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We have no edition of the Winter's Tale' prior to cent; and the king shall live without an heir, is that that of the folio of 1623; nor was it entered upon the which is lost be not found.” On their return, upon an registers of the Stationers' Company previous to the appointed day, the queen was “brought in before the entry by the proprietors of the folio. The original judgment-seat.” Shakspere has followed a part of the text, which is divided into acts and scenes, is remark- tragical ending of this scene; but he preserves his in. ably correct.
jured Hermione, to be re-united to her daughter after The novel of Robert Greene, called • Pandosto,' and years of solitude and suffering. • The History of Dorastus and Fawnia,' which Shak- The story of the preservation of the deserted infant is spere undoubtedly followed, with very few important prettily told in the novel. The infant is taken to the deviations, in the construction of the plot of his “Win- shepherd's home, and is brought up by his wife and ter's Tale,' was a work of extraordinary popularity, there himself under the name of Fawnia. In a narrative the veing fourteeu editions known to exist.
lapse of sixteen years may occur without any violation " In the country of Bohemia," says the novel, “ there of propriety. The changes are gradual. But in a drama, reigned a king called Pandosto." The Leontes of whose action depends upon a manifest lapse of time, Shakspere is the Pandosto of Greene. · The Polixenes there must be a sudden transition. Shakspere is perof the play is Egistus in the novel :-“ It so happened fectly aware of the difficulty; and he diminishes it by that Egistus, King of Sicilia, who in his youth had the introduction of Time as a Chorus :been brought up with Pandosto, desirous to show that
“Impute it not a crime neither tract of time nor distance of place could dimi
To me, or my swift passage, that I slide nish their former friendship, provided a navy of ships
O'er sixteen years, and leave the growth untried
of that wide gap; since it is in my power and sailed into Bohemia to visit his old friend and To o’erthrow law, and in one self-born loup companion." Here, then, we have the scene of the To plant and o'erwhelm custom." action reversed. The jealous king is of Bohemia,– Shakspere has exhibited his consummate art in openhis injured friend of Sicilia. But the visiter sails into ing the fourth act with Polixenes and Camillo, of whom Bohemia. The most accomplished scholars of Shak- we have lost sight since the end of the first. Had it been spere's period purposely committed such apparent vio- otherwise,—had he brought Autolycus, avd Florizel, lations of propriety, when dealing with the legendary and Perdita, at once upon the scene,--the continuity of and romantic. The wife of Pandosto is Bellaria; and action would have been destroyed; and the commencethey have a young son called Garinter. Pandosto be- ment of the fourth act would have appeared as the comes jealous, slowly, and by degrees; and there is at commencement of a new play. Shakspere made the least some want of caution in the queen to justify it. difficulties of his plot bend to his art; instead of wantThe great anthor of “Othello' would not deal with ing art, as Ben Jonson says. Autolycus and the Clown jealousy after this fashion. He had already produced prepare us for Perdita ; and when the third scene opelis, that immortal portrait
what a beautiful vision lights upon this earth! There “Of one, not easily jealous, but, being wrought, perhaps never was such a union of perfect simplicity Perplex'd in the extreme."
and perfect grace as in the character of Perdita. What He had now to exhibit the distractions of a mind to an exquisite idea of her mere personal appearanıce is which jealousy was native; to depict the terrible access presented in Florizel's rapturous exclamation, of passion, uprooting in a moment all deliberation, all
" When you do dance, I wish you renson, all gentleness. The instant the idea enters the A wave o the sea, that you might ever do mind of Leontes the passion is at its height.
Nothing but that!" The action of the novel and that of the drama con- In the novel we have no trace of the interruption by tinue in a pretty equal course. Pandosto tampers with the father of the princely lover in the disguise of a guest ais cupbearer, Franion, to poison Egistus ; and the cup at the shepherd's cottage. Dorastus and Fawnia flee bearer, terrified at the fearful commission, reveals the from the country without the knowledge of the king. design to the object of his master's hatred. Eventually The ship in which they embark is thrown by a storm they escape together. Bellaria is committed to prison, upon the coast of Bohemia. Messengers are despatchel where she gives birth to a daughter. The guard“ car- in search of the lovers ; and they arrive in Bohemia ried the child to the king, who, quite devoid of pity, with the request of Egistus that the companions in the commanded that without delay it should be put in the flight of Dorastus shall be put to death. The secret of boat, having neither sail nor rudder to guide it, and so Fawnia's birth is discovered by the shepherd; and her to be carried into the midst of the sea, and there left to father recoguises her. But the previous circumstances the wind and wave as the destinies please to appoint." exhibit as much grossness of conception on the part of the The queen appeals to the oracle of Apollo; and certain novelist, as the different management of the catastrophe Jords are sent to Delphos, where they receive this de- shows the matchless skill and taste of the dramatist. cree :-“Suspicion is no proof : jealousy is an unequal We forgive Leontes for his early folly and wickechiess ; judge: Bellaria is chaste; Egistus blameless : Franion for during sixteen years has his remorse been bitter am a true subject ; Pandosto treacherous : his babe inno- his affection constant.
