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For dreary were this earth, if earth were all,
chists and other Christians into the country, at the Though brighten'd oft by dear affection's kiss : risk of their lives, who, with all possible haste, brought Who for the spangles wears the funeral pall ?
into the fort a large quantity of rice, by which means But catch a gleam beyond it, and 'tis bliss.
it was preserved. At another time, the inhabitants of
the Tanjore country were so miserably oppressed, Heavy and dull this frame of limbs and heart : that many quitted the province. In consequence of Whether slow creeping on cold earth, or borne
their departure, all cultivation ceased, and every one On lofty steed, or loftier prow, we dart
dreaded the calamity of a famine. Mr. Swartz, with
out delay, entreated the rajah to remove the shameful O'er wave or field, yet breezes laugh to scorn oppressions, and to recall the inhabitants. His advice Our puny speed; and birds, and clouds in heaven,
was followed; and the rajah endeavoured to bring
back the people, promising to listen to their comAnd fish, like living shafts that pierce the main, plaints, remove their grievances, and that justice And stars that shoot through freezing air at even, should be administered. This, however, proved fruit. Who but would follow, might he break his chain?
less : all bis efforts were in vain, for the people would
not believe him. Mr. Swartz was then requested to And thou shalt break it soon; the grovelling worm write letters to them as before. He cheerfully did so, Shall find his wings, and soar as fast and free
assuring them, that, at his intercession, kindness would As his transfigur'd Lord, with lightning form
be shewn them, and that their oppressions should be And snowy vest—such grace he won for thee,
removed. The people immediately believed his word,
and seven thousand men came back in one day, and When from the grave he sprung at dawn of morn,
the rest of the inhabitants soon followed their example. And led through boundless air thy conquering road,
He then exhorted them to exert themselves to the
utmost in the cultivation of their lands, which should Leaving a glorious track, where saints new-born
have commenced in June, but nothing was done even Might fearless follow to their blest abode.
in the beginning of September. The people instantly But first, by many a stern and fiery blast,
replied, “ As you have shewn kindness to us, you shall The world's rude furnace must thy blood refine ;
not have reason to repent of it: we intend to work
night and day, to shew our regard to you.” And many a gale of keenest woe be pass'd,
Prov. xi. 21.--The expression, “though hand join Till every pulse beat true to airs divine,
in hand,” may bear a slight correction, conformable Till every limb obey the mounting soul,
both to the original Hebrew and also to the custeni The mounting soul the call by Jesus given :
actually prevailing in Syria. The original simply
signifies, *" band to hand." And this is the custom of He who the stormy heart can so control,
persons in the East, when they greet cach other, er The laggard body socn will waft to heaven.
strike hands, in token of friendship and agreement. KEBLE. They touch their right hands respectively; and then
raise them up to their lips and forehead.' This is the
universal Eastern courtesy. The English version, and Aliscellaneous.
the devices grounded upon it, give the idea of hand IRELAND, at all times a subject of deep interest clasped in hand, which is European, rather than to Protestants, and particularly so to the members of
Oriental. The sense, therefore, is,“ the Established Church, presents at this time an aspect
meet in hand-intimating, that heart assents to heart which calls for the deepest sympathy, and at the same
in the perpetration of wickedness" yet shall not the time for the most vigorous exertion. Under Christ, wicked go unpunished."---Rev. W. Jowett. the Light of life, and under the Word of God, the lamp Isses.-The Mollahs, or men of the law, are geneof life to our feet, the life of religion in Ireland is its rally to be seen riding about on mules; and they also Protestantism; the life of Protestantism in Ireland is
account it a dignity, and suited to their character, to the Church of Great Britain and Ireland. Extinguish ride on white asses, which is a striking illustration of the light she holds forth, and the rays of Divine light what we read in Judges, v. 10: “Speak ye that ride on become few and feeble. Proceed further, and ex- white asses, ye that sit in judgment."- Morier. tinguish those which remain, and immediately the night of superstition, of which we cannot see the
As this MAGAZINE has now attained a circulation consider termination, closes in upon that unhappy country : ably exceeding that of any other Religious Periodical connected darkness will cover the land, and gross darkness the with the Church of England, it will be found a most eligible people.- Prayer-Book and Homily Society's Report. vehicle for all Advertisements having reference to the Church
