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shall say.

And these same thoughts people this little world; Groom. I was a poor groom of thy stable, king, In humours like the people of this world,

When thou wert king; who, travelling towards York, For no thought is contented. The better sort, With much ado, at length bave gotten leave As thoughts of things divine,-are intermix'd

To look upon my sometimes royal master's face. With scruples, and do set the faith itself

O, how it yearn'd my heart, when I belield,
Against the faith:

In London streets that coronation day,
As thus-Come, little ones; and then again,- When Bolingbroke rode on roan Barbary !
It is as hard to come, as for a camel

That horse that thou so often hast bestrid;
To thread the postern of a needle's eye.

That horse that I so carefully have dress’d! Thoughts tending to ambition they do plot

K. Rich. Rode he on Barbary? Tell me, gentle Unlikely wonders : how these vain weak nails

friend, May tear a passage through the flinty ribs

How went he under him? Of this hard world, my ragged prison walls;

Groom. So proudly as if he had disdain'd the ground. And, for they cannot, die in their own pride.

K. Rich. So proud that Bolingbroke was on his back! Thonghts tending to content flatter themselves

That jade hath eat bread from my royal hand; That they are not the first of fortune's slaves,

This hand hath made him proud with clapping him. Nor shall not be the last; like silly beggars,

Would he not stumble? Would he not fall down, Who, sitting in the stocks, refuge their shame,

(Since pride must have a fall,) and break the neck That many hare, and others must sit there :

Of that proud man that did usurp his back? And in this thought they find a kind of ease,

Forgiveness, horse! why do I rail on thee, Bearing their own misfortunes on the back

Since thou, created to be aw'd by man, Of such as have before endur'd the like.

Wast born to bear? I was not made a horse ; Thus play I, in one person, many people,

And yet I bear a burthen like an ass, And none contented : Sometimes am I king;

Spur-gall’d, and tir’d, by jauncing Bolingbroke.
Then treason makes me wish myself a beggar,
And so I am: Then crushing penury

Enter Keeper, with a dish.
Perrades me I was better when a king;
Then am I king'd again : and by-and-by,

Keep. Fellow, give place; here is no longer stay.

[ To the Groom. Think that I am unking'd by Bolingbroke,

K. Rich. If thou love me, 't is time thou wert away. And straight am nothing :- But, whate er I am,

Groom. What my tongue dares not that my heart Nor I, nor any man, that but man is,

[Exit. With nothing shall be pleas'd till he be eas d With being nothing. Music do I hear?

Keep. My lord, will 't please you to fall to ?
Music.

K. Rich. Taste of it first, as thou art wont to do. Ha, ha! keep time :-How sour sweet music is,

Keep. My lord, I dare not; Sir Pierce of Exton, who When time is broke, and no proportion kept !

Lately came from the king, commands the contrary. So is it in the music of men's lives.

K. Rich. The devil take Henry of Lancaster, and And bere hare I the daintiness of ear,

thee! To check time broke in a disorder'd string;

Patience is stale, and I am weary of it. But, for the concord of my state and time,

[Beats the Keeper. Had not an ear to hear my true time broke.

Keep. Help, help, help!
I wasted time, and now doth time waste me.
For now hath time made me his numb'ring clock :

Enter Exton, and Servants, armed.
My thoughts are minutes; and, with sighs, they jar K. Rich. How now? what means death in this rude
Their watches on unto mine eyes, the outward watch,

assault? Whereto my finger, like a dial's point,

Villain, thine own hand yields thy death's instrument. I pointing still, in cleansing them from tears.

(Snatching a weapon, and killing one. Now, sir, the sounds that tell what hour it is

Go thon, and fill another room in hell. Are clamorous groans, that strike upon my heart,

(He kills another, then Exton strikes him down. Which is the bell : So sighs, and tears, and groans, That hand shall burn in never-quenching fire, Show minutes, times, and hours :—but my time

That staggers thus my person.—Exton, thy fierce hand Runs posting on in Bolingbroke's proud joy,

Hath with the king's blood stain'd the king's own land. While I stand fooling here, his Jack o' the clock. b

Mount, mount, my soul! thy seat is up on high ; This music mads me, let it sound no more;

Whilst my gross flesh sinks downward, here to die. For, though it have holpe madmen to their wits,

[Dies. In me it seems it will make wise men mad.

Exton. As full of valour as of royal blood : Yet blessing on his heart that gives it me!

Both have I spilt; O would the deed were good! For 't is a sign of love; and love to Richard

For now the devil, that told me I did well, k a strange brooch in this all-hating worid.

Says that this deed is chronicled in hell.
Enter Groom.

This dead king to the living king I 'll bear.

Take hence the rest, and give them burial here. [E.C. Groom. Hail, royal prince! K. Rich.

Thanks, noble peer ; The cheapest of us is ten groats too dear.

