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• The Life of Tymou of Athens' was first published | lations of the mad-house, in the play and in the picture in the folio collection of 1623. The text, in this first are described with almost equal force and nature." edition, has no division into acts and scenes. We have Hogarth's Rake is all sensuality and selfishness; Timon reason to believe that, with a few exceptions, it is accu- is essentially high-minded and generous : he truly says, rately printed from the copy which was in the possession in the first chill of his fortunesof Herninge and Condell; and we have judged it im- “No villainous bounty yet hath pass'd my heart. portant to follow that copy with very slight variations. Unwisely, not ignobly, have I given." In our fuller editions we have entered into a minute In his splendid speech to Apemantus in the fourth act, examination of this play, for the purpose of expressing he distinctly proclaims, that in the weakness with wbiel. our belief that it was founded by Shakspere upon some he had lavished his fortunes upon the unworthy, be had older play, of which much has been retained ; and that not pampered his own passions :our poet's hand can only be traced with certainty in “ Hadst thou, like us, from our first swath, procreded those scenes in which Timon appears.
The sweet degrees that this brief world affords The Timon of Shakspere is not the Timon of the
To such as may the pressive drugs of it propular stories of Shakspere's day. The 28th novel of
Freely command, thou wouldst have plung'd thyself · The Palace of Pleasure' has for its title “ Of the
In general riot; melted dowu thy youth
In different beds of lust; and never learn'd strange and beastly nature of Timon of Athens, enemy The icy precepts of respect, but follow'd to mankind." According to this authority, “ he was The sugar'd game before thee. But mysell, a man but by shape only "—he lived “ a beastly and
Who had the world as my confectionary;
The mouths, the tongues, the eyes, and hearts of men churlish life." Neither was the Timon of Plutarch the
At duty, more than I could frame employment; Timon of Shakspere. The Greek biographer, indeed, That numberless upon me stuck, as leaves tells us, that he was angry with all men, and would Do on the oak, have with one winter's brush trust 110 man, for the unthaukfulness of those he had
Fell from their boughs, and left me open, bare done good unto, and whom he took to bę his friends ;"
For every storm that blows." but that he was represented as “a viper and malicious The all-absorbing defect of Timon—the root of those inan unto mankind, to shun all other men's companies generous vices which wear the garb of virtue—is the but the company of young Alcibiades, a bold and in- entire want of discrimination (by which he is also chasolent youth.” The Timon of Plutarch, and of the racterized in Lucian's dialogue). Shakspere has seized popular stories of Shakspere's time, was little different upon this point, and held firmly to it. He releases Veirfrom the ordinary cynic. The Timon of Shakspere is tidius from prison,—he bestows an estate upon his serin many respects essentially different from any model vant,—he lavishes jewels upon all the dependants who with which we are acquainted, but it approaches nearer, crowd his board. That universal philanthropy, of which as Mr Skottowe first observed, to the Timon of Lucian the most selfish men sometimes talk, is in Timon an than the commentators have pointed out. The character active principle; but let it be observed that he has no of Shukspere's misanthrope presents one of the most preferences—a most remarkable example of the prostriking creations of his originality.
found sagacity of Shakspere. Had he loved a single Tlie vices of Shakspere's Timon are not the vices of a human being with that intensity which constitu'es afsensualist. It is true that his offices have been oppressed fection in the relation of the sexes, and friendship in with riotous feeders,—that his vaults have wept with the relation of man to man, he would have been exenape drunken spilth of wine, – that every room
from that unjudging lavishness which was necessary to “ Hath blaz'd with lights, and bray d with minstrelsy."
satisfy his morbid craving for human sympathy.
