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the well-merited epithet faithful. But before we proceed further, we shall lay before our readers an illustration of the annexed engraving on wood, of the
A GREY-HOUND, 3 . Which is, by far, the swiftest of all dogs, and pursues his game by the sight, not by the scent. Formerly it was penal by the law of the land for any person, below the degree of a gentleman, to keep an animal of this kind. There are several varieties, such as the Italian greyhound, the Oriental greyhound, &c.
THE FAITHFUL DOG. LINNÆUS, that great naturalist, and accurate observer, was the first who remarked that the tail of this animal bends towards the left ; a character · common to the whole species, in all its varieties.
It is to this species we are to apply all the fine things that have ever been said or written about dogs. As their history has been delineated with all that fidelity, precision, and elegant conciseness which render the writings of Linnæus an inestimable treasure, we shall avail ourselves of his de, scription. « The dog, the most faithful of animals, the companion of mankind, fawns at the approach of his master, and will not suffer any one to strike him; runs before him in a journey, passing frequently backward and forward over the same ground. On coming to cross-ways, he stops and looks back; is very docile ; will find out what has been dropt ; is watchful by night; announces the coming of strangers, and guards any goods committed to his charge : he drives the cattle home from the field; keeps herds and flocks within bounds, and protects them from wild beasts. By virtue of his acute sense of smelling, he points out
the game to the sportsman, and brings the Birds that are shot to his master. At Brussels, and in Holland, he draws little carts to the herb market: in Siberia, he draws a sledge, with his master in it, or one loaded with provisions; he will turn a spit; sits up, and begs'at table; when he has committed a theft, he slinks away with his tail between his legs; eats enviously with oblique eyes; strives to be master among his fellows at home; is an enemy to beggars, and attacks strangers without provocation: he is fond of licking wounds, assuages the pain of the gout, and of cancerous ulcers; howls at certain notes in music, and often urines on hearing them: he bites at a stone Aung at him ; is sick at the approach of bad weather; gives himself a vomit, by eating grass ; is afflicted with tape worm; spreads his madness; grows deaf and blind with age: he eats flesh, carrion and farinaceous vegetables, but not greens; drinks by lapping, is 'fond of rolling on carrion, sheep's dung, &c.; his scent is exquisite: he goes obliquely, foams and hangs out his tongue when hot, but scarcely ever sweats; about to lie down, he often goes 'round; his sleep is attended with a quick sense of hearing; and during sleep he frequently dreams. The female goes sixty-three days with young, brings forth from four to ten; the males like the dog, the females like herself *; the largest and tallest are more prolific than the smaller kinds: though driven as unclean from the houses of the Mahometans, yet the same peo
* The similarity of the offspring to the male or female according to their sex, rests solely on the authority of Linnæus ; but if fact and observation are against it, even that great name will not support the opinion.
ple establish hospitals for dogs, and allow them a daily portion of food.”
No less just and elegant, though more diffuse, is the following extract from Buffon.
“ The dog, independent of the beauty of his figure, his strength, vivacity, and nimbleness, possesses every internal excellence which in a brute can attract the regard of man. A passionate, and even a ferocious and sanguinary temper, renders the wild dog formidable to all animals; but in the domestic dog, these hostile dispositions vanish, and are succeeded by the softer sentiments of attachment, and the desire of pleasing; he runs with cheerfulness and alacrity to his master's foot, where he lays down his courage, his strength, and his talents: he attends for orders, which he is always solicitous to execute: he consults, he interrogates, he supplicates his master; a single glance of the eye is sufficient, for he knows the external signs of our intentions and wishes : his feelings are extremely delicate, and he has more fidelity and steadiness in his affections than man: he is not corrupted by ambition, rarely by interested views, or by a desire of revenge ; and he has no fear but that of displeasing: he is all zeal, ardour, and obedi. ence; more apt to recall benefits than outrages : he is not discouraged by blows or bad treatment, but calmly suffers, and soon forgets them; or he remembers them only to increase his attachment : instead of flying, or discovering marks of resentment, he exposes himself to torture, and licks the hand from which he received the blow; to the cruelty of his master, he only opposes complaint, patience, and submission : surely the master must be void of humanity that can abuse such a servant. Equally furious against thieves as against rapacious
animals, he attacks and wounds them, and forces from them whatever they have been attempting to carry off: but, contented with victory," he lies down upon the spoil, and will not touch it even to satisfy his appetite, exhibiting at the same time, an example of courage, temperance, and fidelity: he reigns at the head of a flock, and is better heard than the voice of the shepherd ; safety, order, and discipline, are the fruits of his vigilance and actia vity; sheep and cattle are a people subjected to his management, whom he prudently conducts and protects, and never employs force against them; but for the preservation of peace and good order. i« But in war against his enemies, or wild animals, he makes a full display of his courage and intelligence; he shares with his master the pleasures and fatigue of the chace; here too his natural and acquired talents are united and exerted; by the acuteness of his scent, he unravels all the windings of the labyrinth, all the false routes which were intended to deceive him; and instead of abandoning the object of his pursuit for a different animal, he redoubles his ardour, he overtakes, attacks, slays, and extinguishes his thirst and his rage in the blood of the victim. # " The lion and the tiger, whose strength is so great as to ensure them victory, hunt alone, and without artifice. Wolves, foxes, and wild dogs, hunt in packs, assist each other with art, and mu. tually share in the prey. When the natural talents of the dog have been improved by education; when he has learned to repress his ardour, and to regulate his movements, he then hunts artificially, and is almost always certain of success.
“ The predominant attachment of the whole race of dogs towards mankind, prevents these animals froin separating themselves from us, till deserted, or, by some accident, left in places where
there was no possibility of reunion: as before oba served, it seems beyond the power of ill usage to subdue the faithful and constant qualities inherent in them. They are found in great numbers wild, or rather without masters, in Congo, Lower Æthiopia, and towards the Cape of Good Hope. Those are red-haired; have slender bodies and turned up tails like greyhounds; others resemble hounds, and are of various colours, have erect ears, and are of the size of a large fox hound: they run very swiftly, destroy cattle, hunt down antelopes, as our dogs do the stag, and are very destructive to the animals of chace : they have no certain residence, and are very seldom killed, being so crafty as to shun all traps; and of so sagacious. noses as to shun every thing that has been touched by man: they go in great packs; attack lions, tigers, and elephants, but are often killed by them; the sight of these dogs is pleasing to travellers, who suppose that they have conquered the wild beasts, and rens dered their journey secure, by driving them away : they sometimes attack the sheep of the Hottentots, and commit great ravages among them. There are also multitudes of wild dogs in South America, derived from those carried over, and left there, by the European discoverers of that continent : they breed in holes like rabbit-holes: when found young, they instantly attach themselves to mankind, and will never afterwards join the wild dogs, or desert their masters: they have not forgot to bark, as some have alledged: they have the look of a greyhound : their ears stand erect : they are very vigilant, and excellent in the chace."
The dog was quite unknown in America, before it. was introduced there by the Europeans. The alco of the Peruvians, a little animal which they were so fond of, and kept as a lap dog, is too slightly mentioned by Acosta, for us to determine