SCENE VI.--Windsor. A Room in the Castle. What art thou ? and how comest thou hither,

Flourish. Enter BOLINGBROKE and York, with Where no man ever comes, but that sad dogo

Lords and Attendants. That brings me food, to make misfortune live?

Boling. Kind uncle York, the latest news we hear * The analogies used by the unhappy prisoner may appear Is, that the rebels have consum'd with fire forced, and somewhat obscure; but it must be observed that, throughout the character of Richard, the poet has made him

Our town of Cicester in Glostershire; indulge in those freaks of the imagination which belong 10 But whether they be ta'en, or slain, we hear not. seakness of character.

Jeck o' the clock. An automaton, such as formerly con- * Jauncing.–Richard compares himself to a spur-galled beast stituted one of the wonders of London before St. Dunstal's that Bolingbrokerides. Jaunciny-jaunting-hurriedly moving Choreh in Fleet Street.

Boling brok. It is possible, however, that it may be a wuSad dog.–Sad is here used in the sense of grave, gloomy. traction of joyauncing.

Enter NORTHUMBERLAND.

For though mine enemy thou hast ever been, Welcome, my lord : what is the news?

High sparks of honour in thee have I seen. North. First, to thy sacred state wish I all happiness.

Enter Exton, with Attendants bearing a coffin. The next news is,- I have to London sent The heads of Salisbury, Spencer, Blunt, and Kent: Exton. Great king, within this coffin I present The manner of their taking may appear

Thy buried fear; berein all breathless lies At large discoursed in this paper here.

The mightiest of thy greatest enemies,

[Presenting a paper. Richard of Bordeaux, by me hither brought. Boling. We thank thee, gentle Percy, for thy pains ; Boling. Exton, I thank thee not ; for thou hast And to thy worth will add right worthy gains.

wrought Enter FitzwaTER.

A deed of slander, with thy fatal hand,

Upon my head and all this famous land. Fitz. My lord, I have from Oxford sent to London Exton. From your own mouth, my lord, did I this The heads of Brocas, and sir Bennet Seely;

deed. Two of the dangerous consorted traitors

Boling. They love not poison that do poison need, That sought at Oxford thy dire overthrow.

Nor do I thee; though I did wish him dead, Boling. Thy pains, Fitzwater, shall not be forgot; I hate the murtherer, love him murthered. Right noble is thy merit, well I wot.

The guilt of conscience take thou for thy labour, Enter PERCY with the BishoP OF CARLISLE.

But neither my good word, nor princely favour :

With Cain go wander through the shade of night, Percy. The grand conspirator, abbot of Westminster, | And never show thy head by day nor light. With clog of conscience and sour melancholy,

Lords, I protest, my soul is full of woe Hath yielded up his body to the grave;

That blood should sprinkle me to make me grow : But here is Carlisle living, to abide

Come, mourn with me for that I do lament, Thy kingly doom, and sentence of his pride.

And put on sullen black, incontinent;
Boling. Carlisle, this is your doom :

I 'll make a voyage to the Holy Land,
Choose cut some secret place, some reverend room, To wash this blood off from my guilty hand :-
More than thou hast, and with it joy thy life;

March sadly after; grace my mouming here,
So, as thou lix'st in peace, die free from strife: In weeping after this untimely bier. (Exeunt.

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PARTS I. AND II.

The first edition of Henry IV., Part I.,' appeared in the time when he gave us his own idea of Henry of 1598. Five other editions were printed before the folio Monmouth,—and when we know that nearly all the of 1623. The first edition of Henry IV., Part 11.,' historians up to the time of Shakspere took pretty mach appeared in 1600. Another edition was issued the the same view of Henry's character,--we may, perhaps, same year. No subsequent edition appeared till the be astonished to be told that Shakspere's fascinating refolio of 1623. The text of the folio, from which we presentation of Henry of Monmouth, “ as an historical print, does not materially differ from the original portrait, is not only unlike the original, but misleading quartos, in the First Part. In the Second Part there and unjust in essential points of character."* Shakare large additions, and those some very important pas- spere was, in truth, the only man of his age who rejected sages, in the folio.

