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LITERAL TRANSLATIONS.

Dlherrian.

(IN THE CHURCHYARD.)

Hilez. unsa orhit adi ilherrian sartziar ; hi Of death well remember in the churcbyard when entering theo nolako ziradela bizi ziren artian; hek bezala

like that they were alike they were when them like hil behar duk eta ez jakin ordua. die need thon hast and without to know the moment. Othoy egik Joinkoari deyen barkhamenduyu. Prayer do to God that he has to thee pardon.

. “Remember well on entering the churchyard that they were like thee when they were alive. Thou must die like them, and without knowing the moment. Pray God that He may pardon thee." —Dechepare, Poèsies Basques, 1545.

COMMENTARY.

Hil + x; e binding vowel: see Chapter V. Orhit, adjective without equivalent in English ; it is the German

eingedenk.' Adi, 2nd pers. sing. imper. of edin, 'can ;' here used as an auxiliary 'be;' e. g. 'be aware.'

ras

Illherri-a-n, 'in-the-churchyard :' a, article; n, suffix. Sartzian, from sar; sartze, verbal substantive; sartze-a-n,

in-the-entering.' Hi, thee' and 'thou,' no difference between subject and object: see page 45. Zirade-la : 3rd pers. plur. of the imperfect of izan, 'to be'-obsolete form, nowadays ziran; la, 'that,' and final n dropped before l : see Chapter III. Ziren=ziraden. Arte-a-n, 'inthe-wbile.' Hek, demonstr. pron. of the 3rd pers. plural : see Chap. VIII. Hil,“ to die.' Behar, substantive,' need.' Duk, 2nd pers. sing. : see p. 35. Othoy is used as a substantive and as an interjection : 'Pray!' Here it is a substantive, and belongs to egik, 2nd pers. sing. imper. of egin, 'to do.' Jeinko-ari, to-the-God.' Deyen, a Souletin form (though Dechepare writes in the Low-Navarrese dialect), from deik-n. Deik, in Labourdin dauk, in Low-Navarrese drauk, in Navarrese darok, for d-eroa-h, is the 3rd pers. sing. of the present indicative of eroan, with the 2nd person as an object,' he has it to thee :' see p. 43. Final n corresponds to that ;' medial k proceeds from final h, for hi, 'thou, thee;' but here k is dropped and hiatus prevented by putting y in its place. · Dechepare's language is extremely interesting; be uses occasionally flections the form of which is purer than those in Liçarrague's New Testament; though this last author writes very correct Basque.

nola bow

Orduan keinu egin ziezoten haren aitari,

Theo sign making they were of him to the father nahi luen hura dei ledin. wish he would have be named he should be.

“ Then they made signs to his father how he would have him called.”—Luke i. 62, Liçarrague's New Testament.

Ordu-a-n, “in-the-moment. Egin ziezoten, 'they were making it to him’=tbey made;—periphrastic conjugation. Ziezoten is the 3rd pers. plur. of the imperfect of the indicative of ezan, with him as a 'régime indirect,' and composed of z-eza-ho-te-n. 2, characteristic letter of the 3rd person ; eza, root; ho, 'him,' probably for hau; te, plural form (see p. 30); n characteristic letter of the imperfect. I may perhaps add that the flections of ezan, and also those of edin, eduki, eroan, &c., are erroneously considered as terminations, i. e. agglomerations of letters, without any real signification. Haren, of him,'=bis : see p. 25. Nola, 'how.' Nahi luen, 'that he would have wish. Nahi, desire, wish;' luen, for luken, from luke-n, is the 3rd pers. sing. of the imperfect of the optative of eduki, as auxiliary 'to have;' medial k has been dropped, -as is very often the case. The n at the end of the flection is the conjunction that,' governed by nola : in Basque, as in Dutch, one says "how that.' The translation is thus, “How that he would have wish.”—Dei for deitu, 'named,' from dei, 'name;' tu is the characteristic ending of the verbal adjective.—Ledin,' that he should be ;' like luken, just quoted, ledin bas lost k, and final n is that.' Ledin, for lediken, from ledike-n, 3rd pers. sing. of the optative of edin (see p. 40, where we find laiteke for leiteke of other dialects-medial d has been dropped), 'can ;' but here as the auxiliary of the intransitive deitu. As the verb of the subordinate sentence is generally put in French in the subjunctive mood, the flections, as luen, ledin, &c., are considered to belong to the subjunctive; but a closer in. spection of the language has shown that the subjunctive does not exist, and that initial 1 belongs to the optative.

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