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pie, though sometimes confounded with it, was evidently a somewhat different compound, being, as Misson tells us, a most learned mixture of neats' tongues, chicken, eggs, raisins, lemon and orange peel, various kinds of spicery, &c."* In the north of England, however, a goose is always a principal ingredient in this pie, which according to Selden was "in shape long, in imitation of the Cratch."†
Plum-porridge was a sort of soup with plumbs, which is not at all inferior to the pye;" but notwithstanding this testimony of the traveller Misson to its excellence, the dish has well nigh fallen into disuse.
The Hackin is a great sausage which "must be boiled by day-break, or else two young men must take the maiden, (i.e. the cook,) by the arms and run her round the market-place 'till she is ashamed of her laziness."§ The word is a Northumberland provincialism for sausage, and is derived by Ray from the Anglo-Saxon, gehæcca, which literally signifies cut or hacked to pieces.
Next on the list of dainties comes the soused boar's head, which was antiently the first dish on Christmas-day, and was ushered in with its peculiar and appropriate carol. Holinshead says that in the year 1170, upon the day of the young prince's coronation, King Henry the First" served his sonne at the table as sewer, bringing up the Bore's Head with trumpets before it, according to the manner."||
* MISSON'S TRAVELS OVER ENGLAND; translated by Ozell, p. 34. 8vo. London, 1719.
SELDEN'S TABLE-TALK.-Christmas.-p. 11. The CRATCH of which Selden speaks, or CRACCHE, as it is sometimes written, signifies a crib, rack, or manger; it is derived from the old French word creche.
MISSON'S TRAVELS, as above.
§ Brand. vol. i. p. 288.
Chronicles, iii: 76.
Of the turkey, the plum-pudding, or the knightly Sirloin it is unnecessary to speak.
The Yule-Dough, or Dow, though scarcely coming wt hin the list of edibles, can not be more appropriately mentioned than on the present occasion. In Durham it is called a Yule Cake, and indeed it frequently is such in reality, though according to its proper sense it is merely a mass of flour tempered with water, salt, and yeast, and kneaded into the form of a little baby. This is probably the same thing which Ben Jonson in his MASQUE OF CHRISTMAS calls a BABY-CAKE,* and is a custom now either totally laid aside in this country, or confined only to children. In Picardy they had the name of Cuignets, and were presented on the Nativity by farmers to their landlords; in Sweden and Norway they were called Julklapp, that is to say Yule gifts, and received this appellation because the bearer of them announced his presence by beating at the door of the house for which the present was intended.‡
To this festive season belonged also in olden times, the Mysteries, the Hobby Horse, Mumming, the Lord of Misrule and some other ceremonies; but each of these subjects would require a lengthened discussion, and I have already far exceeded my proposed limits; they must therefore be reserved for another and better opportunity.
* Ben Jonson is giving a description of the sons and daughters of Christmas, who enter ten in number.-" BABY.CAKE, drest like a boy in a fine long coat, biggin, bib, mukender, and a little dagger; his usher bearing a great cake, with a bean and a pease." Gifford's Edition of BEN JONSON'S WORKS. Vol. iii.—p. 275.
See DUCANGE'S GLOSSARY, sub voce, Panis Natalitius.
"JULKLAPP, dona Julensia; a feriendo ita dicta, quia is, qui ea apportabat, portas pulsando adventum suum annuntiabat." GLOSBARIUM SUIO-GOTHICUM. a J. Ihre, sub voce Julklapp."
POPULAR CUSTOMS, &c.
ROAST-MEAT CLOTHES.-This was at one time a cant phrase for holiday-clothes, as appears by the following passage from an old chap-book,—that is, one of those fugitive publications which were sold in the streets and at stalls, and found their most frequent purchasers in the humblest classes of society-"How he pleased her that night I can not tell, but the morning was ushered in with a mighty storm, only because Simon put on his roast-meat cloaths. Thus she began the matter: Why, how now, pray? what is to day that you must put on your holyday cloaths? with a pye-crust to you? what do you intend to do, say you? tell me quickly. . . . '*
Blossoms Inn.-" Our jolly clothiers kept up their courage, and went to Blossom's Inn, so called from a greasy old fellow, who built it, who always went nudging with his head in his bosom winter and summer, so that they called him the picture of old Winter; but this old greasy berward had a liquorish tooth; he had a handsome wife, who married him for what he had."‡
* THE MISFORTUNES OF SIMPLE SIMON-Chap. i. 12mo. London; no date.