With this key to Timon's character, it appears to us But he has nothing selfish in the enjoyment of his pro- that we may properly understand the “ general and digality and his magnificence. He himself truly ex- exceptless rashness" of his misanthropy. The only presses the weakness as well as the beauty of his own relations in which he stood to mankind are utterly de. character : " Why, I have often wished myself poorer, stroyed. In lavishing his wealth as if it were a comthat I might come nearer to you. We are born to do mon property, he had beliered that the same common · benefits, and what better or properer can we call our property would flow back to him in his hour of adown, than the riches of our friends ? O, what a pre- versity. O, you gods, think I, what need we have cious comfort 't is, to have so many, like brothers, com- any friends, if we should never have need of them? they manding one another's fortunes !" Charles Lamb, in were the most needless creatures living, should we ne'er his contrast between “Timon of Athens' and Hogarth's have use for them : and would most resemble sweet · Rake's Progress,' has scarcely done justice to Timon : instruments hung up in cases, that keep their soumis to • The wild course of riot and extravagance, ending in themselves." His false confidence is at once, and itthe one with driving the Prodigal from the society of parably, destroyed. If Timon had possessed one friend meu into the solitude of the deserts; and, in the other, with whom he could have interchanged confidence upon with conducting Hogarth's Rake through his several equal terms, he would bave been saved from his fall, stages of dissipation into the still more complete deso- ' and certainly from his misanthropy.
TIMON OF ATHENS.
Lucius, servant to Timon's creditors.
Act III. sc. 4;
Appears, Act III. sc. 4. $c. 6. Act IV. sc. 1; sc. 3. Act V. sc. 1; sc. 2.
HORTENSIUS, servant to Timon's creditors.
Appeurs, Act III. sc. 4.
Two Servants of Varro, a creditor of Timon. LUCULIUS, a Lord, and a flatterer of Timon.
Appear, Act II. sc. 2. Act III. sc. 4.
A Servant of Isidore, a creditor of Timon.
Appears, Act II. sc. 2.
Cupid and Maskers.
Appear, Act I. sc. 2.
Appear, Act III. sc. 2.
Poet. appears, Act I. se. 1; sc. 2. Act II. sc. 2. Act IV. sc. 3.
Appears, Act I. sc. I. Act V. sc. 1.
Appears, Act I. sc. I. Act V. sc. 1.
Appeurs, Act I. sc. l.
Appears, Act I. sc. l.
An old Athenian.
Appears, Act I. sc. 1
Appears, Act II. sc. 2.
Appears, Act II. sc. 2.
Purynia, a mistress to Alcibiades.
Appears, Act IV. sc. 3.
TIMANDRA, a mistress to Alcibiades.
Appears, Act IV. sc. 3.
Other Lords, Senators, Officers, Soldiers, Banditti.
and Attendants. SCENE,-Athens, and the Woods ADJOINING.
SCENE I.-Athens. A Hall in Timon's House. Jero. I have a jewel here.
Mer. O, pray, let's see 't: For the lord Timon, sir ? Enter Poet, Painter, Jeweller, Merchant, and others,
Jew. If he will touch the estimate: But, for thatat several doors.
Poet. “When we for recompense have prais'd the vile, Poet. Good day, sir.
It stains the glory in that happy verse Pain.
I am glad you are well. Which aptly sings the good." a Poet. I have not seen you long : How goes the world ? Mer. T is a good form. (Looking at the jeroel. Pain. It wears, sir, as it grows.
Jew. And rich : here is a water, look you. Ay, that 's well known : Pain. You are rapt, sir, in some work, some dedi. But what particular rarity? what strange,
cation Which manifold record not matches? See,
To the great lord. Magic of bounty! all these spirits thy power
Poet. A thing slipp'd idly from me. Hath conjur'd to attend. I know the merchant. Our poesy is as a gum, which oozes
Pain. I know them both; th' other 's a jeweller. From whence 't is nourished : The fire i' the flint Mer. 0, 't is a worthy lord !
Shows not till it be struck; our gentle flame
Nay, that 's most fix'd. Provokes itself, and, like the current, flies
Pain. A picture, sir.— When comes your book forth !
Poet. Upon the heels of my presentment, sir. • Breath'd. When Hamlet says,
Let's see your piece.
