« ПредишнаНапред »
cause of displeasure, in that they have brought into their place as the great defect of the English theatre. Nor plays matters of state and religion, unfit to be handled does he assert his preference of the classic school over by them or to be presented before lewd spectators: nei- the romantic, by objecting, as Sir Philip Sidney objects, ther hath any complaint in that kind ever been preferred that “plays be neither right tragedies nor right comeagainst them or any of them. Wherefore they trust most dies, mingling kings and clowns." There had been, humbly in your Lordships' consideration of their former according to Spenser, a state of the drama that would good behaviour, being at all times ready and willing to
“Fill with pleasure yield obedience to any command whatsoever your Lord- The listeners' eyes, and ears with melody." ships in your wisdom may think in such case meet," &c. Can any comedy be named, if we assume that Shak“Nov, 1589."
spere had, in 1590, not written any, which could be In this petition, Shakspere, a sharer in the theatre, but celebrated-and by the exquisite versifier of The with others below him in the list, says, and they all say, Fairy Queen'--for its “ melody"? Could any also be that “they have never brought into their plays matters praised for of state and religion.” The public mind in 1589-90
" That goodly glee was furiously agitated by “matters of state and reli
Which wont to be the glory of gay wits"? gion.” A controversy was going on which is now known Could the plays before Shakspere be described by the as that of Martin Marprelate, in which the constitution most competent of judges—the most poetical mind of and discipline of the church were most furiously that age next to Shakspere-as abounding in attacked in a succession of pamphlets; and they were " Fine Counterfesance, and unhurtful Sport, defended with equal violence and scurrility. The Delight, and Laughter, deck'd in seemly surt"? theatres took part in the controversy, as we learn from We have not seen such a comedy, except some three or a tract by Gabriel Harvey.
four of Shakspere's, which could have existed before Shakspere's great contemporary, Edmund Spenser, 1590. We do not believe there is such a comedy from in a poem entitled “The Tears of the Muses,' originally
What, according to the Complaint' published in 1591, describes, in the Complaint' of of Thalia, has banished such comedy ? “Unseemly Thalia, the Muse of Comedy, the state of the drama at Sorrow,” it appears, has been fashionable ;-not the the time in which he is writing :
proprieties of tragedy, but a Sorrow “Where be the sweet delights of learning's treasure,
"With hollow brows and griesly countenance;"That wont with comic sock to beautify
the violent scenes of blood which were offered for the The painted theatres, and fill with pleasure The listeners' eyes, and ears with melody;
excitement of the multitude, before the tragedy of real In which I late was wont to reign as queeu,
art was devised. But this state of the drama is shortly And mask in mirth with graces well beseen?
passed over. There is something more defined. By 0! all is gone; and all that goodly ylee,
the side of this false tragic sit “ugly Barbarism and Which wont to be the glory of gay wit,
brutish Ignorance." These are not the barbarism and Is laid a-bed, and nowhere now to see ;
ignorance of the old stage ;-they are And in her room unseemly Sorrow sits, With hollow brows and griesly countenance,
"Ycrept of late Marring my joyous gentle dalliance.
Out of dread darkness of the deep abysm." And him beside sits ugly Barbaristi,
They now tyrannize;" they now “disguise" the fair And brutish Ignorance, ycrept of late
scene “ with rudeness." The Muse of Tragedy, MelOut of dread darkness of the deep abysm, Where being bred, he light and heaven does hate;
pomene, had previously described the “rueful specThey in the minds of men now tyrannize,
tacles” of “the stage." It was a stage which had no And the fair scene with rudeness foul disguise.
“true tragedy." But it had possessed All places they with folly have possess'd,
“Delight, and Laughter, deck'd in seemly sort.” And with vain toys the vulgar entertain ; But me have banished, with all the rest
The four stanzas which we have quoted are imme. That whilom wont to wait upon my train,
diately followed by these four others :--Fine Counterfesance, and unhurtful Sport,
"All these, and ail that else the comic stage Delight, and Laughter, deck'd in seemly sort."
With season'd wit and goodly pleasure graced, Spenser was in England in 1590-91, and it is probable
By which man's life in his likest image
Was limned forth, are wholly now defaced ; that “The Tears of the Muses' was written in 1590.