That is, Bearward, literally a keeper of bears, but which was often used metaphorically, as in the present instance, to signify a coarse, brutish fellow.
HISTORY OF THOMAS OF READING-Chap. ii. London; no date.
It is a little singular that throughout the whole tale the host's name should be written Bosom and not Blossom, except only in the one place above quoted.*
Peine Forte et Dure.-" When a felon punishable with death takes a resolution not to make any answer to his judges,† after the second calling upon he is carried back to his dungeon and is put to a sort of rack called Peine Forte et Dure. If he speaks, his indictment goes on in the usual forms; if he continues dumb, they leave him to die under that punishment. He is stretched out naked upon his back, and his arms and legs drawn out with cords and fastened to the four corners of the dungeon; a board, or plate of iron, is laid upon his stomach, and this is heaped up with stones to a certain weight. The next day they give him at three different times three little morsels of barley-bread, and nothing to drink; the next day, three little glasses of water, and nothing to eat; and if he continues in his obstinacy, they leave him in that condition 'till he dies. This is practised only on felons, or persons guilty of petty treason. Criminals of high treason in the like case would be condemned to the usual punishment; their silence would condemn them."+
Auricular Confession. It has been asserted by many
* It however serves to show that the corruption of Blossom's Inn for Bosome's Inn, had already begun, for that Bosome was the original name there can be no doubt; as for example:
"I left her at Bosome's Inn; she'll be here presently." NORTHWARD HOE! by T. Dekker and J. Webster. Act 2. Sig. E.
And again in Nash;
"Yet have I naturally cherisht it and hugt it in my bosome, even as a Carrier of Bosome's Inn dooth a cheese under his arme."-HAVE WITH YOU TO SAFFRON-WALDEN.-Epistle Dedicatorie. Sig. C. qrto. London, 1596.
"This sometimes happens because by that means the criminal prevents the confiscation of his estate." MISSON'S TRAVELS IN ENGLAND. Translated from the French by Oxell, p.217. 8vo. London, 1719. Idem.
that Auricular Confession originated in the very earliest periods of the Christian Church; but in reality it does not appear to have existed before the time of Pope Innocent the Third, the successor of Victor the First, and who was raised to the popedom about the year 197.* It arose thus. Pope Zephyrinus had ordained that all Christians having obtained the age of puberty should communicate once a year at Easter. This in itself was a tolerable aggression on the rights of individuals, supposing individuals to have any rights; but it seems to be the nature of power, as it is of the sea, that when it does not recede it must encroach; and Innocent on his accession to the papal chair, not being satisfied with this hold upon the people, changed it into, or rather superadded to it, the confession of sins. This fact is distinctly stated by Platina,† and is also mentioned by John Bale, Bishop of Ossory, in one of his many ferocious attacks upon the Roman Catholic Church. "Confession," exclaims this apostle of intolerance," is also a laudable ceremonye of yours, and was fyrst admitted by Pope Innocent in the most pestylet counsell of laterane for a mayntenance of your markett." +
Langley Defresnoy says he was elected on the 25th of September, 197, but Godescard places his elevation in the year 202. According to Platina, he died in the time of the Emperor, Severus—“ moritur Severi tempore." He was succeeded by Calixtus the First.
+ "Idem (Zephyrinus) præterea instituit ut omnes Christiani annos pubertatis attingentes singulis annis in solenni die Pascha publicè communicarent. Quod quidem institutum Innocentius Tertius deinceps non ad communionem solum, verum etiam ad confessionem delictorum traduxit." PLATINA DE VITA PONTIFICUM.Zephyrinus, p. 20; 4to. Venetiis. 1562.
YET A COURSE AT THE ROMYSHE FOXE. A Disclosynge of the Manne of Synne. By John Harryson, p. 21, 12mo. Zurich, 1543. Harryson was one of the most frequent of the many names assumed by Bale in his constant attacks upon the Roman Catholics. It is most likely that the place also of publication has been fabricated,