”T is a good piece. " It is the breathing time of day with me," he refers to the time of habitual exercise, by which his animal * The poet is here supposed to be reading his own perform strength was fitted for "untirable and continuate" exertion. The analogy between this and the habitual exercise of “good- • This passage has been considered diff.cult, but if we receive tess' is obvions.
bound in the sense of boundary, obstacle, the image is tolerably He passes-be excels, he goes beyond common virtues clear,
Poet. So 't is : this comes off well and excellent. Poet. When Fortune, in her shift and change o Pain. Indifferent.
Admirable: How this grace Spurns down her late belov'd, all his dependants, Speaks his own standing ! " what a mental power Which labour'd after him to the mountain's top, This eye shoots forth ! how big imagination
Even on their hnees and hands, let him slip down, Moves in this lip! to the dumbness of the gesture Not one accompanying his declining foot. One might interpret.
Pain. 'T is common : Pain. It is a pretty mocking of the life.
A thousand moral paintings I can show, Here is a touch : Is 't good ?
That shall demonstrate these quick blows of fortune's Poet. I 'll say of it,
More pregnantly than words. Yet you do well, It tutors nature: artificial strife b
To show lord Timon that mean eyes have seen
The foot above the head.
Trumpets sound. Enter Timon, attended ; the SerPain. How this lord 's follow'd !
vant of VENTIDIUS talking with him. Poet. The senators of Athens : – Happy men!
Imprison'd is he, say you ! Pain. Look, more!
Ven. Serv. Ay, my good lord : five talents is his Poet. You see this confluence, this great flood of visitors.
His means most short, his creditors most strait: I have, in this rough work, shap'd out a man
Your honourable letter he desires Whom this beneath world doth embrace and hug To those have shut him up; which failing to him, With amplest entertainment: My free drift
Periods his comfort. Halts not particularly, but moves itself
Noble Ventidius! Well; In a wide sea of wax: no leveli'd malice
I am not of that feather to shake off Infects one comma in the course I hold;
My friend when he must need me. I do know him But flies an eagle flight, bold, and forth on,
A gentleman that well deserves a help, Leaving no tract behind.
Which he shall have : I 'll pay the debt and free him. Pain. How shall I understand you?
Ven. Serv. Your lordship ever binds him. Poet.
Í 'll unbolt d to you.
Tim. Commend me to him: I will send his ransonn; You see bow all conditions, how all minds,
And, being enfranchis'd, bid him come to me :(As well of glib and slippery creatures, as
"T is not enough to help the feeble up, Of grave and austere quality,) tender down
But to support him after.-Fare you well. Their services to lord Timon : his large fortune,
Ven. Serv. All happiness to your honour. Erit. Upon his good and gracious nature hanging, Subdues and properties to his love and tendance
Enter an Old Athenian. All sorts of hearts ; yea, from the glass-fac'd flatterer Old Ath. Lord Timon, hear me speak. To Apemantus, that few things loves better
Freely, good father. Than to abhor himself: even he drops down
Old Ath. Thou hast a servant named Lucilius. The knee before him, and returns in peace
Tim. I have so : What of him? Most rich in Timon's nod.
Old Ath. Most noble Timon, call the man befure
Luc. Here, at your lordship's service. To propagate their states : amongst them all,
Old Ath. This fellow here, lord Timon, this the Whose eyes are on this sovereign lady fix'd,
creature, One do I personate of lord Timon's frame,
By night frequents my house. I am a man Whom Fortune with her ivory hand wafts to her ; That from my first have been inclined to thrift; Whose present grace to present slaves and servants And my estate deserves an heir more rais d Translates his rivals.
Than one which holds a trencher. Pain. 'T is conceiv'd to scope.
