« ПредишнаНапред »
value of Aubrey's evidence we may form some opinion parish? There is no evidence of his residence. His from his own statement to his friend :
:-—"'T is a task name appears in no suit in the Bailiff's Court at this that I never thought to have undertaken till you im- period. He fills no municipal office, such as his father posed it upon me, saying that I was fit for it by reason had filled before him. But his wife continues to reside of my general acquaintance, having now not ouly in the native place of her husband, surrounded by his lived above half a century of years in the world, but relations and her own. His father and his mother no have also been much tumbled up and down in it; doubt watch with anxious solicitude over the fortunes which hath made me so well known. Besides the mo- of their first son. He has a brother, Gilbert, seventeen dern advantage of coffeehouses in this great city, before years of age, and a sister of fourteen. His brother which men knew not how to be acquainted but with Richard is nine years of age; but Edmund is young their own relations or societies, I might add that I enough to be the playmate of his little Susanna. On come of a longævous race, by which means I have the 2nd February, 1585, there is another entry in the wiped some feathers off the wings of time for several parochial register, of the baptism of Hamnet and generations, which does reach high.” It must not be Judith, son and daughter to William Shakspere. forgotten that Aubrey's account of Shakspere, brief and While he is yet a minor he is the father of three imperfect as it is, is the earliest known to exist. His children. The circumstance of his minority may story of Shakspere's coming to London is a simple and perhaps account for the absence of his name from all natural one, without a single marvellous circumstance records of court-leet, or bailiff's court, or commanabout it :-“This William, being inclined naturally hall. He was neither a constable, nor an ale-conner, to poetry and acting, came to London.” This, the nor an overseer, nor a jury-man, because he was a elder story, appears to us to have much greater veri- minor. We cannot affirm that he did not leave Stratsimilitude than Rowe's, the later :-“ He was obliged ford before his minority expired; but it is to be inferred to leave his business and family in Warwickshire for tha', if he had continued to reside at Stratford after he some time, and shelter himself in London.” Aubrey, was legally of age, we should have found traces of his who has picked up all the gossip “of coffeehouses residence in the records of the town. If his residence this great city,” hears no word of Rowe's story, which was out of the borough, as we have supposed his father's would certainly have been handed down amongst the to have been at this period, some trace would yet have traditions of the theatre to Davenant and Shadwell, been found of him, in all likelihood, within the parish. from whom he does hear something :-“ I have heard Just before the termination of his minority we have an Sir William Davenant and Mr. Thomas Shadwell (who undeniable record that he was a second time a father is counted the best comedian we have now) say, that within the parish. It is at this period, then, that we he had a most prodigious wit.” Neither does he say, would place his removal from Stratford; bis flight, nor indeed any one else till two centuries and a quarter according to the old legend; his solitary emigration, after Shakspere is dead, that, “after four years' conjugal according to the new discovery. That his emigration discord, he would resolve upon that plan of solitary was even solitary we have not a tittle of evidence. emigration to the metropolis, which, at the same time Rowe says that, after having settled in the world in a that it released him from the humiliation of domestic family manner, and continued in this kind of settleleuds, succeeded so splendidly for his worldly prospe- ment for some time, the extravagance of which he was rity, and with a train of circumstances so vast for all guilty in robbing Sir Thomas Lucy's park obliged him future ages." * It is certainly a singular vocation for to leave his business and family. He could not have a writer of genius to bury the legendary scandals of so left, even according to the circumstances which were the days of Rowe, for the sake of exhuming a new known to Rowe, till after the birth of his son and scandal, which cannot be received at all without the daughter in 1585. But the story goes on
on :—" It is at belief that the circumstance must have bad a permanent this time, and upon this accident, that he is said to and most evil influence upon the mind of the unhappy have made his first acquaintance in the playhouse. He man who thus cowardly and ignominiously is held to was received into the company then in being, at first in have severed himself from his duty as a husband and a a very mean rank; but his admirable wit, and the father. We cannot trace the evil influence, and there natural tum of it to the stage, soon distinguished him, fore we reject the scandal. It has not even the slightest | if not as an extraordinary actor, yet as an excellent support from the weakest tradition. It is founded writer.” Sixty years after the time of Rowe the stary upon an imperfect comparison of two documents, judg- assumed a more circumstantial shape, as far as regards ing of the habits of that period by those of our own the mean rank which Shakspere filled in his early conday; supported by quotations from a dramatist of nexion with the theatre. Dr. Johnson adds one passage whom it would be difficult to affirm that he ever wrote to the Life,' which he says “Mr. Pope related, as coma line which had strict reference to his own feelings municated to him by Mr. Rowe." It is so remarkable and circumstances.
