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employment, there can be no controversy ; nor when they direct to a dangerous one. All the real perplexity will spring from cases of a doubtful nature. Here the child's inclinations are supposed to lean one way, and the judgment of the parent another. If the parent apprehends the bias of the child to be invincible, it will be both prudent and right to yield bis own inclinations ; if not, he may lawfully require the child to make an experiment of the business which he has preferred. The child is then bound to submit quietly to the choice of the parent, and to endeavour faithfully to subdue his own opposing inclinations. If, after a fair trial, he finds them unconquerable ; the parent is, in my view, bound to yield the contested point. The happiness of the child ought here to be the commanding object; and no child can be happy, who is prevented from following the business which he loves, and compelled to pursue that which he hates.

Universally, the parent's duty demands of him to place his child, so far as the case will permit, in that employment which upon the whole is best; which will probably be most productive of his comfort, reputation, usefulness, and piety. To some children, on account of their peculiar dispositions, certain employments are sufficiently safe, which for others are to be regarded as eminently dangerous. The business in which children are to be placed, when they are exposed by their dispositions to peculiar temptations, should, as far as may be, always be such as to counteract their dispositions. The employments which awaken a moderate ambition, and a moderate desire of wealth and pleasure, and which yet disappoint no reasonable expectations of children, are usually preferable to all others. Those of a contrary nature, and those particularly which are expected to produce sudden opulence, and speedy aggrandizement, or which conduct to voluptuousness, are fraught with infinite danger and mischief. “They that will be rich,' or great, or voluptuous, 'fall into temptation, and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful lústs, that drown men in destruction.' The love of these things is the root of all cvil: and those who covet after them, pierce themselves through with many sorrows. Most parents wish these things for their children ; but they • know not what spirit they are of.' Most parents also wish their sons to be geniuses and their daughters to be beauties. How unfounded, how self-deceiving, are all these desires ! I do not deny, that many men of high office, and of great wealth, men who have possessed in abundance all those which are called the enjoyments of life, have been pious; and, so far as this world permits, happy. I do not deny, that such has been the character and state of many men remarkable for their talents, and of many women distinguished for their beauty. I do not deny, that all these things are, in their nature, to be regarded as blessings ; or that they sometimes are actually blessings. But to most of mankind they are plainly curses; and probably to all who ardently desire them. What a melancholy history would the whole history be of beauties, geniuses, and meu in high office, of great wealth, and determined sensuality!

2. Marriage.

With respect to this subject, children are usually governed by inclination only, or chiefly; their parents sometimes by judgment, sometimes by avarice, sometimes by ambition, sometimes by hatred to the family or person with whom the child is intended to be connected, and sometimes by favouritism for other persons or families. The parent ought to be influenced by his upbiassed judgment only. By every thing else he will, without suspecting it, be deceived, and sometimes, in a degree which can neither be foreseen nor limited, render both himself and his child unhappy through life.

Parents can never lawfully compel their children to marry persons who are objects of their dislike, nor use at all for such a purpose that influence or those persuasives which operate upon tender and susceptible minds as the worst kind of compulsion. The reasons are plain. The child would be made miserable, and could not, in any event, without a prevarication of the same nature with perjury, take upon himself the marriage vows. But, during the minority of his children, he may be required by indispensable duty to restrain them from marrying, in certain cases. This, however, is an extreme exercise of authority; and should take place only where the cases are extreme; cases, for example, in which the intended partner is an infidel, or grossly vicious, or of a family scandalous for vice, or in some other case of a similar importance. In all inferior cases, the parent's duty is, in my view, confined to information ; to persuasion, kindly and reasonably conducted; and to such delays of the intended connection as will furnish opportunity to give these dissuasives their full operation. In these cases, children are bound to listen with the utmost willingness and impartiality to the parent's reasons, and deeply to feel and to respect his pleasure. If the reasons are solid, they ought to be influenced by their whole force, and, as far as may be, to overcome their own inclinations ; remembering that, although their own happiness is the first thing to be regarded in forming such a counection, that of their parents is the second.; and that parental opposition to their wishes can rarely aim at any thing but their own good. When children have used all reasonable expedients to bend their inclinations to the wishes of their parents, and are yet unable to subdue them, their non-compliance can lawfully neither be punished, nor resented.

3. Assistance towards acquiring a competent living.

When children commence their settlement in life, they often need assistance, at least as much as in earlier periods. This assistance, is, however, principally confined to two articles; giving advice, and furnishing pecuniary aid. All parents, perhaps, are sufficiently willing to give advice ; and most, I believe, are willing to befriend their children with pecuniary assistance in such a degree as is not felt to be inconvenient to themselves. There are those, however, who impart sparingly enough; and there are others still who are disposed to give little or nothing. Avarice sometimes influences the parent's conduct in this respect; and oftener, I believe, a reluctance to lessen the heap which we have been long gathering, and oftener still the wound which pride feels at being thought to possess less wealth than the utmost of what we have amassed. These are always wretched reasons, and in this case reasons for wretched conduct. A child when setting out in the world finds himself surrounded by a multitude of difficulties, to struggle with which he must be very imperfectly prepared. Unexperienced, alone, suddenly plunged into many perplexities, and unacquainted with the means of relieving themselves, children are often distressed, discouraged, and sometimes broken down ; when the helping hand of a parent would, with no real inconvenience to himself, raise them to hope, resolution, and comfort. That parents so situated are bound by plain duty to assist their children in these circumstances can veed no proof. He who will not thus relieve the offspring of his own bowels, even at the risk of being thought less rich, or of being actually less rich, deserves not the name of a parent, and ought to be ashamed to show his face among those who do. For my own part, I cannot conceive that a man who will not deny himself a little to befriend his own children, can have ever compassed the self-denial of forgiving his enemies; nor understand how he can possess sufficient confidence to stand up in morning and evening worship, at the head of his family, and say, in his own name and theirs, • Our Father, who art in heaven.'

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Beside the direct import of this precept, it has been generally and justly considered as, by a very obvious analogy, including those duties which are reciprocally to be rendered by men in various other relations ; particularly those of superiors and inferiors, whatever may be the basis of their relative characters. To an examination of all these duties it might fairly lead. I shall, however, make it my guide to the investigation of one class of them only: viz. The duties of magistrates and subjects.

The relations of magistrate and subject are so obviously analogous to those of parents and children, that magistrates have been often styled the fathers of their people; and their people often called their children. No language of commendation is with more frequency, or with more emphasis, applied to a prince distinguished for his wisdom, justice, and benevo

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