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was, on this account, reprimanded by the meeting; which appears to have been precisely the thing she wished for and expected. In the opinion of others, she met with this reproof, because at the beginning of the revolutionary war she had been much attached to the tories, and favoured the English party, by declaiming against the war, according to the principles of the doctrine she professed. She continued preaching and proceeding in this manner, till she was excluded from the meetings, which indeed all along appeared to be her particular wish. Being now a persecuted person, at least by her own account, she began to gain some partisans. She preached publicly on the necessity of the abolition of all meetings convened tu censure, of a reform of the church-establishment, of granting to the friends universal liberty to preach what they pleased, without first asking leave so to do, &c. She soon made some proselytes, and at the same time drew upon herself the displeasure of all who adhered to the old forms of the religion of the quakers. She experienced, therefore, a very unfavourable reception for herself and doctrines, both in Philadelphia and New York. Wherever she came, every quaker turned away from her with abhorrence, as the enemy of his religion ; and all other persons deemed her a fool or an enthusiast. This disposition of the public she again called a persecution, it being favourable to her ultimate views. The number of her followers was now daily increasing; and as she confidently trusted it would become still more considerable, she thought they might perhaps be willing to follow her. Accord ingly she proposed to a number of them to flee from these regions of intolerance, and to settle in a place where they might worship God undisturbed, and free from that bitter spirit of persecution which men had introduced in opposition to the divine will.
Soon after, the country about Lake Seneca and Crooked Lake was fixed upon as the place of their settlement. The company of New York, which bad purchased this land from the Indians, entered into a treaty for the sale of it with these reformed quakers. They were promised three tracts of land, coutaining each six thousand square acres, which were to form three districts, and to which Jemima instantly gave the name of Jerusalem. Thirty families removed hither with her; but she had confidently expected three or four hundred more, of whom, however, not above twenty at last arrived.
This society soon spread over the three districts, which it was to occupy; but was not sufficiently numerous to replenish the fourth part of each. The enchantment, however, had already been broken by Jemima's absence, and with it had also vanished their zeal for peopling this new land of promise.
We saw Jemima, and attended her meeting, which is held in her own house. We found there about thirty persons, men, women, and children. Jemima stood at the door of her bed-chamber on a carpet, with an arni-chair behind her. She had on a white morning-gown, and waistcoat, such as men wear, and a petticoat of the same colour. Her black hair was cut short, carefully combed, and divided behind into three ringlets ; she wore 'a stock, and a white silk cravat, which was tied about her neck with affected negligence. In point of delivery, she preached with more ease than any other quaker I have yet heard ; but the subject matter of her discourse was an eternal repetition of the same topics death, sin, and repentance. She is said to be about forty years of age, but she did not appear to be more than thirty. She is of middle stature, well made, of a florid countenance, and has fine teeth, and beautiful eyes. Her action
is studied; she aims at simplicity, but there is somewhat pedantic in her manner. In her chamber we found her friend, Rachael Miller, a young woman of about twenty-eight or thirty years of age, her follower and admirer, who is entirely devoted to her. All the land which Jemima possesses is purchased in the name of Rachael Miller, an advantage which she owes to her influence over her adherents, and to her dexterity in captivating their affections.
Jemima, or the Friend (as she is called by way of eminence), inculcates, as her leading tenet, poverty, and resignation of all earthly possessions. If you talk to her of her house, she always calls it " the house which I inhabit.' This house, however, though built only of the trunks of trees, is extremely pretty and commodious.
Her room is exquisitely neat; and resembles more the boudoir of a fine lady, than the cell of a nun. It contains a looking-glass, a clock, an arm-chair, a good bed, a warming-pan, and a silver saucer. Her garden is kept in good order; her spring-house * is full of milk, cheese, butter, butcher's-meat and game. Her hypocrisy may be traced in all her discourses, actions, and conduct, and even in the very manner in which she manages her counte.
She seldom speaks, without quoting the Bible, or introducing a serious sentence about death, and the necessity of making our peace with God. Whatever does not belong to her own sect is with her an object of distaste and stedfast aversion. She sows dissension in families, to deprive
* These are small offices or detached houses in America, iu which butter, milk, and fresh meat are generally kept. They are called spring-houses, because a stream of fresh water is always running through them.
thc lawful heir of his right of inheritance, in order to appropriate it to herself; and all this she does under the name and by the agency of her companion, who receives all the presents brought by the faithful, and preserves them for her reverend friend, who, being wholly absorbed in her communion with Christ, whose prophetess she is, would absolutely forget the supply of her bodily wants, if slie were not well taken care of. The number of her votaries has, of late, much decreased. Many of the families, who followed her to Jerusalem, are no longer the dupes of her self-interested policy. Some still keep up the outward appearance of attachment to her; while others have openly disclaimed their connection with Jemima. Such, however, as still continue her adherents appear to te entirely devoted to her. With these she
passes for a prophetess, an indescribable being; she is not Jemima Wilkinson, but a spirit of a peculiar name, which remaims a profound secret to all, who are not true believers ; she is the friend, the all-friend. Six or seven girls of different ages, but all young and handsome, wait upon her, with surprising emulation, to enjoy the peculiar satisfaction of being permitted to approach this celestial being. Her fields, and her garden, are ploughed and dug by the friends, who neglect their own business to take care of her's; and the all-friend is so condescending, as not to refuse their services; she comforts them with a kind word now and then, makes inquiries after and provides for their health and welfare, and has the art of effectually captivating their affections, the more, perhaps, because she knows how to keep her votaries at a respectful distance.
When the service was over, Jemima invited us to dinner. The hope of watching her more narrowly induced us to accept the invitation ; but we
did not then know, that it forms a part of the character she acts, never to eat with any one. She soon left us; and locking herself up with her female friend, sat down, without other company, to an excellent dinner ; we did not get ours till after she had dined. When our dinner was over, and also another, which was served up after ours, the sanctuary opened again. Aud now Jemima appeared once more at the door of her room, and conversed with us, seated in an arm-chair. When strangers are with her, she never comes over the threshold of her bed-room; and when by herself, she is constantly engaged in deliberation how to improve the demesne of her friend. The house was, this day, very full. Our company consisted of exactly ten persons; after us dined another company of the same number; and as many dined in the kitchen. Our plates, as well as the tablelines, were perfectly clean and neat; our repast, although frugal, was yet better in quality than any of which we had partaken since our departure from Philadelphia ; it consisted of good fresh meat, with pudding, an excellent sallad, and a beverage of a peculiar yet charming flavour, with which we were plentifully supplied out of Jemima's apartment, where it was prepared. The devout guests observed, all this while, a profound silence; they either cast down their eyes, or lifted them up to heaven with a rapturous sigh; to me they appeared not unlike a party of the faithful, in the primitive ages, dining in a church.
The all-friend had by this time exchanged her former dress for that of a fine Indian lady, which, however, was cut out in the same fashion as the former. Her hair and eye-brows had again been combed. She did not utter a syllable respecting our dinner; nor did she offer to make any apology for her absence. Constantly engaged in personat