Well; what further! This throne, this Fortune, and this hill, methinks, Old Ath. One only daughter have I, no kin eise, With one man beckon'd from the rest below,
On whom I may confer what I bave got:
The maid is fair, o' the youngest for a bride,
In qualities of the best. This man of thine
Attempts her love: I pritbee, noble lord,
Join with me to forbid him her resort ; (Some better than his value,) on the moment
Myself have spoke in vain. Follow his strides, his lobbies fill with tendance,
The man is honest.
Old Ath. Therefore he will be, Timou :
It must not bear my daughter.
Does sbe lure him! a The commentators have not noticed what appears to us
Old Ath. She is young, and apt : tolerably obrious, that the flattering painter had brought with Our own precedent passions do instruct us him a portrait of Timon, in which the grace of the attitude What levity 's in youth. spoke “ his own standing,'' - the habitual carriage of the original.
T'im. (To Lucilius] Love you the maid ! 6 Artificial strife--the contest of art with nature.
# The following is Coleridge's explanation of this prostor • An allusion to the ancient practice of writing upon warm -“The meaning of the first line the poet himself explains, of tablets with a style.
rather unfolds, in the second. • The man is honest! True d Unbolt-unfold, explain.
and for that very cause, and with no additional or extrissie Condition is here used for art
motive, he will be so. No man can be justly called boseste Drink the for air-live, breathe but through him. is not so for honesty's sake, itself including its own reward."
Luc. Ay, my good lord, and she accepts of it.
Apem. Right, if doing nothing be death by the law. Old Ath. If in her marriage my consent be missing, Tim. How likest thou this picture, Apemantus ? I call the gods to witness, I will choose
Apem. The best, for the innocence. Mine heir from forth the beggars of the world,
Tim. Wrought he not well that painted it? And dispossess her all.
Apem. He wrought better that made the painter; Tim.
How shall she be endow'd, and yet he 's but a filthy piece of work. If she be mated with an equal husband?
Pain. You are a dog. Old Ath. Three talents, on the present; in future, all. Apem. Thy mother 's of my generation: What is
Tim. This gentleman of mine hath serv'd me long; she, if I be a dog?
Tim. Wilt dine with me, Apemantus ?
Tim. An thou shouldst, thou 'dst anger ladies. And make him weigh with her.
Apem. O, they eat lords; so they come by great Old Ath. Most noble lord,
bellies. Pawn me to this your honour, she is his.
Tim. That 's a lascivious apprehension. Tim. My hand to thee; mine honour on my pro- Apem. So thou apprehend'st it: Take it for thy lamise.
bour. Luc. Humbly I thank your lordship: Never may Tim. How dost thou like this jewel, Apemantus ? That state or fortune fall into my keeping,
Apem. Not so well as plain-dealing, which will not Which is not ow'd to you!
cost a man a doit, [Exeunt Lucilius and Old Athenian. Tim. What dost thou think 't is worth? Poet. Vouchsafe my labour, and long live your lord- Apem. Not worth my thinking.-How now, poet? ship!
Poet. How now, philosopher ?
Poet. Art not one?
Poet. Then I lie not.
Apem. Art not a poet ?
Poet. Yes. For since dishonour traffics with man's nature,
Apem. Then thou liest : look in thy last work, where He is but outside : These pencil'd figures are
thou hast feign'd him a worthy fellow. Eren such as they give ont. I like your work;
Poet. That 's not feign'd, he is so. And you shall find I like it: wait attendance
Apem. Yes, he is worthy of thee, and to pay thee for Till you hear further from me.
thy labour : He that loves to be flattered is worthy o' Pain.
The gods preserve you ! the flatterer. Heavens, that I were a lord ! Tim. Well fare you, gentlemen : Give me your hand Tim. What wouldst do then, Apemantus ? We must needs dine together.—Sir, your jewel
Apem. Even as Apemantus does now, hate a lord Hath sufferd under praise.
with my heart. Jero.
What, my lord ? dispraise ? Tim. What, thyself? Tim. A meer satiety of commendations.
Apem. Ay. If I should pay you for 't as 't is extollid
Tim. Wherefore ? It would unclew me quite.