an anecdote that it is somewhat surprising that Rowe In the baptismal register of the parish of Stratford did not himself add it to his own meagre account :for 1583 is the entry of the baptism of Susanna on the “ In the time of Elizabeth, coaches being yet an26th May. This record necessarily implies the re-common, and hired coaches not at all in use, those who sidence of the wife of William Shakspere in the parish were too proud, too tender, or too idle to walk, weul of Stratford. Did he himself continue to reside in this on horseback to any distant business or diversaal. • 'Encyclopædia Britannica."
Many came on horseback to the play; and when
Shakspeare fled to London from the terror of a cri- | the agents of one then well known in the world,-an minal prosecution, his first expedient was to wait at actor, a writer, a proprietor of the theatre. Such an the door of the playhouse, and hold the horses of those association with the author of “Hamlet' must sound that liad no servants, that they might be ready again most anti-poetical; but the fact is scarcely less prosaic after the performance. In this office he became so than that the same wondrous man, about the period when conspicuous for his care and readiness, that in a short he wrote Macbeth,' had an action for debt in the Baitime every man as he alighted called for Will Shak- liff's Court at Stratford, to recover thirty-five shillings speare, and scarcely any other waiter was trusted with and tenpence for corn by him sold and delivered. a horse while Will Shakspeare could be had. This Familiar, then, with theatrical exhibitions, such as was the first dawn of better fortune. Shakspeare, find they were, from his earliest youth, and with a genius so ing more horses put into his hand than he could hold, essentially dramatic that all other writers that the hired boys to wait under his inspection, who, when world has seen have never approached him in his power Will Shakspeare was summoned, were immediately to of going out of himself, it is inconsistent with proba present themselves—'I am Shakspeare's boy, Sir.' In bility that he should not have attempted some dramatic time, Shakspeare found higher employment; but as composition at an early age. The theory that he was long as the practice of riding to the playbouse con- first employed in repairing the plays of others we hold tinued, the waiters that held the horses retained the to be altogether untenable ; supported only by a very appellation of Shakspeare's boys."
narrow view of the great essentials to a dramatic work, Steevens has attempted to impugn the credibility of and by verbal criticism, which, when carefully exthis anecdote by saying,—“That it was once the general amined, utterly fails even in its own petty assumpcustom to ride on horseback to the play I am yet to tions.* There can be no doubt that the three Parts of learn. The most popular of the theatres were on the 'Henry VI.' belong to the early stage. We believe Baukside; and we are told by the satirical pam- them to be wholly and absolutely the early work of phleteers of that time that the usual mode of convey- Shakspere. But we do not necessarily hold that they ance to these places of amusement was by water, but were his earliest work; for the proof is so clear of not a single writer so much as hints at the custom of the continual improvements and elaborations which he riding to them, or at the practice of having borses held made in his best productions, that it would be difficult during the hours of exhibition.” Steevens is here in to say that some of the plays which have the most error ; he has a vague notion—which is still persevered finished air, but of which there were no early editions, in with singular obstinacy, even by those who have may not be founded upon very youthful compositions. now the means of knowing that Shakspere had ac- Others may have wholly perished ; thrown aside after quired property in the chief theatre in 1589—that the a season; never printed; and neglected by their augreat dramatic poet had felt no inspiration till he was thor, to whom new inventions would be easier than about eight-and-twenty, and that, therefore, his con- remodellings of pieces probably composed upon a false nexion with the theatre began in the palmy days of the theory of art. For it is too much to imagine that his Globe on the Bankside-a theatre not built till 1593. first productions would be wholly untainted by the To the earlier theatres, if they were frequented by the taste of the period. Some might have been weak degallants of the Court, they would have gone on horses. lineations of life and character, overloaded with mythoThey did so go, as we learn from Dekker, long after logical conceits and pastoral affectations, like the plays the Bankside theatres were established. The story first of Lyly, which were the Court fashion before 1590. appeared in a book entitled “The Lives of the Poets,' Others might have been prompted by the false ambition considered to be the work of Theophilus Cibber, but to produce effect, which is the characteristic of ‘Losaid to be written by a Scotchman of the name of crine,' and partially so of “ Titus Andronicus.' But of Shiels, who was an amanuensis of Dr. Johnson. Shiels one thing we may be sure that there would be no had certainly some hand in the book; and there we want of power even in his first productions; that real find that Davenant told the enecdote to Betterton, who poetry would have gushed out of the bombast, and true communicated it to Rowe, who told it to Pope, who wit sparkled amidst the conceits. His first plays told it to Dr. Newton. Improbable as the story is as would, we think, fall in with the prevailing desire of it now stands, there may be a scintillation of truth in the people