and Clergy, Religious Publications, school-Books, and works in Swartz. In the time of war, the fort of Tanjore general Literature; also for those relating to Educational Estawas in a very distressing situation; a powerful enemy
blishments, &c. &c. The terms are as followwas near, and the provisions were insufficient even for
Not exceeding 6 lines
Every additional line the garrison. There was grain enough in the country
Half a column for their supply, but they had no bullocks to convey it
Whole page to the fort; the people had lost all confidence in the
Bills of half a sheet
Advertisements and Bills to be sent to the Publishers not later Swartz. “We have lost all our credit," said the rajah than the 24th. Of the latter, Thirteen Thousand are required. to an English gentleman; “ let us try whether the inhabitants will trust Mr. Swartz." Accordingly he was desired to make a speedy agreement with them, Numbers until the volumes are complete, may be had of the
Portfolios, of a neat construction, for preserving the separat for there was no time to be lost. The sepoys were Publishers, price 2s.6d. each. daily dying in great numbers, and the streets were literally lined with the dead every morning. Mr. LONDON :—Published by JAMES BURNS, 17 Portman Street Swartz, therefore, sent letters in every direction, pro- Portman Square; W. EDWARDS, 12 Ave-Maria Lane, St. Pauli mising to pay with his own hands for every bullock
and to be procured, by order, of all Booksellers in Tornad
Country. that might be taken by the enemy; and in a short time, his benevolent exertions obtained for the perishing
PRINTED BY inhabitants above a thousand bullocks. He sent cate- ROBSON, LEVEY, AND FRANKLIN, 46 ST. MARTIN'S LANS.
3 16 0 2 10 0
A whole sheet
THE DIVINE AUTHORITY FOR A godly sincerity, “not as pleasing men, but LITURGY.
God which trieth our hearts."
Do we feel the force of the confession we BY THE Rev. H. G. WATKINS, M.A.
make before God and his Church,--that “we Rector of St. Swithin, London Stone, with St. Mary have done those things which we ought not
to have done, and have left undone those The work of creation, completed as to each things which we ought to have done, and individual existence, is a subject adapted that there is no health in us ?"—then we only for contemplation and for praise. So shall fervently pray, that the Divine mercy also the work of redemption, by the incar- may be bestowed upon us; and we shall nation and death of the Son of God, de- praise the God of all grace for promising mands, and, where an interest in it is esteemed remission of sins and an inheritance in as it ought to be, cannot but receive, our heaven to all who repent and believe the most thankful acknowledgments. But the Gospel. gracious and daily interposition of our hea- Certain sentences, because of a precatory venly Father, in directing and controlling the form, are not therefore necessarily acceptable affairs of the world, and our spiritual and to "the high and lofty One, that inhabiteth temporal allotments in it, is, or ought to be, eternity, whose name is holy." (Is. lvii. 15.) a subject of daily prayer, as well as of our When these are offered without the feeling of daily thanksgiving. If we seriously “ be- the heart, the heart-searching God says by lieve in God the Father Almighty, Maker of his prophet, “ Bring no more" such “ vain heaven and earth,” and that not a sparrow oblations." Those who worship only in this falls to the ground without his knowledge, way are thus described by Jehovah himself, we shall offer constant prayer to him, that " to whom all hearts are open, all desires we may, as to our souls and our bodies, be known, and from whom no secrets are hid," daily directed by his holy will and govern- “ This people draweth nigh unto me with ance; so that all things that may happen in their mouth, and honoureth me with their the world around us, and in our own per- lips; but their heart is far from me.” (Matt. sonal and private affairs, may turn to a good xv. 8.) Such persons, according to St. Paul's account in respect of our conversion to God, account of the matter, have “ a form of godour edification as Christians, and our eternal liness, but deny," or at least undervalue, “ the salvation. If we have been at all influenced power thereof." (2 Tim. iii. 5.) by our Saviour's question, " What shall it In what a wretched state would the parishes profit a man, if he gain the whole world, and in England have been at the era of the Relose his own soul? or what shall a man give,” formation, if a reformed form of prayer had or what can he profitably receive, "in ex- not been provided for the common use and change for his soul ?”—then shall we endea- understanding of ministers and people! Invour to use the language of praise and prayer, deed, a form of prayer was then absolutely furnished by our Church, with simplicity and necessary and expedient,
VOL. I. —NO. XXVII.