Apem. That I had no angry wit to be a lord.-Art Jero. My lord, 't is rated
not thou a merchant ? As those which sell would give: But you well know Mer. Ay, Apemantus. Things of like value, differing in the owners,
Apem. Traffic confound thee, if the gods will not ! Are prized by their masters : believe 't, dear lord, Mer. If traffic do it, the gods do it. You mend the jewel by the wearing it.
Apem. Traffic 's thy god, and thy god confound thee! Tim. Well mock'd.
Trumpets sound. Enter a Servant. Mer. No, my good lord; he speaks the common tongue,
Tim. What trumpet 's that? Which all men speak with him.
Serv. 'Tis Alcibiades, and some twenty horse, Tim. Look, who comes here. Will you be chid ?
All of companionship.
Tim. Pray entertain them; give them guide to us.Enter APEMANTUS.
[Exeunt some Attendants. Jeu. We will bear with your lordship.
You must neels dine with me :-Go not you hience Mer.
He 'll spare none.
Till I have thank'd you; and, when dinner 's done, Tim. Good morrow to thee, gentle Apemantus !
Show me this piece. I am joyful of your sights. Apem. Till I be gentle, stay thou for thy good mor- Enter Alcibiades, with his company.
Most welcome, sir !
[They salute. When thou art Timon's dog, and these knaves honest. Apem.
So, so; there! Tim. Why dost thou call them knaves? thou know'st Aches contract and starve your supple joints ! them not.
That there should be small love 'mongst these sweet Apem. Are they not Athenians ?
knaves, Tim. Yes.
And all this court'sy! The strain of man 's bred out Apem. Then I repent not.
Into baboon and monkey. Jero. You know me, Apemantus.
Alcib. Sir, you have sav'd my longing, and I feel Apem. Thou know'st I do; I called thee by thy Most hungerly on your sight.
Right welcome, sir. Tim. Thou art proud, Apemantus,
Ere we depart, we 'll share a bounteous time Apem. Of nothing so much as that I am not like in different pleasures. Pray you, let us in, Timon.
[Exeunt all but APEMANTUS. Tim. Whither art going?
Enter Two Lords. Apem. To knock out an honest Athenian's brains. l'im. That's a deed thou 'lt die for.
I Lord. What time a day is 't, Apemantus ?
Apem. Time to be honest,
Go, let him have a table by himself; 1 Lord. That time serves still.
For he does neither affect company, Apem. The most accursed thou that still omitt'st it. Nor is le fit for 't, indeed. 2 Lord. Thou art going to lord Timon's feast,
Apem. Let me stay at thine apperil," Timon; Apem. Ay; to see meat fill knaves, and wine heat I come to observe; I give thee warning on 't. fools.
Tim. I take no heed of thee; thou art an Athenian; 2 Lord. Fare thee well, fare thee well.
therefore welcome: I myself would have no puwer : Apem. Thou art a fool to bid me farewell twice. prithee, let my meat make thee silent. 2 Lord. Why, Apemantus ?
Apem. I scorn thy meat; 't would choke me, fo I Apem. Shouldst have kept one to thyself, for I mean
should to give thee none.
Ne'er flatter thee.- you gods! what a number i Lord. Hang thyself.
Of men eat Timon, and he sees them not ! Apem. No, I will do nothing at thy bidding; make It grieves me to see so many dip their meat thy requests to thy friend.
In one man's blood; and all the madness is, 2 Lord. Away, unpeaceable dog, or I 'll spurn thee He cheers them up too. hence.
I wonder men dare trust themselves with men : Apem. I will fly, like a dog, the heels of the ass. Methinks, they should invite them without knives ;)
[Exit. Good for their meat, and safer for their lives. 1 Lord. He's opposite to humanity. Come, shall There 's much example for t; the fellow, that we in,
Sits next him now, parts bread with him, and pledges And taste lord Timon's bounty ? he outgoes
The breath of him in a divided draught, The very heart of kindness.
