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A curious view of the composition of the vast population of France is exhibited in the Duke of Gaëta's Memoires sur le Cadastre, 1818. His Tables present 10,414,121 taxable properties, great and small, forming so many separate items in the accounts (róles) of the direct tax on real estate for 1815, as follows.

7,897,110 properties, rated at 21 francs a year or un

der, producing 47,178,649 francs.

(Average 6 fr. for each property.) 704,871 Do. rated 21 to 30 fr. producing 17,632,083) 699,637 Do. 31 to 50 fr. do. 27,229,518 86,043,089 594,048 Do. 51 to 100 fr. do. 41,181,488)

(Average of these three different

rates, 43 fr. for each property.)
459,937 Do. 101 to 500 fr. do. 90,411,706

(Average 196 fr.)
40,773 Do. 501 to 1000 fr. do. 27,653,016

(Average 678106 fr.)
17,745 Do. 1001 and above, do. 31,649,468

(Average 1783 406 fr.)

(ties, 10,414,121 sum tot. taxed proper- producing 282,935,928 fr.

This statement does not give the number of proprietors, many of them holding properties in several communes, and being taxed in each. Mr de Gaëta, however, reckons that there are 4,833,000 individual proprietors; but as many of these are heads of families estimated at 5 persons, he gives 14,479,830 as the amount of the class of proprietors: According to this view, very nearly one half of the population of France belongs to that class.

More than three-fourths of these 4,833,000 proprietors, say3,665,300 pay, upon an average, 1218 francs yearly

tax upon their property or properties, re-
presenting a yearly income of 64 francs, or
5ls. Sterling ; they are in fact day labour-
ers, with a cottage and garden belonging to
themselves

fr. 47,178,649 928,000 pay, upon an average, 9278 fr. representing

a yearly income of 464 fr. or 171. 11s. Ster-
ling a year

86,043,089 212,636 pay, upon an average, 425 fr. represent

ing a yearly income of 2127 fr. or 851. Ster-
ling

90,411,706

4,805,936 carried over.

Carry over 223,699,444

4,805,936 Brought over.

Brought over 223,633,444 18,848 pay, upon an average, 1468 fr. representing

a yearly income of 7340 fr. or 2931. lls.
Sterling

27,653,016 8,216 pay, upon an average, 3854 48 fr. represent

ing a yearly income of 19,272 fr. or 7711.
Sterling

31,649,468

4,833,000

fr. 282,935,928

The Agricultural class in France then consists, of1,421,000 proprietors and their families, living wholly, or mostly,

on the net proceeds of land, with an income of from two to twenty thousand francs a year for each family,

(801. Sterling to 8001. a year.) 13,059,000 proprietors and their families, of the class of peasants,

living partly by their labour, with an income of from

64 to 464 francs a year for each family. 4,941,000 agricultural labourers, who are not proprietors.

Therefore one half of the population of France is composed of proprietors great or small, and one-sixth of agricultural labourers; and altogether two-thirds are employed in agriculture. In Great Britain, on the other hand, proprietors and farmers together (the latter with us may fairly be rated among proprietors, having a large capital vested in stock and improvements on land) do not appear to amount to more than 2,975,000 individuals, and agricultural labourers to 2,654,142. Altogether not more than one-third of the British population (17,000,000) is concerned in agriculture.

*

* Colquhoun's Wealth and Power of the British Empire. Lon

don, 1814. p. 1 24. Freeholders of the better sort in Great Britain

and Ireland, and their families, 385,000 Lesser freeholders

ditto

1,050,000 2,975,000 Farmers

ditto

1,540,000 Labourers, people employed in agriculture, mines and minerals

3,154,142) Supposing miners to be half a million--to de

2,654,142 duct

500,000

Carry over 5,629,142 The remaining third of the population of France is composed

of4,309,000 manufacturing and commercial labourers without

property; and 5,270,000 merchants, manufacturers, or individuals living on

the interest of their capital, the emoluments of

liberal professions, public offices, &c. The remaining two-thirds of the population of Great Britain are composed as follows5,163,389 labouring workmen, employed in trade and manu

factures; and 6,207,469 merchants and manufacturers, individuals living on

the interest of their capital, professions, public

offices, or in any other way not agricultural. In order to render this comparison clearer, we shall reduce the respective numbers to fractional parts of the same denominator (30,000).

