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public of itself, under the protection of the eight ancient cantons. There are in it a hundred bourgeois, and about a thousand souls. Their government is modelled after the same manner with that of the cantons, as much as so small a community can imitate those of so large an extent. For this reason, though they have very little business to do, they have all the variety of councils and officers that are to be met with in the greater states. They have a town-house to meet in, adorned with the arms of the eight cantons their protectors. They have three councils, the great council of fourteen, the little council of ten, and the privy council of three. The chief of the state are the two avoyers : when I was there, the reigning avoyer, or the doge of the commonwealth, was the son of the inn-keeper where I was lodged; his father having enjoyed the same honours before him. His revenue amounts to about thirty pounds a year. The several councils meet every Thursday upon affairs of state, such as the reparation of a trough, the mending of a pavement, or any the like matters of importance. The river that runs through their dominions puts them to the charge of a very large bridge, that is all made of wood, and coped overhead, like the rest of Switzerland. Those that travel over it pay a certain due towards the maintenance of this bridge. And as the French ambassador has often occasion to pass this way, his master gives the town a pension of twenty pound sterling, which makes them extremely industrious to raise all the men they can for his service, and keeps this powerful republic firm to the French interest. You may be sure the preserving of the bridge, with the regulation of the dues arising from it, is the grand affair that cuts out employment for the several councils of state. They have a small village belonging to them, whither they punctually send a bailiff for the distribution of justice; in imitation still of the great cantons. There are three other towns that have the same privileges and protectors.
We dined the next day at Zurich, that is prettily situated on the outlet of the lake, and is reckoned the handsomest town in Switzerland. The chief places shown to strangers are the arsenal, the library, and the town-house. This last is but lately finished, and is a very fine pile of building. The frontispiece has pillars of a beautiful black marble streaked with white, which is found in the neighbouring mountains. The chambers for the several councils, with the other apart
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nents, are very neat. The whole building is indeed so well esigned, that it would make a good figure even in Italy. It s pity they have spoiled the beauty of the walls with bundance of childish Latin sentences, that consist often in
jingle of words. I have indeed observed in several inscripions of this country, that your men of learning are exremely delighted in playing little tricks with words and
The arsenal s better than that of Berne, and they say has arms for thirty housand men.
At about a day's journey from Zurich we entered on he territory of the abbot of St. Gaul. They are four hours’ iding in breadth, and twelve in length. The abbot can raise 1 it an army of twelve thousand men well armed and exerised. He is sovereign of the whole country, and under the rotection of the cantons of Zurich, Lucerne, Glaris, and witz. He is always chosen out of the abbey of Benedictines t St. Gaul. Every father and brother of the convent has a oice in the election, which must afterwards be confirmed y the pope. The last abbot was Cardinal Sfondrati, who as advanced to the purple about two years before his death. 'he abbot takes the advice and consent of his chapter, bepre he enters on any matters of importance, as the levying f a tax, or declaring of a war. His chief lay-officer is the rand maître d'hôtel, or high steward of the household, who
named by the abbot, and has the management of all affairs nder him. There are several other judges and distributers f justice appointed for the several parts of his dominions, com whom there always lies an appeal to the prince. His esidence is generally at the Benedictine convent at St. Gaul, otwithstanding the town of St. Gaul is a little Protestant epublic, wholly independent of the abbot, and under the rotection of the cantons.
One would wonder to see so many rich bourgeois in the own of St. Gaul, and so very few poor people in a place that
has scarce any lands belonging to it, and little or no income but what arises from its trade. But the great support and riches of this little state is its linen manufacture, which employs almost all ages and conditions of its inhabitants. The whole country about them furnishes them with vast quantities of flax, out of which they are said to make yearly forty thousand pieces of linen cloth, reckoning two hundred ells to the piece. Some of their manufacture is as finely wrought
that can be met with in Holland; for they have excellent artisans, and great commodities for whitening. All the fields about the town were so covered with their manufacture, that coming in the dusk of the evening we mistook them for a lake. They send off their works upon
mules into Italy, Spain, Germany, and all the adjacent countries. They reckon in the town of St. Gaul, and in the houses that lie scattered about it, near ten thousand souls, of which there are sixteen hundred bourgeois. They choose their councils and burgomasters out of the body of the bourgeois, as in the other governments of Switzerland, which are everywhere of the same nature, the difference lying only in the numbers of such as are employed in state affairs, which are proportioned to the grandeur of the states that employ them. The abbey and the town bear a great aversion to one another; but in the general diet of the cantons their representatives sit together, and act by concert. The abbot deputes his grand maître d'hôtel, and the town one of its burgomasters.