to learn the history of their country through it, as in most traditions. It is by no means impossible the stage. If so, they would certainly not exhibit the that the Blackfriars Theatre might have had Shak-feebleness of some of those performances which were spere's boys to hold horses, but not Shakspere himself. popular about the period of which we are now speaking, As a proprietor of the theatre, Shakspere might saga- and which continued to be popular even after he had ciously perceive that its interest would be promoted by most successfully undertaken the readiest accommodation being offered to its visitors ; " To raise our ancient sovereigns from their hearse." and further, with that worldly adroitness which, in The door of the theatre was not a difficult one for him him, was not incompatible with the exercise of the to enter. It is a singular fact, that several of the most highest genius, he might have derived an individual eminent actors of this very period are held to have been profit by employing servants to perform this office. In his immediate neighbours. We see no difficulty in an age when horse-stealing was one of the commonest believing that the first step taken by him in a decision occurrences, it would be a guarantee for the safe charge
See our · Essay on the Three Parts of Henry VI., and of the horses that they were committed to the care of Richard III.,' in the Pictorial and Library editions.
as interesting to ages unborn as important to himself, | ing to any baron, or person of greater degree, was it was the experimental one of rendering his personal aid itself a pretty large exception; and if in those times of towards the proper performance of his first acted play. rising puritanism the licence of two justices of the peace We inverse the usual belief in this matter. We think was not always to be procured, the large number oi that Shakspere became an actor because he was a dra- companies enrolled as the servants of the nobility offers matic writer, and not a dramatic writer because he was sufficient evidence that the profession of a player was an actor. He very quickly made his way to wealth not a persecuted one, but one expressly sanctioned by and reputation, not so much by a handsome person and the ruling powers. There was one company of players, pleasing manners, as by that genius which left all other the Earl of Leicester's, which, within two years after the competitors far behind him in the race of dramatic legislative protection of this act, received a more impers composition ; and by that prudence which taught him tant privilege from the Queen herself. In 1574 a writ to combine the exercise of his extraordinary powers of privy seal was issued to the keeper of the great seal, with a constant reference to the course of life he had commanding him to set forth letters patent addressed to chosen, not lowering his art for the advancement of his all justices, &c., licensing and authorizing James fortune, but achieving his fortune in showing what Burbage, and four other persons, servants to the Earl of mighty things might be accomplished by his art, Leicester, “to use, exercise, and occupy the art and
faculty of playing comedies, tragedies, interludes, stage. Amongst those innumerable by-ways in London plays, and such other like as they have already used which are familiar to the hurried pedestrian, there is a and studied, or hereafter shall use and study, as well for well-known line of streets, or rather lanes, leading from the recreation of our loving subjects, as for our solace the hill on which St. Paul's stands to the great thorough- and pleasure, when we shall think good to see them." fare of Blackfriars Bridge. Between Apothecaries' Hall And they were to exhibit their performances as well and Printing-house Square is a short lane, leading into within our City of London and liberties of the same," an open space called Playhouse Yard. It is one of those as “throughout our realm of England." Without knowshabby places of which so many in London lie close to ing how far the servants of the Earl of Leicester might the glittering thoroughfares; but which are known only have been molested by the authorities of the City of to their own inhabitants, and have at all times an air of London, in defiance of this patent, it is clear that the quiet which seems like desolation. The houses of this patent was of itself insufficient to insure their kind little square, or yard, are neither ancient nor modern. reception within the city; for it appears that, within Some of them were probably built soon after the great three months after the date of the patent, a letter was fire of London; for a few present their gable fronts to written from the Privy Council to the Lord Mayor, the streets, and the wide casements of others have evi- directing him “ to admit the comedy-players within the dently been filled up and modern sashes inserted. But city of London, and to be otherwise favourably used." there is nothing here, nor indeed in the whole precinct, This mandate was probably obeyed; but in 1575 the with the exception of the few yards of ancient wall, Court of Common Council, without any exception for that has any pretension to belong to what may be called the objects of the patent of 1574, made certain orders, the antiquities of London. In the heart of this precinct, in the city language termed an act, which assumed tist close by the church of a suppressed monastery, sur- the whole authority for the regulation of plays was in rounded by the new houses of the nobility, in the very the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen; that they spot which is now known as Playhouse Yard, was built
, only could license theatrical exhibitions within the city; in 1575, the Blackfriars Theatre.