the imperfect evidence of all the historians as to the Shakspere found the stage in possessiou of a rude character of Henry of Monmouth, and nobly vindicated drama, “ The Famous Victories of Henry V.,' upon the him even from his own biographers, and, what was of foundation of which he constructed not only his two more importance, from the coarser traditions embodiedl Parts of Henry IV.,' but his Henry V.' That old in a popular drama of Shakspere's own day. play was acted prior to 1588 ; Tarleton, a celebrated In the play of “The Famous Victories of Henry 1.' comic actor, who played the clown in it, having died we have, as already mentioned, the character of “ Sir in that year. It is, in many respects, satisfactory that John Oldcastle.” This personage, like all the other this very extraordinary performance has been preserved. companions of the prince in that play, is a low, worthNone of the old dramas exhibit in a more striking light less fellow, without a single spark of wit or humour to the marvellous reformation which Shakspere, more than relieve his grovelling profligacy. But he is also a very all his contemporaries, produced in the dramatic amuse- insignificant character, with less stage business than ments of the age of Elizabeth. Of The Famous Vic- even “ Ned” and “ Tom." Dericke, the clown, is, intories of Henry V.,' the comic parts are low buffoonery, deed, the leading character throughout this play. Alwithout the slightest wit, and the tragic monotonous together, Oldcastle has only thirty lines put in his stupidity, without a particle of poetry. And yet Shak- mouth in the whole piece. We have no allusion to his spere built upon this thing, and for a very satisfactory being fat; we hear nothing of bis gluttony. Malone, reason—the people were familiar with it.

however, calls this Sir Johu Oldcastle “a pampered In 'The Famous Victories' we are introduced.to the glutton." It is a question whether this Oldcastle, or “ young Prince" in the opening scene. His compa. Jockey, suggested to Shakspere bis Falstaff. We cannions are “ Ned,” “Tom,” and “Sir John Oldcastle," not discover the very slightest similarity; althouglı who bears the familiar name of “ Jockey." They have Malone decidedly says, “Sbakspere appears evidently been committing a robbery upon the king's receivers ; to have caught the idea of the character of Falstaff from and Jockey informs the prince that his (the prince's) a wretched play entitled “The Famous Victories of man hath robbed a poor carrier. The plunder of the King Henry V.'" But Malove is arguing for the supreceivers amounts to a thousand pounds; and the prince port of a favourite theory. Rowe has noticed a tradiworthily says, “ As I am a true gentleman, I will have tion that Falstaff was written originally under the nan:e the half of this spent to-night.” He shows his gentility of Oldcastle. This opinion would receive some conby calling the receivers villains and rascals. The firmation from the fact that Shakspere has transferred prince is sent to the counter" by the Lord Mayor. other names from the old play, Ned, Gadshill,--and “Gadshill,” the prince's man, who robbed the carrier, why not, then, Oldcastle? The prince in one place is taken before the Lord Chief Justice; and the young calls Falstaff“ my old lad of the castle;" but this may prince, who seems to have got out of the counter as sud- be otherwise explained. The Sir John Oldcastle of denly as he got in, rescues the thief. The scene ends history, Lord Cobham, was, as is well known, one of the with the Chief Justice committing Henry to the Fleet. most strenuous supporters of the Reformation of Wick. He is, of course, released. “But whither are ye going liffe ; and hence it has been argued that the original now !" quoth Ned. “To the court," answers the true name of Shakspere's fat knight was offensive to zealous gentleman of a prince, "for I hear say my father lies Protestants in the time of Elizabeth, and was accordingly very sick. . .

The breath shall be no sooner changed to that of Falstaff. Whether or not Shakspere's out of his mouth but I will clap the crown on my head." | Falstaff was originally called Oldcastle, he was, after To the court he goes, and there ise bully becomes a the character was fairly established as Falstaff, anxious hypocrite. The great scene in The Second Part of to vindicate himself from the charge that be had atHenry IV.,

tempted to represent the Oldcastle of history. In the “ I never thought to hear you speak again," epilogue to "The Second Part of Henry IV.' we find is founded, probably, upon a passage in Holinshed ; but this passage :-“ For anything I know, Falstaff shall there is a similar scene in “The Famous Victories.' die of a sweat, unless already he be killed with your It is, perhaps, the highest attempt in the whole play. hard opinions ; for Oldcastle died a martyr, and this is

And now that we have seen what the popular nution not the man." of the conqueror of Agincourt was at the period when

* • Henry of Monmouth,' by J. Endell Tyler, B.D., Fol. in Shakspere began to write, and, perhaps, indeed, up to page 356.

385

KING HENRY IV.-PART I.

PERSONS REPRESENTED.

KING HENRY IV.
Aspears, Act I. sc. l; sc. 3. Act III. sc. 2. Act V. sc. 1 ;

sc. 4; sc. 5.
HENRY PRINCE OF WALES, son to the King.
Appears, Act I. sc. 2. Act II. sc. 2; sc. 4. Act III. sc. 2; sc. 3.

Act IV. se. 2. Act V. sc. 1 ; sc.3; sc. 4; sc. 5.
PRINCE JOHN OF LANCASTER, son to the King.

Appears, Act V. sc. 1; se. 4; sc. 5.
EARL OF WESTMORELAND, friend to the King.
Appears, Act I. se. I. Act IV. sc. 2. Act V. sc. 4; sc. 5

Sir WALTER Blunt, friend to the King.
Azpeits, Act I. sc.l; se. 3. Act III. sc. 2. Act IV. sc. 3.