About four years ago the town and abbey would have come to an open rupture, had it not been timely prevented by the interposition of their common protectors. The occasion was this.. A Benedictine monk, in one of their annual processions, carried his cross erected through the town with a train of three or four thousand peasants following him. They had no sooner entered the convent but the whole town was in a tumult, occasioned by the insolence of the priest, who, contrary to all precedents, had presumed to carry his cross in that manner. The bourgeois immediately put themselves in arms, and drew down four pieces of their cannon to the gates of the convent. The procession, to escape the fury of the citizens, durst not return by the way it came, but after the devotions of the monks were finished, passed out at a back door of the convent, that immediately led into the abbot's territories. The abbot on his part raises an army,
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cks up the town on the side that faces his dominions,
forbids his subjects to furnish it with any of their comdities. While things were just ripe for a war, the can: s, their protectors, interposed as umpires in the quarrel, demning the town, that had appeared too forward in the pute, to a fine of two thousand crowns; and enacting at same time, that, as soon as any procession entered their Is, the priest should let the cross hang about his neck hout touching it with either hand, till he came within the cincts of the abbey. The citizens could bring into the field r two thousand men well exercised, and armed to the best Fantage, with which they fancy they could make head -inst twelve or fifteen thousand peasants, for so many the ot could easily raise in his territories. But the Prosants, subjects of the abbey, who, they say, make up a good rd of its people, would probably, in case of a war, abandon
cause of their prince for that of their religion. The n of St. Gaul has an arsenal, library, town-houses, and urches, proportionable to the bigness of the state. It is 1 enough fortified to resist any sudden attack, and to give cantons time to come to their assistance. The abbey is no means so magnificent as one would expect from its owments. The church is one huge nef with a double e to it. At each end is a large choir. The one of them upported by vast pillars of stone, cased over with a comition that looks the most like marble of anything one can -gine. On the ceiling and walls of the church are lists of ats, martyrs, popes, cardinals, archbishops, kings, and -ens, that have been of the Benedictine order. There are eral pictures of such as have been distinguished by their h, sanctity, or miracles, with inscriptions that let you
the name and history of the persons represented. I e often wished that some traveller would take the pains gather all the modern inscriptions which are to be met h in Roman Catholic countries, as Gruter and others e copied out the ancient heathen monuments. Had we - or three volumes of this nature, without
of the color's own reflections, I am sure there is nothing in the ld could give a clearer idea of the Roman Catholic reon, nor expose more the pride, vanity, and self-interest of vents, the abuse of indulgencies, the folly and impertice of votaries, and, in short, the superstition, credulity,
in his eyes.
and childishness of the Roman Catholic religion. One might fill several sheets at St. Gaul, as there are few considerable convents or churches that would not afford large contributions.
As the king of France distributes his pensions through all the parts of Switzerland, the town and abbey of St. Gaul come in too for their share. To the first he gives five hundred crowns per annum, and to the other a thousand. This pension has not been paid these three years, which they attribute to their not acknowledging the Duke of Anjou for king of Spain. The town and abbey of St. Gaul carry a bear for their arms.
The Roman Catholics have this bear's memory in very great veneration, and represent him as the first convert their saint made in the country. One of the most learned of the Benedictine monks gave me the following history of him, which he delivered to me with tears of affection
“ St. Gaul, it seems, whom they call the great apostle of Germany, found all this country little better than a vast desert. "As he was walking in it on a very cold day he chanced to meet a bear in his way. The saint, instead of being startled at the rencounter, ordered the bear to bring him a bundle of wood, and make him a fire. The bear served him to the best of his ability, and, at his departure, was commanded by the saint to retire into the depth of the woods, and there to pass the rest of his life without ever hurting man or beast. From this time, says the monk, the bear lived irreproachably, and observed, to his dying day, the orders that the saint had given him.”
I have often considered, with a great deal of pleasure, the profound peace and tranquillity that reigns in Switzerland and its alliances. It is very wonderful to see such a knot of governments, which are so divided among themselves in matters of religion, maintain so uninterrupted an union and correspondence, that no one of them is for invading the rights of another, but remains content within the bounds of its first establishment. This, I think, must be chiefly ascribed to the nature of the people, and the constitution of their governments. . Were the Swiss animated by zeal or ambition, some or other of their states would immediately break in upon the rest; or were the states so many principalities, they might often have an ambitious sovereign at the head of them, that would embroil his neighbours, and sacrifice the repose of his subjects to his own glory. But as