Is the readiest man to kill him : it has been prov d. 2 Lord. He pours it out; Plutus, the god of gold, If I were a huge man, I should sear to drink at meals; Is but his steward: no meed, but he repays
Lest they should spy my windpipe's dangerous potes. Sevenfold above itself; no gift to him,
Great men should drink with harness on their throats. But breeds the giver a return exceeding
Tim. My lord, in heart; and let the health go round. All use of quittance.
2 Lord. Let it flow this way, my good lord. 1 Lord.
The noblest mind he carries, Apem. Flow this way! A brave fellow !-he keeps That ever govern'd man.
bis tides well. 2 Lord. Long may he live in fortunes! Shall we in? Those healths will make thee, and thy state, look ill, I Lord. I 'll keep you company.
Here's that, which is too weak to be a sinner, SCENE II.—The same. A Room of State in Timon's Honest water, which ne'er left man i' the mire: House.
This, and my food, are equals; there's no odds.
Feasts are too proud to give thanks to the gods. Hautboys playing loud music. A great banquet served in; Flavius and others attending; then enter
APEMANTUS'S GRACE. Timon, ALCIBIADES, Lucius, LUCULLUS, SEMPRO
Immortal gods, I crave no pelf; NIUS, and other Athenian Senators, with VENTIDIUS,
I pray for no man, but myself: and Attendants. Then comes, dropping after all,
Grant I may never prove so fond, APEMANTUS, discontentedly.
To trust man on his oath or bond; Ven. Most honour'd Timon,
Or a harlot, for her weeping; It hath pleas'd the gods to remember my father's age,
Or a dog, that seems a sleeping; And call him to long peace.
Or a keeper with my freedom; He is gone happy, and has left me rich:
Or my friends, if I should need 'em. Then, as in grateful virtue I am bound
Amen. So fall to 't:
Rich men sin, and I eat root.
Much good dich thy good heart, Apemantus!
Tim. Captain Alcibiades, your beart is in the field Honest Ventidius : you mistake my love ; I gave it freely ever; and there's none
Alcib. My heart is ever at your service, my lord. Can truly say he gives, if he receives :
Tim. You had rather be at a breakfast of enemies, If our betters play at that game, we must not dare than a dinner of friends. To imitate them: Faults that are rich, are fair.
Alcib. So they were bleeding-new, my lord, there's Ven. A nobie spirit.
no meat like them; I could wish my best friend at [They all stand ceremoniously looking on Timon. such a feast. Tim. Nay, my lords, ceremony was but devis’d at Apem. 'Would all those flatterers were thine ene first
mies then; that then thou mightst kill 'em, and bid To set a gloss on faint deeds, hollow welcomes,
me to 'em. Recanting goodness, sorry ere 't is shown;
1 Lord. Might we but have that happiness, my lord, But where there is true friendship, there needs none. that you would once use our hearts, whereby we mizit Pray sit; more welcome are ye to my fortunes, express some part of our zeals, we should think out. Than my fortunes to me.
[They sit. selves for ever perfect. 1 Lord. My lord, we always bave confess'd it. T'im. 0, no doubt, my good friends, but the gods Apem. Ho, ho, confess’d it! hang'd it, have you not ? themselves have provided that I shall have much beip Tim. O, Apemantus !-you are welcome.
from you : How had you been my friends else i sty Apem. No, you shall not make me welcome: have you that charitable title from thousands, did it I come to have thee thrust me out of doors.
you chiefly belong to my heart! I have told more of Tim. Fye, thou 'rt a churl; you have got a humour you to myself, than you can with modesty speak in
there Does not become a man, 't is much to blame :
* Apperil. The word repeatedly occurs in Ben Jonson, as in
the Tale of a Tub:'They say, my lords, ira furor brevis est,
“ As you will answer it at your apperil." But yond' man 's very angry.
• Every guest in our author's time brought his 037 knife
[Eats and drinks.