And those sweet wits, which wont the like to fram?, The four stanzas which we have quoted are descriptive, Are now despis'd, and made a laughing game. as we think, of a period of the drama when it had
And he, the man whom Nature self has made emerged from the semi-barbarism by which it was cha- To mock herself, and Truth to imitate racterized, “from the commencement of Shakspere's With kindly counter, under mimic shade boyhood, till about the earliest date at which his Our pleasant Willy, ah! is dead of late
This removal to London can be possibly fixed."*
With whom all joy and jolly merriment
Is also deaded, and in dolour drent. description has nothing in common with those accounts
Instead thereof scoffing Scurrility, of the drama which have reference to this “semi-bar
And scornful Folly, with Contempt, is crepl, barism." Nor does the writer of it belong to the school Rolling in rhymes of shameless ribaldry, which considered a violation of the unities of time and
Without regard or due decorum kept ;
Each idle wit at will presumes to make, * Edinburgh Review,' vol Ixxi., p. 469.
And doth the Learned's task upon him tako.
Bat that same gentle spirit, from whose pen
of his school had not arisen. Jonson had not appeared Large streams of honey and sweet nectar flow,
to found a school of a different character. It was for Scorning the boldness of such base-born men, Which dare their follies forth so rashly throw,
him, thenceforth, to sway the popular mind after his Doth rather choose to sit in idle cell
own fashion ; to disregard the obligation which the Than so himself to mockery to sell."
rivalry of high talent might have imposed upon hire The love of personal abuse had driven out real comedy; of listening to other suggestions than those of his own and there was one who, for a brief season, had left the lofty art ; to make the multitude bow before that art, madness to take its course. We cannot doubt that rather than that it should accommodate itself to their “ He, the man whom Nature self had made
habits and prejudices. But at a period when the exerTo mock herself, and Truth to imitate,"
cise of the poetical power in connexion with the stage was William Shakspere.
was scarcely held amongst the learned and the polite England was sorely visited by the plague in 1592 in itself to be poetry, Sbakspere vindicated his repuand 1593. The theatres were shut; there were no per- tation by the publication of the 'Venus and Adonis formances at Court. Shakspere, we may believe, during It was, he says, “ the first heir of my invention." the long period of the continuance of the plague in There may be a doubt whether Shakspere meant to say London, had no occupation at the Blackfriars Theatre; literally that this was the first poetical work that he had and the pastimes of the Lord Chamberlain's servants produced ; or whether he held, in deference to some were dispensed with at the palaces. It is probable that critical opinions, that his dramatic productions could he was residing at his own Stratford. The leisure, we not be classed amongst the heirs of “ invention." We think, afforded him opportunity of preparing the most think that he meant to use the words literally; and important of that wonderful series of historical dramas that he used them at a period when he might assume, which unquestionably appeared within a few years of without vanity, that he had taken his rank amongst the this period; and of producing some other dramatic poets of his time. He dedicates to the Earl of Southcompositions of the bighest order of poetical excellence. ampton something that had not before been given te It appears to us, looking at the printed labours of the world. He calls his verses “ unpolished lines ;" Shakspere at this exact period, that there was some he vows to take advantage of all idle hours till he had pause in his professional occupation; and that many honoured the young patron of the Muses with “ some months' residence in Stratford, from the autumn of graver labour.” But invention was received ther, as 1592 to the summer of 1593, enabled him more sys- it was afterwards, as the highest quality of the poei. tematically to cultivate those higher faculties which Dryden says,—“A poet is a maker, as the word signiplaced him, even in the opinion of his contemporaries, fies; and he who cannot make, that is invent, hath his at the head of the living poets of England.