LBONTES, King of Sicilia.
Act V. sc. 1; sc. 3.
CAMILLO, a Sicilian lord.
ANTIGONUS, a Sicilian lord.
CLEOMENES, a Sicilian lord.
Dion, a Sicilian lord.
A Sicilian Lord.
Appears, Act V. sc. I.
Appears, Act II. sc. 3.
Appear, Act III. sc. 2.
POLIXENES, King of Bohemia.
FLORIZEL, son to Polixenes.
Appears, Act I. sc. 1.
Appears, Act II. sc. 2.
Clown, son to the old Shepherd.
AUTOLYCUS, a rogue.
Time, as Chorus.
Appears, Act IV.
HERMIONE, Queen to Leontes.
PAULINA, wife to Antigonus.
Act V. sc. 3.
Appears, Act II. sc. 2.
Appear, Act II. sc. 1.
Appears, Act IV. sc. 3.
Appears, Act IV. sc. 3.
Shepherd, Shepherdesses, Guards, &c.
SCENE,_SOMETIMES IN SICILIA ; SOMETIMES IN BOHEMIA.
SCENE I.- Sicilia. An Antechamber in Leontes' of their society, their encounters, though not personal, Palace.
have been royally attorneyed, with interchange of gifts, Enter CAMILLO and ARCHIDAMUS.
letters, loving embassies; that they have seemed to be Arch. If you shall chance, Camillo, to visit Bohe- together, though absent ; shook hands, as over a vast;a mia, on the like occasion whereon my services are now
and embraced, as it were, from the ends of opposed se foot, you shall see, as I have said, great difference winds. The Heavens continue their loves! betwixt our Bohemia and your Sicilia.
Arch. I think there is not in the world either malice Cam. I think, this coming summer, the king of Sicilia fort of your young prince Mamillius ; it is a gentleman
or matter to alter it. You have an unspeakable commeans to pay Bohemia the visitation which he justly of the greatest promise that ever came into my note. we him. Arch. Wherein our entertainment shall shame us we him: It is a gallant child; one that, indeed, physics
Cam. I very well agree with you in the hopes of will be justified in our loves : for, indeed, Cam. 'Beseech you,
the subject, makes old hearts fresh; they that went on Arch. Verily, I speak it in the freedom of my know- crutches ere he was born, desire yet their life to see him Ledge: we cannot with such magnificence-in so rareI know not what to say.-We will give you sleepy
Arch. Would they else be content to die ! drinks, that your senses, unintelligent of our insuffi
Cam. Yes; if there were no other excuse why they cience , may, though they cannot praise us, as little should desire to live.
Arch. If the king had no son they would desire to
[Exeunt. Cam. You pay a great deal too dear for what's given live on crutches till he had one.
SCENE II.-The same. A Room of State in the Arch. Believe me, I speak as my understanding in
Palace. structs me, and as mine honesty puts it to utterance.
Cam. Sicilia cannot show himself over-kind to Bo- Enter LEONTES, POLIXENES, HERMIONE, MAMILLIUS, bemis. They were trained together in their childhoods;
CAMILLO, and Attendants. and there rooted betwixt them then such an affection Pol. Nine changes of the wat'ry star have been which cannot choose but branch now. Since their more The shepherd's note, since we have left our throne nature dignities, and royal necessities, made separation Vust probably has the meaning of great space.
\Vithout a burthen : time as long again
Which is for me less easy to commit,
Not your gaoler then,
Of my lord's tricks, and yours, when you were boys;
go before it.
We were, fair queen, Leon. Stay your thanks awhile;
Two lads, that thought there was no more behind And pay them when you part.
But such a day to-morrow as to-day, Pol.
Sir, that 's to-morrow. And to be boy eternal. I am question d by my fears, of what may chance, Her. Was not my lord the verier wag o' the two? Or breed upon our absence: That may blow
Pol. We were as twinn`d lambs, that did frisk i' the No sneaping winds at home, to make us say,
sun, “This is put forth too truly !"a Besides, I have stay'd And bleat the one at the other: What we chang'd To tire your royalty.
Was innocence for innocence; we knew not
The doctrine of ill-doing, nor dream'd
That any did : Had we pursued that life,
And our weak spirits ne'er been higher rear'd
With stronger blood, we should have answer'd Heavca Pol.