and that the players whom they did license should con The history of the early stage, as it is to be deduced tribute half their receipts to charitable purposes. The from statutes, and proclamations, and orders of council, civic authorities appear to have stretched their power exhibits a constant succession of conflicts between the somewhat too far; for in that very year James Burbage, civic authorities and the performers of plays. The act and the other servants of the Earl of Leicester, erected of the 14th of Elizabeth, “ for the punishment of vaga their theatre amidst the houses of the great in the Blackbonds, and for relief of the poor and impotent,” was friars, within a stone's throw of the city walls, but essentially an act of protection for the established com- absolutely out of the control of the city officers. The panies of players. We have here, for the first time, a immediate neighbours of the players were the Lord definition of rogues and vagabonds; and it includes Chamberlain and Lord Hunsdon, as we learn from a not only those who can "give no reckoning how he or petition against the players from the inhabitants of the she doth lawfully get his or her living,” but “all precinct. The petition was unavailing. The rooms fencers, bearwards, common players in interludes, and which it states “one Barbadge hath lately bought" minstrels, not belonging to any baron of this realm, or were converted “into a common playhouse;" and towards any other honourable personage of greater de within fourteen years from the period of its erective gree; all jugglers, pedlers, tinkers, and petty chapmen; William Shakspere was one of its proprietors. which said fencers, bearwards, common players in The royal patent of 1574 authorized in the exercise of interludes, minstrels, jugglers, pedlers, tinkers, and their art and faculty “ James Burbadge, Jolm Perkyn. petty chapmen, shall wander abroad, and have not John Lanham, William Johnson, and Robert Wilsce, licence of two justices of the peace at the least, whereof who are described as the servants of the Earl of Lione to be of the quorum, where and in what shire they cester. Although on the early stage the characters were shall happen to wander." The circumsta:x 'of belong-frequently doubled, can carcely imagine that thes
five persons were of themselves sufficient to form a com- à large space, arranged pretty much like the Belle pany of comedians. They had, no doubt, subordinate Savage yard, but with a roof over it. Indeed, so comactors in their pay; they being the proprietors or share- pletely were the public theatres adapted after the model holders in the general adventure. Of these five original of the temporary ones, that the space for the “groundpatentees four remained as the “sharers in the Blacklings” long continued to be called the yard. One of friars Playhouse " in 1589, the name only of John the earliest theatres, built probably about the same Perkyn being absent from the subscribers to a certificate time as the Blackfriars, was called the Curtain, from to the Privy Council that the company acting at the which we may infer that the refinement of separating Blackfriars have never given cause of displeasure in the actors from the audience during the intervals of the that tney have brought into their plays matters of state representation was at first peculiar to that theatre. and religion.” This certificate-which bears the date of In the continuation of Stow's “Chronicle,' by EdNovember, 1589—exhibits to us the list of the profes- mund Howes, there is a very curious passage, which sional companions of Shakspere in an early stage of his carries us back from the period in which he was writing career, though certainly not in the very earliest. The (1631) for sixty years. He describes the destruction certificate describes the persons subscribing it as “her of the Globe by fire in 1613, the burning of the Fortune Majesty's poor players," and sets forth that they are all Playhouse four years after, the rebuilding of both theof them sharers in the Blackfriars Playhouse.” Their atres, and the erection of “ a new fair playhouse near names are presented in the following order :- 1. James the Whitefriars." He then adds,—" And this is the Burbadge. 2. Richard Burbadge. 3. John Laneham. seventeenth stage, or common playhouse, which hath 4. Thomas Greene. 5. Robert Wilson. 6. John been new made within the space of threescore years Taylor. 7. Anth. Wadeson. 8. Thomas Pope. 9. within London and the suburts, viz. : five inns, or George Peele. 10. Augustine Phillipps. 11. Nicholas common hostelries, turned to playhouses, one Cockpit, 'Towley. 12. William Shakespeare. 13. William St. Paul's singing-school, one in the Blackfriars, and Kempe. 14. William Johnson. 15. Baptiste Goodale. one in the Whitefriars, which was built last of all, in 16. Robert Armyn.
