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at present, in the same: estimation in which they once were. They are of a large size, and highspirited, and move very graceful ; they are much disposed to prance. The Danish horses are excellent for the draught. They are stout and well built ; but seldom elegant, or finely proportioned. They move well ; and accordingly make good war horses. They are all of different colours; sometimes streaked like the tyger, or spotted like the leopard. The German horses are origina!ly of the Arabian and the Barbary breed. They are, however, small, ill-shaped, and weak, and have tender hoofs: But the Hungarian horses are excellent for both the draught and the saddle. The Dutch horses are preferred for the draught, through Europe.
The English horses are at present esteemed through Europe, more perhaps than those of any • other country. The attention paid, in our island,
to the culture of this species of animals, and the vast sums expended on studs and horse-races, must naturally produce this effect.
The horse, as being a martial animal, was declicated to the god of war. The Persians, Armenians, and Masagetæ, sacrificed horses to the sun.
The Suevi, according to Tacitus, maintained white horses in the sacred woods at the public charge, and from them drew omens. The sight of a horse, according to the poet Virgil, was generally considered as ominous of war.
ON THE PRESENT INHUMAN MODE OF
SLAUHTERING CATTLE. THE mode of slaughtering cattle, &c. in this
1 country, greatly autrages humanity, and is discreditable to those who have the power to re,
dress it. It is the current practice to bleed calves to death for the purpose of whitening the meat, and the process evinces ingenuity in torture. An incision is made in the throat, and the animal is hung by the heels to a beam, while yet alive, and convulsed with pain, one end of a short iron hook is stuck in the body near the tail, and the other in the mouth, for the purpose of bending the neck, and opening the wound, and in this state the poor beast remains, sometimes for hours, before it dies. The mode of felling oxen, although less objectionable, is still unnecessarily, barbarous, The writer of this article has seen an ox, with its head almost shattered to pieces, five several times break from the butcher, after receiving as many blows. The subject is so painful and so disgusting, that the multitude have not decision enough to credit it, and thus it happens that either with cruel indifference they submit to the abuse, or with mistaken notions of necessity, silence the pleadings of humanity.
Lord Somerville, to whom society is much indebted for his benevolent and patriotic endeavours to promote useful knowledge, took with him to Lisbon a person to be instructed in the Portuguese method of slaying oxen, or, as it is there termed, from the mildness of the process, “ to lay down cattle.”—The butcher stands in front of the animal, and holding the right horn in his left hand, passes a sharp pointed knife, about six inches in The blade, over its brow, through the vertibræ of the neck into the spine, and in an instant it is dead. His Lordship has engaged to have our slaughtering butchers here instructed in this practice, but they, with all the ignorant pertinacity and prejudice to be expected from such a class, decline the offer, and we fear, will continue to do so, unless the legislature or the commanity, by appropriate resolutions, should coerce its adoption.
ANECDOTES OF THE CZAR PETER OF RUSSIA. DETER the Great, desirous of forming useful
I establishments in his dominions, and of encouraging those already existing, visited the different work-shops and manufactories with much assiduity. --Among others, were the forges of Muller, at Istia, on the road to Kalouga, at ninety wersts distance from Moscow. He once passed a whole month there, during which time he drank chalybeate waters; and after having given due attention to the affairs of the state, which he never neglected ; he amused himself with not only seeing and examining every thing in the inost minute manner, but also with putting his hand to the work, and learning the business of a blacksmith. He succeeded so well, that one of the last days of this excursion, he forged alone eighteen poods of iron (the pood is equal to forty pounds), and put his own particular mark on each bar. The boyars and other noblemen of his suite were obliged to blow the bellows, to stir the fire, to carry coais, and perform all the other offices of journeymen blacksmiths.
Some days after, on his return to Moscow, he went to see Verner Muller, bestowed great praise on his establishment, and asked hiin how much he gave per pood for iron in bars, furnished by a master blacksmith. " Three copacks, or an altin," answered Muller. " Well, then," said the Czar; “ I have earned eighteen altins, and am come to be paid.” Muller immediately opened his bureau, took out eighteen ducats, and counting them before the prince, “ It is the least," said he, « that
can be given to such a workman as your majesty :" but the emperor refused them; " Take again your ducats,” said he, “ and pay me the usual price ; I have worked no better than another blacksmith, and-this will serve to buy me a pair of shoes, of which I am in great want;" at the same time his majesty shewed him those he wore, which had al. seady been soled, and stood in need of another repair. He took the eighteen altins, went directly to a shop, bought a pair of shoes, and took great pains in showing them on his feet, saying to those who were present, “ I have earned them well, by the sweat of my brow, with hammer and an vil.
Peter, after having brought the Swedish war to a glorious conclusion, determined to avail hiinfelf of the troubles in Persia, and to march against the Sophy. He discovered his design to none but the empress, and his favourite, Menchicoff, with whom he was quite alone. " I have entrusted my secret” said he, “ to none but you, and forbid you to speak of it to any one.” Some days after, being alone with one of his dentcht chicks, and media tating on the means of executing his great design with success, he asked if there were any news : « None, Sire, except that we are going to march against the Persians," " What,"' replied the emperor, with surprise, “ March against the Persians! Tell me, immediately, from whom you had that falsity!"-" From the empress's parrot, Sire; I heard it yesterday, while I was in the anti-chamber, repeat several times, Ei Persi padigm we will march into Persia.” Peter sent immediately for Prince Menchicoff to attend him to the apartment of the empress, and told them both, that as the secret he had entrusted to them was divulged, he insisted on knowing to whom they had mentioned it. Catharine and Menchicoff. protested they had not opened their mouths on the subject. The Czar, convinced of their innocence, turned towards the parrot.
" Here," said he, " is the traitor; it was one of my dentcht chicks who told me. In our conversa tion we frequently said, we will march into Persia, and the rogue has remembered and repeated it. You must remove him from your apartment," added he to the empress, laughing, “ for it is necessary that we should be on our guard both against traitors and babblers."
CUSTOMS, MANNERS, RELIGION, &c. OF THE
ANGOLANS. [From Damberger's Travels in the Interior of Africa. Just published-) OT HE kingdom of Angola extends fourteen days
1 journey from east to west, and ten from north to south. The face of the country is alter: nately varied with mountains, bare rocks, fertile vales, and the finest pastures, which offer the inhabitants competency and superfluity, were they not too lazy to enjoy the blessings nature bestows, caring for their daily sustenance alone. The country is intersected by many small rivers, besides the great river Bambe, which forms the northern boun. dary between this kingdom and that of Congo, and waters with its numerous branches the adjacent countries. To the east Angola is bounded by the kingdom of Matamba, to the south by Benguela and Sova, and to the west by the sea.
This country produces salt petre, silver, tin, and a great quantity of ivory, ail which the Portugueze endeavour to purchase, as also a great quantity of skins of all sorts. It is one of the richest