But the use of a form for public national our Lord, when in the Garden of Gethdevotion was known to the Jewish Church. semane, left his disciples, and went away That that ancient people of God were assisted again and “prayed the third time, saying by especially prescribed forms of prayer, is the same words." (Matt. xxvi. 44, and Mark, evident from various parts of the Old Tes- xiv. 39.) tament Scriptures. (Exod. xv. 1, 20, 21; Jesus Christ, our great High-Priest, and Num. x. 35, 36 ; Deut. xxi. 7, 8, xxvi. 3, 5; the sovereign Head of the Church, has ap1 Chron. xxiii. 30, compared with Nehem. pointed a form of words, without the use of xii. 24, 45, 46; Ezra, iii. 10, 11; Hosea, which neither sprinkling with water, nor imxiv. 2.) Aaron was commanded to bless mersion in it, would constitute Christian bapIsrael in a certain form of words. “ The tism. " Go ye, and teach all nations, bapLord spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto tising them in the name of the Father, and of Aaron and unto his sons, saying, On this the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.” (Matt
. wise ye shall bless the children of Israel, xxviii. 19.) This form is still preserved and saying unto them, The Lord bless thee, and used in all Churches that observe the rite of keep thee; The Lord make his face to shine Christian initiation. The apostle Paul conupon thee, and be gracious unto thee; The cludes several of his epistles with the same Lord lift up his countenance upon thee, and benedictory words; and, indeed, the whole give thee peace. (Num. vi. 22-26.) Most Scriptures present us with sentences of praise of the Psalms were composed for the service and of prayer, suited for our own adoption of the temple, as forms of prayer and praise and use. (Psalm xcii.) “ Hezekiah the king and the Many of the ancient fathers expressly speak princes commanded the Levites to sing of the Lord's Prayer as then commonly used praise unto the Lord with the words of David in the Church. We have indubitable testiand of Asaph the seer. And they sang praises mony, as early as within one hundred and with gladness, and they bowed their heads fifty years after the apostles, that liturgies and worshipped." (2 Chron. xxix. 30.) existed and were in use. Even then they
Some learned men have traced a consider- were called “Common Prayers," and " Conable resemblance between the Jewish forms stituted Prayers;" and those afterwards that still extant and our own, allowing for the were used in the court of Constantine, under larger measure of 'revealed truth which we whom Christianity was first delivered from enjoy. No doubt our Saviour, “ who came heathen persecution, were called at that time unto his own people," and was educated as a " Authorised Prayers." Jew, attended constantly the temple and sy- Matthew Henry and Dr. Watts have col. nagogue worship, and conformed to the public lected many Scripture sentences, and given liturgy then in use. We know he conformed several forms of prayer, which they commend to circumcision and to baptism, and scru- as useful helps to our addresses at the Throne pulously observed the passover, and other of Grace. Some of the most respectable insolemn festivals of the Jewish Church. Had dependent ministers now living, who, nevernot this been the case, the scribes and phari- theless, feel pleasure in the avowal of their sees would have reproached him as a hea- perfect freedom to act as they please in the then and profane person. This, however, conduct of their own public worship, do hothey never dared to do.