Act V. sc. 1; sc. 3.
Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester.
Appears, Act I. sc. 3. Act III. s.l. Act IV. sc. 1 ; sc. 3.

Act V. se. 1; sc. 2; se. 5.
Henry Peacy, Earl of Northumberland.

4ppears, Act I. sc. 3.
Hexey Percy, surnamed Hotspur, son to the Earl

of Northumberland. Appears, Act I. sc. 3. Act II. sc. 3. Act III. sc. 1. Act IV.

se. 1; sc. 3. Act V. BC, 2; se. 3; 6C. 4.
EDMUND MORTIMER, Earl of March.

Appears, Act III. sc. 1.
SCROOP, Archbishop of York.

Appears, Act IV. sc. 4.
SIR MICHAEL, a friend of the Archbishop.

Appears, Act IV. sc. 4.

ARCHIBALD, Earl of. Douglas.
Appears, Act IV. sc. l; sc. 3. Act V. sc. 2; sc. 3 ; s. 4.

OWEN GLENDOWER.

Appears, Act III. sc. 1.

SIR RICHARD VERNON.
Appears, Act IV. sc. l; sc. 3. Act V. sc. I; sc. 2; sc. 5.

Sir JOHN FALSTAFF.
Appears, Act I. sc. 2. Act II. sc. 2; sc. 4. Act III. sc. 3.
Act IV. sc. 2. Act V. sc. 1 ; sc. 3; sc. 4.

Poins.
Appears, Act I. sc. 2. Act II, sc. 2; sc. 4. Act III. sc. 3.

GADSHILL
Appears, Act II. sc. 1; $c. 2; sc. 4.

Pero.
Appears, Act II. sc. 2 ; sc. 4.

BARDOLPH.
Appears, Act II. sc. 2; sc. 4. Act III. sc. 3. Act IV. sc. 2,
Lady Percy, wife to Hotspur, and sister to

Mortimer.
Appears, Act II. sc. 3. Act III, sc. 1
LADY MORtimer, daughter to Glendower, and wife

to Mortimer.

Appears, Act III. sc. I.
Mrs. QUICKIY, hostess of a tavern in Eastcheap.

Appears, Act II. sc. 4. Act III. sc. 3.
Lords, Officers, Sheriff, Vintner, Chamberlain,
Drawers, Two Carriers, Travellers, and Attendants,

SCENE,-ENGLAND.

ACT I.

SCENE I.-London. A Room in the Palace. The edge of war, like an ill-sheathed knife, Enter King HENRY, WESTMORELAND, Sir Walter No more shall cut his master. Therefore, friends, BLUNT, and others.

As far as to the sepulchre of Christ, K. Lien. So shaken as we are, so wan with care,

(Whose soldier now, under whose blessed cross Find me a time for frighted peace to pant,

We are impressed and engag'd to fight,) And breathe short-winded accents of new broils

Forthwith a power of English shall we levy; To be commenc'd in strondsafar remote.

Whose arms were moulded in their mothers' wonib No more the thirsty entrance of this soil

To chase these pagans, in those holy fields, Shall daub her lips with her own children's blood;

Over whose acres walk'd those blessed feet, No more shall trenching war channel her fields,

Which, fourteen hundred years ago, were nail'd, Nar bruise her flowrets with the armed hoofs

For our advantage, on the bitter cross. Of hostile paces: those opposed eyes,

But this our purpose is a twelvemonth old,

And bootless 't is to tell you—we will go ;
Which, like the meteors of a troubled heaven,
All of one nature, of one substance bred,

Therefore we meet not now :"_Then let me hear Did lately meet in the intestine shock

Of you, my gentle cousin Westmoreland, And furious close of civil butchery,

What yesternight our council did decree, Shall now, in mutual well-beseeming ranks,

In forwarding this dear expedience. March all one way; and be no more oppos'd

West. My liege, this haste was hot in question, Against acquaintance, kindred, and allies :

And many limits b of the charge set down

But yesternight : when, all athwart, there came • Strends-strands, shores.

A post from Wales, loaden with heavy news; Extrance. In the variorum editions of Shakspere we have whose worst was,--that the noble Mortimer, the following correction of the text :

Leading the men of Herefordshire to fight “No more the thirsty Erinnys of this soil."

Against the irregular and wild Glendower, The original text is somewhat obscure, but the obscurity is Was by the rude hands of that Welshman taken, perfectly in the manner of Shakspere, and in great part arises imm the boldness of the metaphor. Entrance is put for muruth; a Therefore we meet not now. We do not meet now on that and if we were to read, "No more the thirsty mouth of this account. earth shall daab her lips with the blood of her own children,". b Limits. To limit is to define; and therefore the limits of e should ind little difficulty,

the charge may be the calculations, the estimates,

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