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by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest, during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to or returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place. 2. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either house, during his continuance in office. Sec. VII.-1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills. 2. Every bill, which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United States: if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, and if approved by two thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases, the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill, shall be entered on the journals of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, unlike manner as if he had signed it, unless Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return; in which case ut shall not be a law. 3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States

and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved
by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed
by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives
according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the
case of a bill.
Sec. VIII.-The Congress shall have power—
1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises
to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and
general welfare of the United States; but all duties, im-
posts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the United
2. To borrow money on the credit of the United
3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and
among the several States, and with the Indian tribes:
4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and
uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies, throughout
the United States:
5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of
foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and meas-
ures :
6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the
securities and current coin of the United States:
7. To establish post-offices and post-roads:
8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts,
by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors,
the exclusive right to their respective writings and dis-
9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme
court :
10. To define and punish piracies and felonies com-
mitted on the high seas, and offences against the law of
11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and repri-
sal, and make rules concerning captures on land and
water :
12. To raise and support armies; but no appropriation
of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two
Wears :
13. To provide and maintain a navy:

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14. To make rules for the government an- egulation of the land and naval forces: 15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute he laws of the union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions: 16. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such parts of them as may le employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia, according to the discipline prescribed by Congress: 17. To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings: and, 18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers and all other powers vested by this constitution in the government of the United States, or in any departmen or officer thereof. Sec. IX. —1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states, now existing, shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress o: to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight: ut a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation not exceeding ten dollars for each person. 2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it. 3. No bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, shall be passed. 4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before ilirected to be taken. 5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. No preference shall be given, by any regulation of commerce or revenue, to the ports of one state over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another. 6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of a propriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to tilne. 7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state. Sec. X-1. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts; or grant any title of nobility. 2. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection (aws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty on tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.


Sec. I.—1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:

2. Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the ‘egislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of senators and representatives to which the state may be entitled in the Congress; but no senator or representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector. 3. [Annulled. See Amendments, Art. 12.] 4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States. 5. No person, except a natural-born citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years and been fourteen years a resident within the United States. 6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President; and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or . a President shall be elected. 7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected; and he shall not receive, within that period, any other emolument from the United States, or any of them. 8. Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:— “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protec", and defend the constitution of the United States.” Sec. II.--1. The President shall be commander-in

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