nour to our Liturgy, by making large and Our Saviour in answer to the request of frequent quotations from it, in combination his disciples, that he should teach them to with their own extemporaneous petitions and pray, as John also taught his disciples ; i. e. thanksgivings. Christians of all classes conthat they should have a form of prayer, which stantly sing by printed forms : and if it is should be a sign that they were his disciples, lawful and expedient in the poetic preconand in communion one with another, instruct-ceived compositions of others to pray and ed them to use that form which we usually praise, it must be no less so, to offer our supdesignate as the Lord's Prayer. And it is a plications and grateful acknowledgments in remarkable fact concerning this prayer, that more simple prose. What is lawful and right it does not consist of sentiments or expres- in the one case, cannot possibly be less so sions at that time first formed by our Sa- in the other. Considerations of this kind viour, but, excepting the clause, “ Forgive ought at least to silence the objections that us our trespasses, as we forgive them that captious minds suggest against the lawfultrespass against us," every part is taken from ness and use of a liturgical form of public the Jewish formularies; so that, in the worship : as they shew that pious people of main, the prayer was formed of expressions all parties directly or indirectly acknowpreviously in use, and then only combined ledge both. and adopted for a Christian service. And The authorised formularies of the Western St. Matthew and St. Mark inform us, that Church were originally in Latin, a language
then generally spoken, and were compiled the coming he refers to with his own resurrection :from forms used by the primitive Christians;
"and though, after my skin, worms destroy this body, but, in process of time, the good and whole- yet in my flesh shall I see God: whom I shall see för
myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another." some sentiments, of which they were entirely Again, on our Lord's ascension, the angels assured composed, were mingled with the most gross the disciples, “this same Jesus, which is taken up and degrading superstitions, and are found from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as still so mingled, in the present printed mis- Again, St. Paul says, the Lord himself shall descend
ye have seen him go into heaven." (Acts, i. 11.) sals and breviaries of the Church of Rome. from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archIn the time of Henry VIII. the absurdity of angel, and with the trump of God.” (1 Thess, iv. 16.) praying publicly in an unknown tongue became
And in another epistle, “the Lord Jesus shall be re
vealed from heaven with his mighty angels in flaming manifest; and a service in English was or- fire.” (2 Thess. i. 7, 8.) And, once more, in the dered, " that men might pray with the under- closing book of Scripture we read, “ behold he cometh standing, and that the unlearned might ra- with clouds, and every eye shall see him, and they tionally say Amen at the giving of Thanks.”
also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the earth The eminent Grotius says, that the English attendant circumstances are also described. The dead
shall wail because of him.” (Rev. i. 7.) Some of the Liturgy, in his view, approaches the nearest are to rise, and the living to be changed : for "the of all he had seen to the services of the pri- dead in Christ shall rise first; then we which are alive mitive Church.
and remain shall be caught up together with them in
the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air.” (1 Thess. iy. [To be concluded in an early Number.]
16, 17.) The world is to be consumed by fire: in that day, “ the heavens shall pass away with a great noise,
and the elements shall melt with fervent heat; the EXTRACTS FROM FOUR LECTURES ON earth also, and the works that are therein, shall be ADVENT,*
burnt up.” (2 Peter, iii. 10.)
Now I argue, that as the prophecies were fulfilledLect. I.-The Certainty of Christ's Second Coming. exactly--which described the conception, the birthI PROCEED to argue, from the minuteness of accom- place, the lowliness, the judgment, the death, the plishment of prophecy relating to the first advent, burial of Christ; so will there be the clouds, the fire, that all that is predicted of the second will be as truly the trumpet, the archangel's voice, the shout of atfulfilled.
tending myriads, the wailing woe, which shall be on It is very needful to draw men's attention to this
all kindreds of the earth. The events are CERTAIN. part of the prophetic record. For there appears to
Your eyes shall see that "pompous appearance;" prevail much practical disbelief of Christ's second your ears shall hear that tremendous voice ; and you coming. The age of wonders, many seem to think, shall wail, bitterly and for ever, if you are not preis past, and now there shall be no change in the regu- pared to meet him. lar order of the universe. Politicians arrange their
This is the particular, and most important light, in plans, as if they deemed this world, the theatre of which we are to view this matter. It takes its interest their machinations, eternal. Men talk of the mareh
We shall be the subjects of that day's soof intellect and spread of knowledge, and anticipate a
lemnities. To us the Lord will come, to judge us continual improvement of nations, and calculate on, according to our works. He is the Master, then refor thousands of advancing years, the accomplishment turning to his household, and punishing him that he of their schemes, as if they imagined that the tide of finds drunken. He is the Lord, then reckoning with events would never come to a full stop. Rarely, if his servants, and requiring of them an account of the ever, do you find it admitted as a principle, in busi- talents he had lent them. He is the moral Governor ness, or in books, not especially theological, that we of the world, then coming to justify his ways in the are drawing to an end, advancing to a crisis--not the sight of the universe-to inflict " tribulation and anmere petty revolution of this or that empire, but- guish upon every soul of man that doeth evil”-to the catastrophe of creation. There are individuals, to
render “glory, honour, and peace, to every man that be sure--and the number is perhaps increasing-who worketh good.” think of and believe in the return of Christ to judg
Many persons are apt to lose sight of this point of ment; but the multitude, the mass of the world, is chief importance : they wander-and Satan loves to uninfluenced by such thoughts. The mechanic goes
lead them-into speculations about the particular time, to his daily labour, the merchant to his counting
and the precise manner, of Christ's second coming. house, the student to his books, with no apprehension The time, presumptuous men !-hath not the Father that "the end of all things is at hand." If they reserved that within his own power ? Our Saviour's credit theoretically the doctrine, they place the facts
awful words ought to sound the knell of every expectaof it at the telescopic distance of many generations, tion to penetrate that mystery : "of that day and hour too remote to be of interest or dear importance to
knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my themselves. I say, therefore, that the certainty of Father only.” (Matt. xxiv. 36). The manner :-one Christ's second coming ought to be diligently weighed: would think that these persons had sat in the councils of and I earnestly invite your attention to the over
heaven, and helped to frame the purposes of the eternal whelming evidence of it which the Scripture fur
mind. The time!--yes, I will tell you of the time: it nishes.
