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was, in Germany, powerful to the confusion of Lavaterism; and it raised its author, at once, to a splendid literary reputation.
But, even after the first charm had been dissolved, Lavater still retained many disciples. He continued to cultivate physiognoiny, and was still eagerly visited by travellers passing near the place of his residence. By some of his adversaries he was idly and unjustly accused as an insidious Jesuit, who, under pretensions of physiognomy, pursued some vast and mischievous designs. His theological opinions took a colour from his physiognomical ones; and he became the abhorrence of the orthodox. His private life was simple, and even devoutly pious. His wife had become, as well as himself, a great physiognomist. He was always an early riser, and used never to take his breakfast, till he had, in his own mind, earned it by the performance of some literary task.
He was, at the dawn of the French revolution, not at all adverse to it. Even when it began to penetrate into Switzerland, he did not passionately declare against it; but when he saw his native country become a prey to the excesses of jacobinism, his indignation was earnestly roused, and he wrote some eloquent pieces against the oppressions of the French. He favoured the momentary counter-revolution. · He was cruelly attacked and wounded by the French soldiers, when that counter-revolution was suppressed. His death was in consequence of those wounds. It may revive his fame, and excite a new curiosity for the perusal of his works.
Epitome of Natural History.
. No. I.
· THE HORSE. A Sour plan is professedly for the improvement Hi and instruction of the rising generation, we do not mean to be diffuse in this department, but briefly to describe such animals as are most familiar to us, in order to prepare the juvenile mind for the more extensive works on the subject, thereby serving the purpose of an assistant to the study of natural history; and, first, of the HORSE ; which is known among most nations in the world, in a domestic state. In gracefulness of forin, and dignity of carriage, he appears superior to every other quadruped. Among all the inferior animals, man
has found no other servant equally manageable and useful with the horse. He is lively and high spirit. ed, yet gentle and tractable; vigorous and active; keen and ardent in his exertions, yet firm and persevering. He seems equally qualified for all the different purposes for which man can employ his services : he submits patiently to the draught; rejoices in the race; in hunting, seems to catch the cagerness of his rider, and disdains every obstacle ; on the road, proceeds cheerfully, and seems to acquire for his master the attachment of a companion; in war, he learns to perform every evolution with the utmost dexterity, and displays a degree of ardour for battle which the courage even of the bravest soldier cannot exceed. He is liable to several diseases, though not to such a variety as his master,
To some of these he would, no doubt, be naturally subject in any state; others of them are occasioned by our wanton abuse of this noble animal; and others, perhaps the greater number, he owes to our ill-directed fondness and care. He feeds upon grass and grain; fights with his hoofs and teeth, defends himself from flies with his tail. The skin of this animal is used for collars and harness, and other similar purposes; and the hair for chair bot. soms, floor-cloths, and fishing-lines. The flesh is eaten by sonie rude nations, among whom the animal abounds: the milk of the mare is also drunk; and the Kalmuks and Mongals prepare from it a spirit of considerable strength. Horses are known to live, when their days are not shortened by ill usage, commonly to the age of five and twenty or thirty years: Such as are remarkably large seldom live so long as those of a moderate size *.
* We are informed, upon respectable authority, that a horse, who was ridden by a field-officer, in sery
The horse, like the other tame animals, has, no doubt, been originally domesticated by human art. Wild horses are still found in various parts of the world. But this species of animals have been so long known in a domestic state, and their useful qualities have caused them to be diffused so generally over the globe, that it is impossible to discover with any degree of certainty, of what country they were originally natives. Wild horses are found in the country lying around the lake Aral; on the river Tom, in the southern part of Siberia ; in the great Mongalian deserts, and among the Kalkas, north-west of China. These horses are smaller than the domestic; their hair, particularly in winter, is very thick, and of a mouse colour. Their heads are larger, in proportion to their bodies, than those of the tame horses; and their foreheads remarkably arched. They herd together in large companies, and often gather round the horses of the Mongals and Kalkas, while grazing in the fields, and carry them off among thein. They are observed to be very watchful of their common safety. While the herd is feeding, one of their number is placed as centinel on an eminence; when danger of any kind approaches, he warns his fellows by neighing, and they all betake themselves to fight, with the utmost velocity. Yet, the Kalmuks frequently surprize them, ride in among the herds, on very fleet tame horses, and kill them with broad lances. Hawks are also used in taking the wild horses; those birds are taught to fix on the forehead of the quadruped, where they teize and distress it in such
ing against the rebels, in 1715, died at Pennycuick, only in the year 1760); and, must consequently have been, at the time of his death, more than fltyycan
a manner as to prevent it from escaping its pursuer.
We are told by a celebrated traveller, that he had once occasion to see a garment very speedily made, out of the skin of a dead horse. A young man, naked, received the skin on his shoulders, as soon as it was fairly separated from the carcase. A woman, who performed the office of taylor, immediately cut the skin so as to fit it to the different parts of his body; and then sewed it about biin while it was still raw; and the youth was accordingly, in less than two hours, now clad in an excel. lent brown-bay coat.
The horses of Arabia and Barbary are often brought into Europe ; and through all the countries of the east they are highly prized. The Persian horses are said to be not inferior to some of our finest European horses; yet still the Arabian horses are esteemed preferable to them. The horses of India are far from being of a good kind : they are extremely small; and Tavernier relates, that when he visited that part of the east, the young Mogul prince, who was about seven or eight years of age, used to appear in public, mounted on a small horse, elegantly shaped, the size of which was not larger thần that of a grey hound. In India, therefore, the Arabian horses are very much sought after. The horses of Barbary have been introduced into Italy and Spain. The Spanish ge. Dette is much esteemed. This variety of the horse is small, but beautifully shaped, and very swist : The head is rather large in proportion to the body; the mane thick; the ears long, but well pointed ; the legs finely shaped, and almost without hair, the pastern rather beyond proportion large ; and the hoof rather too high. They are usually of a black or bay colour. The Italian horses are not,