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vigour, the authority of Dara was 'not questioned by his brothers; but in the year 1657, the Emperor, having been seized with a stroke of the palsy, was obliged to give up the entire government to his eldest son. As soon as the other brothers heard of their fa. ther's illness, they immediately anticipated a fatal issue; and apprehending the destruction of their power as soon as Dara should ascend the throne, they each, without communicating with the other two, resolved to march with the utmost expedition to Delhi. The intelligence of the approach of Sujah first reached the seat of government; and as Dara did not deem it prudent to leave Delhi himself, he despatched his son to oppose Sujah. The hostile armies met near Benares ; and a battle was fought, which terminated in the defeat of the invader, who retraced his steps into Bengal, for the purpose of raising new forces. But the danger with which Dara was surrounded, was very little lessened by this defeat. Sujah, from the position of his government, had been obliged to commence hostilities without aid from his brothers ; but they had it in their power to unite their armies.
This they actually did ; Aurengzebe, on his march from the Deccan, being joined at Burhampoor by Morad, with his troops from Gujerat. While Aurengzebe possessed the government of the Deccan, his ambition had not been asleep; nor had it been unaided by those talents and habits which were so well calculated to attain its gratification in the most unsuspicious and certain manner. Meer Jumla, a man of low origin, but of an enterprising spirit, had raised himself to great power, and acquired immense wealth at the court of the princes of Golconda ; but, in consequence of some affront which he received, he fled to Aurengzebe, bringing along with him all his treasures. To make this man his friend, Aurengzebe was incited, not less by the consideration of his riches and forces, than of his abilities. Accordingly, he received him in the most kind and flattering manner, and soon gained such an ascendancy over him, that he found no difficulty in persuading him to join in the attempt to deprive Dara of the throne of Delhi.
“ As the united forces of Aurengzebe, Morad, and Meer Jumla were very numerous, Dara resolved to oppose their progress by every means in his power. Accordingly, an army, under a general whom he could depend upon, was stationed on the banks of the Ner. buddah, to contest the passage of that river. But the attempt was in vain ; the army of Dara was defeated, and Dara then deemed it necessary to advance in person against his enemies. The brothers met near Agra, and a battle ensued. The victory seemed doubtful for a considerable time, and turned in favour of the inva. ders only in consequence of an apparently trifling cir.
Dara had occasion to dismount from his elephant; and the soldiers, uo longer seeing him at his station, were panic-struck and fled. Aurengzebe and Morad thus gained a decided victory.
“ The next object which Aurengzebe had in view, was the capture of his father and his brother Dara. To accomplish this, he marched without loss of time after the battle to Agra ; and that city presenting the prospect of a resistance which he had not leisure or means to overcome, he had recourse to stratagem, and thus gained possession of it. His father consequently fell into his power; and he imprisoned him, with his daughter Jehanara, and the infant daughter of Dara, in the fortress. In the mean time, Dara had fled to Delhi; and against that city Aurengzebe now directed his march. Hitherto, he had succeeded in persuading
his brother Morad, that it was for his sake alone he was anxious to deprive their father and brother of the throne ; and that the only reward he sought for him. self, was a hermitage, in which he might spend the remainder of his life, at a distance from the cares and vanities of the world. But his real projects now became apparent, and Morad regarded him with suspi. cion and alarm. As Morad was the favourite of the troops, and had besides a great number of personal friends, Aurengzebe resolved to remove him; and this he did, not in his accustomed dark and crafty manner, but openly : having invited him to a sumptuous entertainment, he caused him to be seized and murdered. It does not appear that this most violent measure created any disturbance ; for, after its perpetration, Aurengzebe immediately marched to Delhi. He did not, however, assume the sovereignty, without the mockery of appearing to have it forced upon him by the urgent representations and entreaties of his friends. As soon as he became emperor, he took the appellation of Alumghire, or conqueror of the world.
" When Sujah heard of the death of one of his brothers, of the defeat of the other, and of the successful enterprise of Aurengzebe, he collected a large army, and commenced his march towards Delhi. As he was now the only obstacle which stood between Aurengzebe and the entire and secure possession of the throne, the latter immediately made preparations to oppose him; and as soon as he had completed such measures as were necessary to keep Delhi quiet during his absence, he left that capital with a powerful army. The two brothers met at Kedjera, about thirty miles from Allahabad. The battle which ensued, was obstinate and bloody, but it terminated in the defeat of
Sujah. Yet, notwithstanding this defeat, Sujah was still a formidable opponent; and his further resistance was rendered peculiarly harassing to Aurengzebe, as well as dangerous, by the following circumstance. Mahomed, the son of the Emperor, was attached to one of the daughters of Sujah ; and he was placed under the care of Meer Jumla, to whom was entrusted the pursuit of Sujah. As soon as the two armies approached each other, Mahomed took an opportunity to leave the camp of Meer Jumla, and to join his uncle. This circumstance rendered it the more necessary to bring Sujah to an engagement as speedily as possible. Accordingly, Meer Jumla attacked him at Tanda, a town in the province of Bengal, adjacent to the ruins of the ancient city of Gour, and again defeated him. Aurengzebe, as soon as he heard of the defection of his son, wrote him a letter, the object of which was, in a most artful manner, to rouse his suspicions of his 'uncle and father-in-law. This letter had the desired effect; and Sujah, perceiving that Mahomed was no longer happy with him, sent him off, along with his wife, and jewels to a large amount. With respect to himself, having no longer any chance of opposing Aurengzebe, or even of standing his ground in the plain country, he fled, after the battle of Tanda, to the mountains of Tipperah. Among these, and in the adjacent countries, he wandered almost forgotten for many years, till at length he was destroyed, together with the greater part of his family, by the Rajah of Arracan. Mahomed, as soon as he returned to his father, was thrown into prison, where he remained till his death.
“ With respect to Dara, he was, if possible, still more unfortunate than either of his brothers.
After wandering about in the deserts, he seems to have taken refuge at length beyond the Indus, in the territories of Jihon Khan, a petty prince of Sinde. At first, he was hospitably received; but very shortly afterwards, he was perfidiously seized and sent to Delhi, where he was murdered by order of his brother.” *
Aurungzebe dated the commencement of his reign from the 12th of May, 1659 ; and in the following year, he found himself in undisputed possession of his father's throne. From that time to the year 1078, there prevailed, throughout Hindostan, the most undisturbed tranquillity that had, perhaps, been known. The prudent management of Mahomed Mauzum, the second son of Aurungzebe, had prevented any disturbances in the Deccan during the civil war; and the people generally had suffered little. An exact disci. pline had been observed by the contending parties ; and the damage done by the army, was paid out of the public treasury. Aurungzebe extinguished the spirit of party, by suppressing all appearance of revengeful feeling against those who had opposed his elevation. He converted his enemies into friends by loading them with favours; and by his just and politic administra.
The preceding account of the reigns of Jehanghire and Shah Jehan, has been adopted, with slight corrections of the style, from the article India, in Brewster's Encyclopedia. The compiler of that article does not name his authorities, but he appears to have followed Maurice, who refers us to Fraser's Mogul Emperors, Gladwin's Translation of the Toozek Jehangery (History of Jehanghire), and Bernier's Mogul Empire. To these authorities, and to the Allumghire-nameh, Mr. Dow probably indebted for the materials of his third volume, which is entirely occupied with the reigns of Jehanghire and Shah Jehan, and the first ten years of that of Aurungzebe; but he is silent as to the sources of his information. Under these circumstances, we have contented ourselves with borrowing, in this part of our historical outline, a few paragraphs ready to our hand, in the respectable work referred to.