the year one thousand six hundred twenty-nine. All It would not be an easy matter, without some know- the rest not named were erected only for common playledge of minute facts and a considerable effort of houses, besides the new-built Bear-garden, which was imagination, to form an accurate notion of that build- built as well for plays, and fencers' prizes, as bulling in the Blackfriars—rooms converted into a common baiting; besides one in former time at Newington playhouse—in which we may conclude that the first Butts. Before the space of threescore years abovesaid plays of Shakspere were exhibited. The very ex- I neither knew, heard, nor read of any such theatres, pression used by the petitioners against Burbage's pro- set stages, or playhouses, as have been purposely built ject would imply that the building was not very nicely within man's memory.” It would appear, as far as we adapted to the purposes of dramatic representation. can judge from the very imperfect materials whica
“which rooms the said Burbage is now exist, that in the early period of Shakspere's connexion altering, and meaneth very shortly to convert and turn with the Blackfriars it was the only private theatre. the same into a common playhouse." And yet we are It is natural to conclude that the proprietors of this not to infer that the rooms were hastily adapted to theatre, being the Queen's servants, were the most their object by the aid of a few boards and drapery, respectable of their vocation ; conformed to the ordilike the barn of a strolling company. In 1596 the nances of the state with the utmost scrupulousness ; shareholders
in a petition to the Privy Council, endeavoured to attract a select audience rather than an that the theatre, “ by reason of its having been so long uncritical multitude ; and received higher prices for built, hath fallen into great decay, and that, besides admission than were paid at the public theatres. The the reparation thereof, it has been found necessary to performances at the Blackfriars were for the most part make the same more convenient for the entertainment in the winter. Whether the performances were in the of auditories coming thereto." The structure, no doubt, day or evening, artificial lights were used. The auwas adapted to its object without any very great regard dience in what we now call the pit (then also so called) to durability; and the accommodations, both for actors sat upon benches, and did not stand, as in the yard and audience, were of a somewhat rude nature. The open to the sky of the public playbouses. There were Blackfriars was a winter theatre ; so that, differing small rooms corresponding with the private boxes of from the Globe, which belonged to the same company, existing theatres. A portion of the audience, including it was, there can be little doubt, roofed in. It appears those who aspired to the distinction of critics, sat upon surprising that, in a climate like that of England, even the stage. It is possible, and indeed there is some evia summer theatre should be without a roof; but the dence, that the rate of admission varied according to surprise is lessened when we consider that, when the the attraction of the performance; and we may be Globe was built, in 1594, not twenty years had elapsed pretty sure that a company like that of Shakspere's since plays were commonly represented in the open generally charged at a higher rate than the larger yards of the inns of London. The Belle Savage was theatres, which depended more upon the multitude. amongst the most famous of these inn-yard theatres ; At an early period, but not so early as the date of and even the present area of that inn will show how the certificate of 1589, which shows that Shakspere was readily it might be adapted for such performances. sharer in the company acting at the Blackfriars, he The Blackfriars theatre was probably little more than I is mentioned by contemporaries. Henry Chettle is
one of the very few persons who have left us any dis- | the medium of the press were in those days small intinct memorial of Shakspere. He appears to have had deed; and paltry as was the dramatist's fee, the players some connexion with the writers of his time, in pre- were far better paymasters than the stationers. To be paring their manuscripts for the press. He so prepared come a sharer in a theatrical speculation offered a reaGreene's posthumous tract, “The Groat's-worth of Wit,' sonable chance of competence, if not of wealth. If a copying out the author's faint and blotted sheets, sharer existed who was "excellent" enough in " the written on his sick-bed. In this pamphlet of Greene's quality" he professed to fill the stage creditably, and an insult was offered to Shakspere ; and it would ap- added to that quality “a facetious grace in writing," pear from the allusions of Chettle that he was justly there is no doubt that with “uprightness of dealing" offended. Marlowe, also, resented, as well he might, he would, in such a company as that of the Blackfriars, a charge of impiety which was levelled against him. advance rapidly to distinction, and have the counteChettle says, “With neither of them that take offence nance and friendship of “divers of worship." Those was I acquainted." By acquaintance he means com- of Shakspere's early competitors who approached the panionship, if not friendship. He goes on, And with nearest to him in genius possessed not that practical one of them I care not if I never be." He is supposed wisdom which carried him safely and honourably here to point at Marlowe. But to the other he tenders through a life beset with some temptations. They an apology, in all sincerity: “The other, whom at knew not the value of “government and modesty." that time I did not so much spare as since I wish I He lived amongst them, but we may readily conclude had, for that as I have moderated the heat of living that he was not of them. writers, and might have used my own discretion (espe- In the spring of 1588, and through the summer alsa, cially in such a case), the author being dead, that I did we may well believe that Shakspere abided in London, not I am as sorry as if the original fault had been my whether or not he had his wife and children about him.