Very sooth, to-morrow. Boldly, “Not guilty;" the imposition clear'd,
Her. By this we gather,
Press me not, 'beseech you, so; You have tripp'd since. There is no tongue that moves, none, none i' the world, Pol.
O my most sacred larly, So soon as yours, could win me: so it should now, Temptations have since then been born to us : for Were there necessity in your request, although
In those unfledg'd days was my wife a girl ; 'T were needful I denied it. My affairs
Your precious self had then not cross'd the eyes Do even drag me homeward: which to hinder
Of my young playfellow. Were, in your love, a whip to me; my stay,
Grace to boot! To you a charge and trouble: to save both,
Of this make no conclusion; lest you say Farewell, our brother.
Your queen and I are devils : Yet, go on; Leon.
Tongue-tied, our queen ? speak you. The offences we have made you do we 'll answer ; Her. I had thought, sir, to have held my peace, until If you first sinn'd with us, and that with us You had drawn oaths from him, not to stay. You, sir, You did continue fault, and that you slipp'd not Charge him too coldly : Tell him, you are sure With any but with us. All in Bohemia 's well : this satisfaction
Is he won yet? The by-gone day proclaim'd; say this to him,
Her. He 'll stay, my lord. He's beat from his best ward.
At my request, he would not Leon.
Well said, Hermione. Hermione, my dearest, thou never spok'st Her. To tell he longs to see his son, were strong:
To better purpose. But let him say so then, and let him go;
Never ? But let him swear so, and he shall not stay,
Never, but once. We 'll thwack him hence with distaffs.
Her. What? have I twice said well? when was 't Yet of your royal presence [to Polix.] I'll adventure
before The borrow of a week. When at Bohemia
I prithee, tell me: Cram us with praise, and make us You take my lord, I 'll give him my commission, As fat as tame things : One good deed dying tongueless To let b him there a month, behind the gestc
Slaughters a thousand, waiting upon that. Prefix'd for 's parting: yet, good deed," Leontes, Our praises are our wages : You may ride us, I love thee not a jar o' the clock behind
With one soft kiss, a thousand furlongs, ere What lady she ber lord.—You 'll stay?
With spur we heat an acre. But to the goal;Pol.
No, madam. My last good deed was to entreat his stay;
What was my first ? it has an elder sister,
Or I mistake you : 0, would her name were Grace! Her. Verily!
But once before I spoke to the purpose : When? You put me off with limber vows: But I,
Nay, let me have 't; I long. Though you would seek to unsphere the stars with oaths, Leon.
Why, that was when Should yet say, “Sir, no going.” Verily,
Three crabbed months had sour'd themselves to death, You shall not go; a lady's verily is
Ere I could make thee open thy white hand, As potent as a lord's. Will you go yet?
And clap thyself my love; then didst thou utter, Force me to keep you as a prisoner,
" I am yours for ever." Not like a guest; so you shall pay your fees,
It is Grace, indeed.-
The other, for some while a friend.
[Giving her hard to Pol: To be your prisoner should import offending;
Too hot, too hot: [Aside * The construction of this passage is somewhat involved: but To mingle friendship far, is mingling bloods. The meaning is, o that no sneaping (ruflling) winds at home I have tremor cordis on me :-my heart dances; gay blow, to make us say my presages were too true. To let is to hinder; and it is probably here used as a
But not for joy,—not joy.—This entertainment reflective verb-to stay himself.
May a free face put on; derive a liberty • Gest is literally a lodging, and the houses or towns where From heartiness, from bounty, fertile bosom, i prince had assigned to stop in his progress, aud of which a And well become the agent: it may, I grant: list was prepared with dates, were so called. & Good deed--indeed.
But to be paddling palms, and pinching fingers, • Jar o'the clock-the ticking of the pendulum.
As now they are; and making practis'd smiles.
As id a looking-glass ;—and then to sigh, as 't were Are you so fund of your young prince, as we
If at home, sir, Art thou my boy?
He's all my exercise, my mirth, my matter : Man. Ay, my good lord.
Now my sworn friend, and then mine enemy; Leon.
My parasite, my soldier, statesman, all: Why, that's my bawcock. What, hast smutch'd thy He makes a July’s day short as December; nose
And, with his varying childness, cures in me
So stands this squire And yet the steer, the heifer, and the calf,
Offic'd with me: We two will walk, my lord, Are all call'd neat.-Still virginalling
And leave you to your graver steps.--Hermione, [Observing Pol. and Her. How thou lov’st us, show in our brother's welcome; Upon his palm ?--How now, you wanton calf? Let what is dear in Sicily be cheap : Art thou my calf?
Next to thyself, and my young rover,
he 's Mam.
Yes, if you will, my lord, Apparent to my heart." Leon. Thou want'st a rough pash,' and the shoots Her.
If you would seek us, that I have,
We are yours i' the garden : Shall 's attend you there? To be full like me:_yet, they say we are
Leon. To your own benits dispose you : you 'll be Almost as like as eggs; women say so,
found, That will say anything: But were they false
Be you beneath the sky :-I am angling now, As o'er-died blacks, as wind, as waters; false
Though you perceive me not how I give line. As dice are to be wish d, by one that fixes
Go to, go to! [Aside. Observing Pol. and HERM. No bourn 'twixt his and mine; yet were it true How she holds up the neb, the bill to him! To say this boy were like me.-Come, sir page, And arms her with the boldness of a wife Look on me with your welkin eye:' Sweet villain! To her allowing husband ! Gone already ; Most dear'st! my collop-Can thy dam?—may 't be? Inch-thick, knee-deep, o'er head and ears a fork'd one. Affection! thy intentior & stabs the centre :
[Exeunt Po..., Herm., and Attendants. Thon dost make possible things not so held,
Go, play, boy, play ;-thy mother plays, and I Communicat'st with dreams ;-(How can this be ?) Play too; but so disgrac'd a part, whose issue With what 's unreal thou coactive art,
Will hiss me to my grave; contempt and clamour And fellow'st nothing: Then, 't is very credent, Will be my knell.-Go, play, boy, play ;-There have Thou mayst co-join with something; and thou dost;
been, (And that beyond commission; and I find it,) Or I am much deceiv'd, cuckolds ere now; And that to the infection of my brains,
And many a man there is, even at this present, And hardening of my brows.
Now, while I speak this, holds his wife by the arm, Pol.
What means Sicilia? That little thinks she has been sluic'd in his absence, Her. He something seems unsettled.
And his pond fish'd by his next neighbour, by Pol.
How! my lor:d! Sir Smile, his neighbour : nay, there 's comfort in 't, Leon. What cheer? how is 't with you, best brother? Whiles other men have gates, and those gates open'd, Her.
You look As mine, against their will: Should all despair As if you held a brow of much distraction :
That have revolted wives, the tenth of mankind Are you mov'd, my lord ?
Would hang themselves. Physic for 't there's none; Leon
No, in good earnest.—. It is a bawdy planet, that will strike How sometimes nature will betray its folly,
Where 't is predominant; and 't is powerful, think it, Its tenderness, and make itself a pastime
From east, west, north, and south: Be it concluded, To harder bosoms! Looking on the lines
No barricado for a belly; know it; Of my boy's face, my thoughts I did recoil
It will let in and out the enemy, Twenty-three years; and saw myself unbreeclid, With bag and baggage: many thousand of us In my green velvet coat; my dagger muzzled, Have the disease, and feel 't not.-How now, boy? Lest it should bite its master, and so prove,
Mam. I am like you, they say. As ornaments oft do, too dangerous.
Why, that 's some comfort. How like, methought, I then was to this kernel, What! Camillo, there? This quash, this gentleman :-Mine honest friend, Cam. Ay, my good lord. Will you take eggs for money ?1
Leon. Go play, Mamillius ; thou 'rt an honest man.Mem. No, my lord, I 'll fight.
[Exit MaMiLLIUS. Leon. You will ? why, happy man be his dole! Camillo, this great sir will yet stay longer. my brother,
Cam. You had much ado to make his anchor hold :
When you cast out, it still came home. • Tko mart of the deer-the prolonged note of the hunter's Leon.
Didst note it? bers at the death of the deer. Virginelling-playing with the fingers, as on a virginal-a His business more material.
Cam. He would not stay at your petitions; made rectangular spinet. • Pesh. la the midland counties the tuft of hair between the
Didst perceive it? hares of a bull is called the pash. The correct application of They 're here with me already; whispering, rounding, the local word is evident when we observe that Leontes has
“Sicilia is a-so-forth :" 'T is far gone, just said, "Ar thou my colf p' • Full üks me-quite like me.
When I shall gust it last.-How came't, Camillo? • O'er-died blacks-cloths died black a second time, or That he did stay? elobs originally of another colour died black; and so, false, Cam.
At the good queen's entreaty. because impaired in quality. ! Welkin eye-blue eye.
Leon. At the queen's, be 't : good, should be pertinent: Affection is imagination; intention, eagerness of attention. But so it is, it is not. Was this taken Credent-credible.
By any understanding pate but thine ? A proverbial expression; meaning, will you submit to injustice :-will you truckle?
For thy conceit is soaking, will draw in A proverbial expression ; meaning, may his lot (dole) be
Apparent to my heart-next to my heart. happy