shall be when men are least expecting it, when they It will be sufficient for my purpose to present to
are eating and drinking, and marrying and giving in you here a few of the most remarkable predictions. marriage, as when the flood came; then shall it come, Í take one from the Old Testament :-“I know that when scoffers are “walking after their own lusts, and my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the saying, Where is the promise of his coming ?" When latter day upon the earth.” (Job, xix, 25-27.) It is you, peradventure, are dreaming of unbroken years of plain that these words do not refer to the first coming security, Then shall the unearthly thunder, his appaof Christ; for, in the following verses, Job connects
ritor, rend the firmament; then shall the fire, his
minister, dissolve the elements; then "every eye shall By the Rev. John Ayre. Published by Seeley and Burn
see him, and the kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him.” The manner!-ves, I will tell you of
the manner: that very Jesus who was crucified, shall faith. Our own views of Church government are descend in his body, and be looked on in glory; and fixed-Episcopalians on principle, and from heartfelt the heavens and the earth shall flee away, and the dead conviction, we are yet willing to give to the clergy of shall hear his voice, and shall come forth, “some to the Church of Scotland their full meed of praise. We everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting trust that between the members of that Church, lay contempt.” So much is revealed: but "secret things and clerical, and those of the Episcopal communion, belong to God." And just as when our Lord came
there will ever remain a feeling of mutual respect and first, there were many circumstances in the manner of esteem; and that if there is to be any contention his coming, which even those that looked for him did among them, it should not be about the records of not expect, so will it be now: the broad fact is written other days, but which of them now shall be most as with a sunbeam, “HE COMETH :" the where, the zealous in the attempt to bring perishing sinners to when, the how, as to minute particulars, are veiled in the knowledge of a crucified Saviour ; to preach with impenetrable darkness.
increasing zeal and holier ardour the saving doctrines I will not enter into the controversies which have of the Gospel ; and to oppose that spirit of hostility distracted the Church on these points: they tend, i to every thing established, which, in order to obtain have had reason to know, to alienate the mind from the the overthrow of the Churches of these realms, would grand matter of fact to puny speculations about mere
allow even Popery, with all its abominations, to reign circumstantials. Carry home with you, I repeat, the triumphant in the land. fact—he is coming. Let it follow you to your retire- The subject of this memoir was raised to the episment, and attend you in your business, " behold, he copate in Scotland during these perilous times referred cometh,” and I shall see him. And then, O brethren, His character has been very much misrepresented ask your hearts, Am I prepared to meet him? Can y both by the Presbyterian and Episcopalian party. there be an inquiry so momentous ? Postpone it not. Neither, in fact, seem to have been satisfied with his Begin your preparation now. Now we may shew you conduct. To us he appears to bave been an individual Christ the Saviour, the mild, compassionate Lord : his eminently zealous in the cause of his heavenly Master; eye is not now lighted up with fury, his hand not yet to have been actuated with the purest and most exalted stretched forth to destroy. He is still waiting to be piety towards God, and kindness and good-will togracious. He will blot out your iniquities in his own wards his fellow-men; and happy for his traducers precious blood, that “cleanseth from all sin." Wash will it be, in the day of solemn account, to whichever in it, and you shall be clean. Believe in the Lord Jesus form of ecclesiastical discipline they may have held, Christ, and you, the very guiltiest of you, shall not be if they shall have been found, at the last, men of like condemned at his bar of judgment : you shall not
faith and holiness. There may be a most devoted atperish, but shall have everlasting life.