Manufacturers, Landed

Merchants, in. Landed Proprietors

Manufactur- dividuals living Proprietors living partly, Agricultural ing and on the interest Kiving on the or mostly, Labourers. Commercial of their capital, by their la

Labourers. or in any other ceeds. bour.

way not agri

cultural,

net pro

5,100
4,683

4,450
8,194

5,4.50 11,873

France 1,500 13,500
G. Britain &

5,250 Ireland

Individuals composing the families of proprietors and farmers. There are very few labouring proprietors.

The proportion of landed proprietors appears from this statement to be nearly three times greater in France, than with us;

Brought over 5,629, 142 Aquatic labourers in the merchants' service,

fisheries, rivers, canals, 320,000, and miners taken from above, 500,000

820,000 Artisans and labourers in manufactories, and

5,163,389 works of all kinds

4,343,389 Remaining for all other classes, including army and navy

6,207,469 17,000,000

SCO

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(most of the French proprietors are labourers likewise); and the number of agricultural labourers also is something greater in France. Upon the whole, there appears to be in England a saving of about one half the labour bestowed upon land in France; and thus, owing to a better system of husbandry, larger farms, and more pastures, we can afford a double proportion of our population for commercial and manufacturing labours, the liberal and the useful arts, and a life of leisure and enjoyment: And yet, look to the result of this state of things in the two countries, for the last few years, we shall find no great reason to boast. In France, a whole army of more than 400,000 men was disbanded in 1816; the men originally raised by the conscription were most of them the sons of proprietors; they dispersed in all directions, each of them taking the nearest road to his native cottage; neither robberies nor assassinations took place, and travelling through all parts of the country remained perfectly safe. A general failure of crops occurred immediately after this, and the scarcity amounted almost to a famine. In several departments, this occasioned some trifling disturbances on market days; but the peace of the country was never seriously endangered. All Europe, and even the United States of America, have since experienced unexampled commercial and manufacturing distresses, and France has had her share; yet complaints were comparatively less there than anywhere else, and we have heard of no riots in that country. Taxes are no doubt high-that on land is equal to above one fifth of the net produce, yet they are punctually paid. We annex here an official statement of the number of trials, condemnations and acquittals for the whole kingdom (a population of 29 millions), from 1813 to 1818– with which a similar statement, for the same years, in England, forms þut a melancholy contrast.

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1813.1 1814. 1815.) 1816 1817. 1818.

1813. 1814. 1815. 1816. 1817. (1818. Individus traduits en jugement? 8042 5485 6551 9890 14,146 9722

Accused

7164 63907818 9091 13,932 devant les cours d'assises

Condemned

4422 4025 4883 5797 | 9,056 Condamnés

5343 3402 4376 | 6807 | 9,431 | 6712 Acquitted or not pro-
Acquittés

2742 2365 2935 3294 4,876
2699 2083 21753083 4,715 3010 secuted
Ce Tableau général se subdi-

vise de la maniere suivante.
Crimes contre la chose publique 191 174 319 546 438

166 contre les personnes

1130 902 1206 1589 1,638 | 1262 contre les propriété 4523 2831 3111 4722 7,086 5547 Condamnés à mort

307 183 256 414 558 324 Sentence of death 713 558 553 890 1,3021254 aux travaux forces à per-2

50 53 Transportation for life

38 60 346

103 petuité 247 326 458 511 393

for 14 years

95

94

133 157 à la deportation

57 52 6

922 625 826 861 1,474
aux travaux forces à temps 1401 867 | 1080 1534 2,605 1992 Imprisonment

2759 2574 32183663 5,700
aux travaux forees et à la

Whipping and fines 183 137 154

190 320
Retrissure

278 184
184

96

110

1916 | 1198 | 1511 2217 2,774 2116
reclusion et Aetrissure 40 23 36 35 69 70
au carcan

6 1 3 8 4 4
au bannissement

7 5 53

12 2 Out of the above capià la degradation civile

3 1 2 2

tal condemnations, à l'emprisonnement et à 2

120 70 57 95 115 97 l'amende 1133

the executions have 780 1014 1906 2,629 1619 $

been only N. B. D'après les renseignemens recueillis jusqu'à ce jour la diminution dans l'année 1819 sera encore plus consi

S à la reclusion

derable.

for 7 years

96

66

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