name for nothing." We consider, therefore, that "my It is easy to believe that if any external impulse were invention" is not the language of one unknown to fame. wanting to stimulate the poetical ambition of Shak- He was exhibiting the powers which he possessed upon spere—to make him aspire to some higher character a different instrument than that to which the world was than that of the most popular of dramatists—such might accustomed; but the world knew that the power es. be found in 1593 in the clear field which was left for isted. We employ the word genius always with re. the exercise of his peculiar powers. Robert Greene had ference to the inventive or creative faculty. Substitute died on the 3rd of September, 1592, leaving behind the word genius for invention, and the expression used him a sneer at the actor who aspired "to bombast out by Shakspere sounds like arrogance. But the substia blank verse." Had his genius not been destroyed by tution may indicate that the actual expression could the wear and tear, and the corrupting influences, of a not have been useů by one who came forward for the profligate life, he never could have competed with the first time to claim the honours of the poet. It has been mature Shakspere. But as we know that "the only argued from this expression that Shakspere had proShake-scene in a country," at whom the unhappy man duced nothing original before the 'Venus and Adonis presumed to scoff, felt the insult somewhat deeply, so —that up to the period of its publication, in 1593, he we may presume he took the most effectual means to was only a repairer of the works of other men. We prove to the world that he was not, according to the hold that the expression implies the direct contrary. malignant insinuation of his envious com peer, We have a distinct record when the theatres were upstart crow beautified with our feathers.” We believe re-opened after the plague. The · Diary of Philip that in the gentleness of his nature, when he introduced Henslowe records that “the Earl of Sussex his men" into 'A Midsummer Night's Dream'
acted · Huon of Bordeaux' on the 28th of December, “ The thrice three Muses mourning for the death 1593. Henslowe appears to have had an interest in Of learning late deceas'd in beggary,"
this company. It is probable that Shakspere's theatre he dropped a tear upon the grave of Greene, whose de- of the Blackfriars was opened about the same period. merits were to be forgiven in his misery. On the 1st of We have some evidence to show what was the duration June, 1593, Christopher Marlowe perished in a wretched of the winter season at this theatre; for the same diary brawl, “slain by Francis Archer," as the Register of shows that from June, 1594, the performances of the Burials of the parish of St. Nicholas, Deptford, informs theatre at Newington Butts were a joint undertaking by us. Who was left of the dramatists that could enter the Lord Admiral's men and the Lord Chamberlain's into competition with William Shakspere, such as he men. How long this association of two companies then was ? He was almost alone. The great disciples lasted is not easy to determine; but during the month
of June we have entries of the exhibition of "Andro- | Words' to the Earl in 1598, shows pretty correctly nicus,' of Hamlet,' and of “The Taming of a Shrew.' what the race of panegyrists expected in return for No subsequent entries exhibit the names of plays which their compliments : “ In truth, I acknowledge an entire have any real or apparent connexion with Shakspere. debt, not only of my best knowledge, but of all; yea It appears that in December, 1593, Richard Burbage of more than I know, or can, to your bounteous lordentered into a bond with Peter Streete, a carpenter, for ship, in whose pay and patronage I have lived some the performance on the part of Burbage of the cove-years ; to whom I owe and vow the years I have to nants contained in an indenture of agreement by live. But, as to me, and many more, the glorious and which Streete undertook to erect a new theatre for gracious sunshine of your honour hath infused light and Burbage's company. This was the famous Globe on life." There is an extraordinary anecdote told by the Bankside, of which Shakspere was unquestionably Rowe of Lord Southampton's munificence to Sbakspere, a proprietor. We thus see that in 1594 there were new which seems to bring the poet somewhat near to Florio’s demands to be made upon his invention ; and we may plain-speaking association of pay and patronage :reasonably conclude that the reliance of Burbage and “What grace soever the Queen conferred upon him, it his other fellows upon their poet's unequalled powers was not to her only he owed the fortune which the rewas one of their principal inducements to engage in this putation of his wit made. He had the honour to meet new enterprise.