tachment to a peculiar system of external worship and ecclesiastical discipline, accompanied with total desti
tution of vital religion in the soul; and it becomes Biography.
strong partisans for such systems to beware lest, while they are zealous for the outward beauty of the temple
, ROBERT LEIGHTON, D.D., ARCIBISHOP OF GLASGOW. they forget that holiness to the Lord is the mark of all
true worshippers. The state of religion in Scotland during the reigns of Robert Leighton was born in the year 1611. He Charles the second and James the Second presents a was the son of Alexander Leighton, a native of Scotmost melancholy picture of the wretched consequences land, who took up his residence in London, and who which must inevitably result from that bigoted and had an information exhibited against him in the Starpersecuting spirit which is utterly at variance with Chamber for a book, entitled, “ An Appeal to the Par. the charity and brotherly kindness so repeatedly incul- liament of a Plea against Prelacy," wherein he used cated in the Gospel. The historical records of these the most vehement and virulent language against the perilous times differ in their details, according to the Established Church, and brought down upon himself views of their several authors: and it is not casy to the fury of his opponents. He underwent cruelties arrive at the truth, each party being lauded, and the on account of this, at which the heart recoils, and other condemned, as the author was a zealous advo- | which were more fitting for a land of pagan darkness, cate for prelacy or presbytery. That the presbyterian than one in which the light of Gospel-truth was party underwent severe and heavy trials, no sane man shining.* He wrote also the “Looking-glass of the can for a moment deny ; and we conceive that all at- Holy War.” That he was a man of considerable aetempts to palliate the enormities of their persecutors quirements cannot be doubted. The universities of have utterly failed. On the other hand, the Presby Leyden and St. Andrews, cach conferred upon him the terians were not guiltless in this same particular; and degree of D.D., a rare mark of honourable distinction authentic documents are not wanting to shew, that, in at that time. some instances, it was the want of power rather than of will, which prevented them retaliating to the full • He was sentenced to be committed to the Fleet during life: upon their adversaries. These perilous times have to pay a fine of 10,0001. ; to be carried to the pillory at Westgone by; and we strongly deprecate all attempts to
minster, and there whipped; and, after whipping, to be set in
the pillory, have one of his ears cut off, one side of his nose slit. fan the flame of discord between the Episcopalians and be branded on the one cheek with the letters S. S. for a and Presbyterians of the north. We fear that, in sower of sedition ; and on another day to be carried to the pil. some instances, the attempt is still made, perhaps on
lory, in ('heapside, to be there again whipped, have his other
ear cut off, the other side of his nose slit, and his other check both sides. But surely Ephraim should no longer branded with the double S. Mr. Leighton made his escape out seek to vex Judah, nor Judah Ephraim. Those persc- of prison the night before his sentence was to have been in part cuting times have gone by. Through the rich mercy
executed ; but he was soon retaken; and on the 16th of No
vember underwent the one half of his sentence in Palace Yard, of God, our lot has been cast in the days of full reli
Westminster. On that day sevennight, his sores on his back, gious toleration; and the same blessings, which we
ear, nose, and face, not being cured, he was again whipped # would desire to receive with gratitude, we would de- the pillory in Cheapside. The hangman, on this occasion, frá sire that others should enjoy. Presbytery and pre
purposely half intoxicated, and performed his duty with the lacy in Scotland have, at this moment, enough to do
most savage ferocity. After being thus unmercifully whipped,
the poor culprit was exposed nearly two hours on the pillory, in to ward off the attacks of a common enemy, in the a severe frost and heavy fall of snow; at the end of which he shape of a strange amalgamation of persons of all re- underwent, to the full extent thereof, the remainder of his ligious sentiments, and persons of none, seeking, as
brutal sentence; and, being unable to walk, he was carried
back by water to his confinement, where he remained til he was we conceive, to sap the foundations of God's eternal
liberated by the Long Parliament. -See note, TVedroæ, voll truth, and to shake the bulwarks of the Protestant