whom they shall administer an oath or affirmation, that he will truly and impartially serve and return such writ. And when, from challenges, or otherwise, there shall not be a jury to determine any civil or criminal cause, the marshal or his deputy shall, by order of the court where such defect of jurors shall happen, return jurymen de talibus circumstantibus sufficient to complete the pannel; and when the marshal or his deputy are disqualified as aforesaid, jurors may be returned by such disinterested person as the court shall appoint.

27. Sec. Xxx. The mode of proof by oral testimony, and examination of witnesses in open court, shall be the same in all the courts of the United States, as well in the trial of causes in equity and of admiralty and maritime- jurisdiction, as of actions at common law. And when the testimony of any person shall be necessary in any civil cause depending in any district, in any court of the United States, who shall live at a greater distance from the place of trial than one hundred miles, or is bound on a voyage to sea, or is about to go out of the United States, or out of such district, and to a greater distance from the place of trial than as aforesaid, before the time of trial, or is ancient, or very infirm, the deposition of such person may be taken, de bene esse, before any justice or judge of any of the courts of the United States, or before any chancellor, justice, or judge of a supreme or superior court, mayor, or chief magistrate of a city, or judge of a county court or court of common pleas of any of the United States, not being of counsel or attorney to either of the parties, or interested in the event of the cause, provided that a notification from the magistrate before whom the deposition is to be taken to the ad. verse party, to be present at the taking of the same, and to put in.

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