with many great and uncommon marks of favour and In the midst of his professional engagements, which friendship from the Earl of Southampton, famous in doubtless were renewed with increased activity after the histories of that time for his friendship to the untheir long suspension, Shakspere published his · Rape of fortunate Earl of Essex. It was to that noble lord that Lucrece.' He bad vowed to take advantage of all he dedicated his poem of Venus and Adonis.' There is idle hours till he had honoured Lord Southampton one instance so singular in the magnificence of this patron with some graver labour than the first heir of his inven- of Shakspeare's, that if I had not been assured that the tion. The Venus and Adonis' was entered in the story was handed down by Sir William D'Avenant, who Registers of the Stationers' Company on the 18th of was probably very well acquainted with his affairs, I April, 1593. The 'Lucrece' appears in the same Re- should not have ventured to have inserted; that my gisters on the 9th of May, 1594. That this elaborate Lord Southampton at one time gave him a thousand poem was wholly or in part composed in that interval pounds, to enable him to go through with a purchase of leisure which resulted from the shutting of the which he heard he had a mind to. A bounty very theatres in 1593 may be reasonably conjectured ; but great, and very rare at any time, and almost equal to it is evident that during the year which had elapsed that profuse generosity the present age has shown to between the publication of the first and the second French dancers and Italian singers." This is one of poem, Shakspere had been brought into more intimate the many instances in which we are not warranted in companionship with his noble patron. The language rejecting a tradition, however we may look suspiciously of the first dedication is that of distant respect
, the upon the accuracy of its details. D'Avenant could second is that of grateful friendship. At the period scarcely be very well acquainted with Shakspere's when Shakspere dedicated to him his “Venus and affairs, for he was only ten years old when Shakspere Adonis' Lord Southampton was scarcely twenty years died. The sum mentioned as the gift of the young of age. He is supposed to have become intimate with nobleman to the poet is so large, looking at the value Shakspere from the circumstance that his mother had of money in those days, that it could scarcely consist married Sir Thomas Heneage, who filled the office of with the independence of a generous spirit to bear the Treasurer of the Chamber, and in the discharge of his load of such a prodigality of bounty. The notions of official duties would be brought into frequent inter- those days were, however, different from ours. Excourse with the Lord Chamberlain's players. This is amples will readily suggest themselves of the most Drake's theory. The more natural belief appears to be lavish rewards bestowed by princes and nobles upon that he had a strong attachment to literature, and, with great painters. They received such gifts without any the generous impetuosity of his character, did not re- compromise of their intellectual dignity. It was the gard the distinctions of rank to the extent with which same then with poets. According to the habits of the they were regarded by men of colder temperaments time Shakspere might have received a large gift from and more worldly minds. Shakspere appears to have Lord Southampton, without any forfeiture of his selfbeen the first amongst the writers of his day that offered respect. Nevertheless, Rowe's story must still appear a public tribute to the merits of the young nobleman. sufficiently apocryphal: “ My Lord Southampton at Both the dedications, and especially that of . Lucrece,' one time gave him a thousand pounds, to enable him to are conceived in a modest and a manly spirit, entirely go through with a purchase which he heard he had a different from the ordinary language of literary adula- mind to.” It is not necessary to account for the gradual tion. There is evidence in the second dedication of a acquisition of property by Shakspere that we should higher sort of intercourse between the two minds than yield our assent to this tradition, without some qualificonsists with any forced adulation of any kind, and cation. In 1589, when Lord Southampton was a lad especially with any extravagant compliments to the at College, Shakspere had already acquired that pro learning and to tne abilities of a superior in rank. perty which was to be the foundation of his future for Such testimonies are always suspicious ; and probably tune. He was then a shareholder in the Blackfriars honest old Florio, when he dedicated his World of Theatre. That the adventure was a prosperous one, not
only to himself but to his brother shareholders
, may be bably was little agreeable to him. His powers as a inferred from the fact that four years afterwards they dramatic writer might be profitably exercised without began the building of another theatre. The Globe was being associated with the actor's vocation. We know commenced in December, 1593; and being constructed from other circumstances that at this period Stratford for the most part of wood, was ready to be opened, we was nearest to his heart. On the 24th of January, should imagine, in the summer of 1594. In 1596 the 1598, Mr. Abraham Sturley, an alderman of Stratford, same prosperous company were prepared to expend con- writes to his brother-in-law, Richard Quiney, then in siderable sums upon the repair and extension of their London :-“I would write nothing unto you nororiginal theatre, the Blackfriars. The name of Shak- but come home. I pray God send you comfortably spere occupies a prominent position in the document home. This is one special remembrance, from your from which we collect this fact: it is a petition to the father's motion. It seemeth by him that our country. Lords of the Privy Council from “ Thomas Pope, man Mr. Shakspere is willing to disburse some money Richard Burbadge, John Hemings, Augustine Philips, upon some odd yard land or other at Shottery, or near William Shakespeare, William Kempe, William Slye, about us. He thinketh it a very fit pattern to more Nicholas Tooley, and others, servants to the Right