because myself have seen his demeanour no less The course of public events was such that he would civil than he excellent in the quality he professes : be scarcely have left the capital, even for a few weeks. For sides, divers of worship have reported his uprightness the hearts of all men in the vast city were mightily of dealing, which argues his honesty, and his facetious stirred; and whilst in that “shop of war" might be grace in writing, that approves his art.” In the Induc- beard on every side the din of "anvils and hammers tion to “Cynthia’s Revels' Ben Jonson makes one of waking to fashion out the plates and instruments of armed the personified spectators on the stage say, “I would justice,"* the poet had his own work to do, in urging speak with your author ; where is he ?" It may be forward the noble impulse through which the people, of presumed, therefore, that it was not uncommon for the whatever sect or whatever party, willed that they would author to mix with that part of the audience; and be free. It was the year of the Armada. thus Henry Chettle may be good evidence of the civil But, glorious as was the contemplation of the attitude demeanour of William Shakspere. We may thus of England during this year, the very energy that had imagine the young author composedly moving amidst called forth this noble display of patriotic spirit exhithe throng of wits and critics that fill the stage. He bited itself in domestic controversy when the pressure moves amongst them modestly, but without any false from without was removed. The same season that witnumility. In worldly station, if such a consideration nessed the utter destruction of the armament of Spain could influence his demeanour, he is fully their equal. saw London excited to the pitch of fury by polemical They are for the most part, as he himself is, actors, as disputes. It was not now the quarrel between Protestwell as makers of plays. Phillips says Marlowe was ant and Romanist, but between the National Church an actor. Greene is reasonably conjectured to have and Puritanism. The theatres, those new and power been an actor. Peele and Wilson were actors of Shak- ful teachers, lent themselves to the controversy. In spere's own company; and so was Anthony Wadeson. some of these their licence to entertain the people was There can be little doubt that upon the early stage the abused by the introduction of matters connected with occupations for the most part went together. The religion and politics ; so that in 1589 Lord Burghley dialogue was less regarded than the action. A plot not only directed the Lord Mayor to inquire what com. was hastily got up, with rude shows and startling inci- panies of players had offended, but a commission was dents. The characters were little discriminated; one appointed for the same purpose.
How Shakspere's actor took the tyrant line, and another the lover; and company proceeded during this inquiry has been made ready words were at hand for the one to rant with and out most clearly by the valuable document discovered the other to whine. The actors were not very solicitous at Bridgewater House by Mr. Collier, wherein they disabout the words, and often discharged their mimic claim to have conducted themselves amiss. “These passions in extemporaneous eloquence. In a few years are to certify your Right Honourable Lordships that her the necessity of pleasing more refined audiences changed Majesty's poor players, James Burbage, Richard Bur. the economy of the stage. Men of high talent sought bage, John Laneham, Thomas Greene, Robert Wilson, the theatre as a ready mode of maintenance by their John Taylor, Anth. Wadeson, Thomas Pope, George writings; but their connexion with the stage would Peele, Augustine Phillipps, Nicholas Towley, William naturally begira in acting rather than in authorship. Shakespeare, William Kempe, William Johnson, BapThe managers, themselves actors, would think, and tiste Goodale, and Robert Armyn, being all of them perhaps rightly, that an actor would be the best judge sharers in the Blackfriars playhouse, have never given of dramatic effect. The rewards of authorship through Milton: 'Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing