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another personal pronoun for 'I ;' this was t. E.g., dakust, • I-see-it,' is formed of d-ikus-t; d, 'it,' ikus the verb, t, 'I.'

The third person is rendered by a demonstrative pronoun; and in the verb it is rendered in different ways. In the present of the indicative of transitive verbs it is conspicuous by its absence- dakus, (he) 'sees it.' In the same tense of the intransitive verb it is rendered by d-doa,' he goes :' perhaps the same pronoun as subject, which we find as object and as initial in dakust=d-ikus-t.

The use of the pronoun hi is nearly obsolete; hi has been superseded by the more formal zu, you,' employed as a singular, like English 'you ;' and consequently some sign was wanted to distinguish su singular from zu plural, and this sign was found in the plural suffis k. But as zuk might have been taken for the agent, e was inserted, and zuek became the second person plural. In Souletin, ziek.

The suffixes are added to these pronouns just as to the others ; ni-k becomes nik; ni-z=nitaz, &c.

The emphatic personal pronouns are formed by the ad. dition of a demonstrative pronoun; thus, ni, 'I,' and haur, 'this,' becomes nihaur, 'I myself. Some dialects add the demonstrative to the genitivenerau, from nere-au.

$ 9. The Possessive Pronouns. These pronouns are the genitives of the personal pronouns, i.e., ni tn, hi+n, &c.; final n has been dropped-nire.

neure rire nere, my.
eure hire hire, thy.

gure, our. zure, your.




Nere echea, the house of me;' nere echeak, 'the houses of me.'

The third person singular is expressed by bere, 'his,' for both numbers: the Spanish-Basque dialects have taken beren for the plural 'their.'

The third person can also be rendered by aren, of him' =bis; and ayen, 'of them '=their.

The second person plural being now zuek, the genitive is zuen, for zueken, of you'=your (plural). .

The possessive adjectives 'mine,' 'thine,' &c., are neurea or nerea, hirea, &c.—more literally translated by French • le mien.'

§ 10. The Reflective Pronoun. The pronoun 'self' is rendered by buru, 'head.' Bainan begira eyezue zuek zeuron buruei (Mark xüi. 9), ‘But take heed to yourselves. As 'yourselves' is a plural, so buru has the plural form, i.e. buruak +ë; and, after the dropping of k, buruni=buruei. (See suffix i.)

§ 11. The Relative Pronoun. The relative pronoun is rendered by the suffis n (see the suffixes), agglutinated to the verbal flexion ; if this flexion ends with a consonant it is liable to the phonetic rules. Dut followed by n becomes dudan: Ikusi dudan gizona, 'The man whom I have seen. The oblique cases are rendered by the interrogative pronoun zein, e.g., Eche au zenaren zu zera jabe, That house of which you are the proprietor.'



§ 12. The Interrogative Pronouns. They are nor, 'who;' zen, or zein, 'who, which ;' zer, 'what.' Nor da hor ? Who is there ?' Zein da haur ?

What is this ?' The suffixes are agglutinated regu. larly to these pronouns: nor+k=nork, agent; nor th= noren, "of whom.'

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The Numerals.

The Cardinal Numbers. 1 Bat.

17 Hamazazpi. 2 Bi, biga.

18 Hamazortzi. 3 Hirur.

19 Hemeretzi. 4 Laur.

20 Hogei.5 Bortz. e..

21 Hogeitabat. 6 Sei.

22 Hogei eta bi. 7 Zazpi.

30 Hogei eta hamar. 8 Zortzi.

40 Berrogei. 9 Bederatzi.

50 Berrogei eta hamar. 10 Homar.

60 Hirurogei. 11 Hamaika.

70 Hirurogei eta hamar. 12 Hamabi.

80 Laurogei. 13 Hamahirur.

90 Laurogei eta hamar. 14 Hamalaur.

100 Ehun, eun.
15 Hamabortz. 1000 Milla.
16 Hamasei.

The suffixes are agglutinated to the Numbers, as to the other nouns. Bat, as in the Spanish, is employed in the plural, and becomes batzu (see the Indefinite Pronouns). The Ordinal Numbers are formed from the Cardinal Num. bers by the suffix garren-bigarren, hirurgarren, &c. Bat does not form an Ordinal Number ; lehengo, or lengo, corresponds to 'first.'

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The Verb.


The Basque Verb may be divided into three classes, according to its nature, its signification, and its conjugation :

1. Primitive and Derivative Verbs.
2. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs.
3. Regular and Periphrastic Verbs.

A Verb is primitive, like ekarri, 'to bear;' joan, 'to go.'

A Verb is derivative, like apaindu, 'to adorn,' from apain, ornament

A Verb is transitive, like ekarri : dakart, 'I bear it.'
A Verb is intransitive, like joan : noa, 'I go.'
A Verb is regular, like ekarri and joan.

A Verb is periphrastic; as, ikusten dut, 'I have it in sight'=I see it.

All Verbs are regular except izan, 'to be.'


The Transitive Verb. Few languages have a more simple way of conjugation

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