him to deal in the matter of our tithes. By the Honorable the Lord Chamberlain to her Majesty;" and instructions you can give him thereof, and by the it sets forth that they are “ the owners and players of friends he can make therefore, we think it a fair mark the private theatre in the Blackfriars; that it bath for him to shoot at, and not impossible to hit. It fallen into decay; and that it has been found necessary obtained, would advance him indeed, and would do to make the same more convenient for the entertainment us much good." We thus see that in a year after of auditories coming thereto." It then states what is the purchase of New Place, Shakspere's accumulation important to the present question :-“ To this end your of money was going on. The worthy alderman and petitioners have all and each of them put down sums his connexions appear to look confidently to their coun. of money according to their shares in the said theatre, tryman, Mr. Shakspere, to assist them in their needs. and which they have justly and honestly gained by the On the 4th of November, in the same year, Sturley exercise of their quality of stage-players." It then again writes a very long letter “to his most loving alleges that certain inhabitants of the precinct had be- brother Mr. Richard Quiney, at the Bell, in Carter sought the Council not to allow the said private house Lane, in London," in which he says of a letter written to remain open,
“ but hereafter to be shut up and by Quiney to him on the 21st of October, that it imclosed, to the manifest and great injury of your peti- ported, amongst other matters, “ that our countryman tioners, who have no other means whereby to maintain Mr. W. Shakspere would procure us money, which I their wives and families, but by the exercise of their well like of, as I shall hear when, and where, and bow; quality as they have heretofore done.” The common and I pray let not go that occasion, if it may surt to any proprietorship of the company in the Globe and Black- indifferent conditions." Quiney himself at this very friars is also noticed :-“ In the summer season your time writes the following characteristic letter to his petitioners are able to play at their new-built house on loving good friend and countryman, Mr. William the Bankside, called the Globe, but in the winter they Shakspere:"-"Loving countryman, I am bold of you are compelled to come to the Blackfriars.” If the as of a friend, craving your help with thirty pounds winter theatre be shut up, they say they will be upon Mr. Bushell and my security, or Mr. Myttens “ unable to practise themselves in any plays or inter- with me. Mr. Rosswell is not come to London as yes, ludes when called upon to perform for the recreation and I have especial cause. You shall friend me much and solace of her Majesty and her honourable Court, as in helping me out of all the debts I owe in London, I they have been heretofore accustomed." Though the thank God, and much quiet to my mind which would Registers of the Council and the Office-books of the not be indebted. I am now towards the Court in hope Treasurer of the Chamber are wanting for this exact your answer for the dispatch of my business. Yea period, we have here the distinct evidence of the inti- shafi neither lose credit nor money by me, the Lord mate relation between Shakspere's company and the willing; and now but persuade yourself so as I hope Court. The petitioners, in concluding by the prayer and you shall not need to fear but with all hearts that their “ honourable Lordships will grant permission thankfulness I will hold my time, and content your to finish the reparations and alterations they have friend, and if we bargain farther, you shall be the par. begun," add as a reason for this favour that they “have master yourself. My time bids me to hasten to an nitherto been well urdered in their behaviour and just end, and so I commit this to your care and hope of in their dealings." The performances at the Black- your help. I fear I shall not be back this night friars went on without interruption. Shakspere, in from the Court. Haste. The Lord be with you 1597, bought“ all that capital messuage or tenement and with us all. Amen. From the Bell in Carter in Stratford called the New Place.” This appears to Lane, the 25th October, 1598. Yours in all kindnave been his first investment in property distinct from ness, Ryc. Quiney.” The anxious dependence which his theatrical speculations. The purchase of the best these honest men appear to have upon the good offices ho use in his native town, at a period of his life when of their townsman is more satisfactory even than the his professional occupations could have allowed him evidence which their letters afford of his worldly little leisure to reside in it, would appear to have had condition. in view an early retirement from a pursuit which pro- In the midst of this prosperity the registers of the
parish of Stratford-upon-Avon present to us an event | wrote, with reference to himself, unlocking his heart to which must have thrown a shade over the brightest some nameless friend :prospects. The burial of the only son of the poet is " When in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes, recorded in 1596. Hamnet was born on the 2nd of I all alone beweep my outcast state.” February, 1585; so that at his death he was eleven Sonnets of Shakspere were in existence in 1598, when years and six months old. He was a twin child; and Meres tells us of “his sugаred sonnets among his private it is not unlikely that he was constitutionally weak. friends." We do not receive these Sonnets altogether Some such cause interfered probably with the education as evidences of Shakspere's personal history or feelings. of the twin-sister Judith; for whilst Susanna, the elder, We believe that the order in which they were printed is is recorded to have been “witty above her sex," and an arbitrary one ; that some form a continuous poem or wrote a firm and vigorous hand, as we may judge from poems, that others are isolated in their subjects and the her signature to a deed in 1639, the mark of Judith persons to whom they are addressed; that some may appears as an attesting witness to a conveyance in express the poet's persona, feelings, that others are 1611.
wholly fictitious, dealing with imaginary loves and With the exception of this inevitable calamity, the jealousies, and not attempting to separate the personal present period may probably be regarded as a happy identity of the artist from the sentiments which he epoch in Shakspere's life. He had conquered any ad- expressed, and the situations which he delineated. We verse circumstances by which his earlier career might believe that, taken as works of art, having a certain have been impeded. He had taken his rank among the degree of continuity, the Sonnets of Spenser, of Daniel, first minds of his age; and, above all, his pursuits were of Drayton, of Shakspere, although in many instances so engrossing as to demand a constant exercise of his they might shadow forth real feelings and be outpourfaculties, and to demand that exercise in the cultiva- ings of the inmost heart, were presented to the world as tion of the highest and the most pleasurable thoughts. exercises of fancy, and were received by the world as This was the period to which belong the great histories such. Even of those portions of these remarkable lyrics of “ Richard 11.,'' Richard III.,' and Henry IV.,' and which appear to have an obvious reference to the poet's the delicious comedies of the Merchant of Venice,' feelings and circumstances, we cannot avoid rejecting * Much Ado about Nothing,' and “Twelfth Night.' the principle of continuity; for they clearly belong to These productions afford the most abundant evidence different periods of his life, if they are the reflection of that the greatest of intellects was in the most healthful his real sentiments. We have the playfulness of an possession of its powers. These were not hasty adapta- early love, and the agonizing throes of an unlawful tions for the popular appetite, as we may well believe passion. They speak of a period when the writer had some of the earlier plays were in their first shape; but won no honour or substantial rewards—“in disgrace highly-wrought performances, to which all the method with fortune and men's eyes," the period of his youth, if of his cultivated art had been strenuously applied. It the allusion was at all real ; and yet the writer is was at this period that the dramatic poet appears not to “With time's injurious hand crush'd and o'erworn." have been satisfied with the applause of the Globe or One little dedicatory poem says, the Blackfriars, or even with the gracious encourage
« Lord of my love, to whom in vassalage ments of a refined Court. During three years he gave
Thy merit hath my duty strongly knit, to the world careful editions of some of these plays, as To thee I send this written embassage, if to vindicate the drama from the pedantic notion that
To witness duty, not to show my wit." the Muses of tragedy and comedy did not meet their Another and it is distinctly associated with what we sisters upon equal ground. Richard II.' and 'Richard hold to be a continued little poem, wholly fictitious, III.' were published in 1597 ; • Love's Labour 's Lost,' in which the poet dramatizes as it were the poetical and “Henry IV., Part I.,' in 1598; “Romeo and Juliet,' character) boasts that corrected and augmented, in 1599; Henry IV., Part
“ Not marble, not the gilded monuments II.,' the 'Merchant of Venice,' • A Midsummer Night's Of princes shall outlive this powerful rhyme.' Dream,' and 'Much Ado about Nothing,' in 1600. Without attempting therefore to disprove that these The system of publication then ceased. It no doubt Sonnets were addressed to the Earl of Southampton, or interfered with the interests of his fellows; and Shake to the Earl of Pembroke, we must leave the reader who spere was not likely to assert an exclusive interest, or to fancies he can find in them a shadowy outline of Shakgratify an exclusive pride, at the expense of his asso- spere's life to form his own conclusion from their careciates. But his reputation was higher than that of any ful perusal. They want unity and consistency too other man, when only four of his plays were accessible much to be received as credible illustrations of this to the readers of poetry. In 1598 it was proclaimed, life. The 71st to the 74th Sonnets seem bursting from not timidly or questionably, that “as Plautus and a heart oppressed with a sense of its own unworthiness, Seneca are accounted the best for tragedy and comedy and surrendered to some overwhelming misery. There among the Latins, so Shakespeare, among the English, is a line in the 74th which points at suicide. We is the most excellent in both kinds for the stage :” and cling to the belief that the sentiments here expressel “ As the soul of Euphorbus was thought to live in are essentially dramatic. In the 32nd Sonnet, where Pythagoras, so the sweet witty soul of Ovid lives in we recognise the man Shakspere speaking in his own mellifluous and honey-tongued Shakespeare." It was modest and cheerful spirit, death is to come across his certainly not at this period of Shakspere's life that lie ! " well-contented day." We must place one sentiment