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in English ; e.g., echera noa, 'I go (to) home.' Added to a plural noun, k is converted into t; eche + k-ra becomes eche-t-ra, or echeetara, 'to, or towards, the houses.' The French-Basque dialects have sometimes rat for ra, or even La and lat.

The Suffix KIN. Kin is rendered by 'with,' and is always added to a noun followed by n, i.e. a genitive, and this makes it probable that kin is for kide-n, in participation,' 'in company.' Gizonarekin, 'with the man,' was thus originally in company of the man."

The Suffixes BONTZ, BAITHAN, EA. Rontz or rutz (Biscaian) corresponds to ra,' towards.'

Baithan, or beithan, is used for n when persons are spoken of; e.g., eta ni baithan sinhesten duena,' and he who believes in me.'

Ka corresponds to 'at,''with.' Zaldika, 'on horse (back);' Loka, 'with, or by, looks.' Ka is sometimes ta: makillata, 'with, or by, blows of a stick.'

Compound Suffixes. There are compound suffixes, just as there are compound prepositions in English like 'towards,' &c. Kotzat is rendered by 'in order to' or 'though :' Eta hers ezazue azautoz erratzekotzat (Matt. xiii. 30), 'And bind them in bundles to burn them.' Ain aberats izatekotz (for izatekotzat), 'though he be rich.'


Zko, composed of z-ko, does not express more than 2. Lako, 'because, tzako, 'towards, and some others which offer nothing worth while noticing, and which are to be found in the Dictionary.


The Pronouns.

81. The Demonstrative Pronouns.

Nowadays there are four demonstrative pronounsma, hura, hau, hori. Traces of other pronouns, now lost, are found in the flexions of the verb, d, as a third person, subject and object; t as a first person, subject; e.g., dakust, ' I-seeit,' from d-ikus-t; doa, ‘be goes,'-d-oa.

noun A.

§ 2. The Pronoun a. Originally this pronoun was har, or in the SpanishBasque dialects, which have lost h, ar, 'that.' The Biscaian dialect is the only one which has preserved a as a pronoun, and at the same time as the article 'the.' In the first case it is written like all other pronouns, i.e. separated from the noun ; as an article, it is agglutinated to the noun. When a is followed by a suffix the primitive r reappears, and a tn becomes aren,' of that;' a+k becomes arek, 'those ;' ar followed by k, the suffis of the agent, becomes ark. The Biscaian plural arek is also aek, but the other dialects object to biatus and have interpolated y-ayek. When the plural is followed by the suffixes z, ko, za, dik, ronz, n (locative) k is converted into t; thus, ayek +n makes ayetan, 'in those.' The French-Basque dialects have preserved, at least some of them, two plural forms-one for the agent, and another for the patient :Patient

| Hekiek. Hekiék.
Labourdin Hek.

Varieties, 1 Hek.

( Hek.

Souletin .. Iurak.


Har is the singular; harek is the plural, which loses the q (hael), and is contracted in hek, “these.' This hek fol. lowed by k, the suffix of the agent, becomes hekek.

$ 3. The Singular Pronouns with the Suffixes

N, Z, KO, RA, DIK, RONZ. We bave seen that when a plural noun or pronoun is followed by one of the above-damed suffixes, the k of the plural is converted into t; this gives to these nouns an appearance as if they were followed by the suffixes tan, taz, tako, &c. This view has been adopted until now, but is erroneous, as has been shown; t is a converted k. But what is not yet explained is, that these terminations, tan, taz, &c., are found agglutinated to the singular pronouns ; e.g. the pronoun a (formerly har) followed by n becomes hartan, 'in that;' on, 'this,' becomes, when followed by n, onetan, 'in this. All pronouns, and in general all words that do not admit of a definite form, follow this rule; e.g. nitaz, for ni-z,' by me;' hiruretan, 'in three,' for hirur-n, &c. Perhaps one may find an explanation in the fact that the indefinite form is sometimes expressed by a plural. (Compare ik.)

Some dialects have a special termination ch for expressing what is rendered in French by 'même;' e.g. auche, 'this,'-celui-ci-même. Auche and the like are then .considered as new themes, to which all the suffixes can be agglutinated.

§ 4. The Pronoun HAUR, HAU, AU. This pronoun is only used as a patient, this;' and for the plural, hauk, 'these. For the ayent there is another form, from a theme on, or hun, according to the dialects; thus, onek, hunek. The Biscaian plural is also made of on oneek. The plural hauk is also found as oyek, or oek, and auek; in Souletin, hoik. This pronoun bas (like har) an agent and a patient plural form-hauk+k=haukek; and, after the dropping of medial k, hauek, and then hauyek. The other observations made respecting har are also applicable to this pronoun.

$ 5. The Pronoun ON OF BUN. This pronoun is only in use as the agent onek (see § 4); it is also found in the compound pronoun neroni (see $ 8).

.$ 6. The Pronoun HORI, ORI. In all the dialects the patient is hori, or ori, 'that,' and the agent horrek, or orrek; and the plural, horiek. There are thus two themes ori and or; the second with hard r, doubled when a suffix follows. Ori is never followed by a suffix, except by k oriek, 'these. On the contrary, orren,

of that;' orri, 'to that;' orgatikan, 'for that,' are all formed by or. The Biscaian dialect makes also the plural from o orreek.

When one of the suffixes n, 2, ko, di, ra, rouz follows the plural form, then k is converted into thoriek +r becomes horietan, in those.'

. 87. The Pronoun HURA. This pronoun exists in all the dialects, except in Biscaian, where the corresponding pronoun is a. Hura, 'that,' is used in the singular for the patient; the corresponding agent is hark or ark, from har. Hura is not, or is seldom, employed with a suffix: har takes its place-hargatik, 'therefore ;' hayek, 'those.'

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