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views of some parts, at least, of revealed truth. tain, would willingly have shed their blood. Those, for example, who insist on adult bap- By repudiating written confessions, a comtism, make this, of course, one of the terms munity places itself in a most anomalous of their communion, --- they enrol no man in position ; for it cannot, as I have shewn, help their society unless he assent to it. And so using them just where it deems them obthis is an article, whether written or noxious, as a test; while it loses their assistwritten is of no moment, to which every ance where surely it would desire to have it, candidate for Church-membership among them as a preservative. must subscribe. It would clearly be idle to I am very ready to acknowledge that say that they take Scripture only for their Churches with creeds and confessions may creed; for, be their practice right or wrong, err, and even apostatise from the faith ; but --that is not now the question—it is not bare such apostacy is not in consequence of, but Scripture, but their view of Scripture, which in spite of these provisions. Their fall has is presented and insisted on. The same may been, not accelerated, but retarded by posbe said of all the other peculiarities which sessing them. For it is evidently more diffidistinguish one denomination from another. cult for an error to become prevalent, when it It is evident, that if, in any of them, you are must first be solemnly inserted in a code of a candidate for office, and maintain opinions articles, than when it can glide imperceptibly contrary to the received opinions of the body, forwards, and when all it has to do is to even though you are perfectly conscientious corrupt the practice of those who bear authoin your belief, and appeal to Scripture in rity. It is never pretended that the formusupport of it, you will be excluded. And laries of which I speak are an absolutely such exclusion would be really just and pro- effectual preservative against corruption; but per; otherwise, in the present condition of they possess, I think I have sufficiently the world, no society could possibly be kept shewn, a strong tendency to counteract the together. From these considerations, it may advance of error, and to keep the stream of be, I think, assu
sumed, that even where there are Christian doctrine, as it flows onwards through no written articles, there is the substance of the lapse of years, clear and unpolluted. It them: the principle, at least, is acted on. is true that, when once introduced, error And if it be urged that, because they are not may thus, perhaps, be rendered more lasting; written, a perfect uniformity is not enjoined, but it would be obviously unfair to argue what is this but to say that here, as in every from this, the abuse, against the use of creeds other community in the world, there are cer- and articles. Every institution might be tain opinions, or parts of opinions, which are similarly attacked, and every wholesome not deemed vitally important? There is no authority abrogated. Besides, I am inclined Church, not even that of Rome, which has not, to ascribe to established formularies someon some questions, left its people free to fol- what of a renovating influence. If a commulow their private judgment.
nity without them departs from the faith, Now, that law is most unsatisfactory which there is no trace left of its former standing, exists only in the breast of the judge ; with no marks or tokens, so to speak, in the every disposition to decide equitably, he will trackless forest of error, by which to retrace be more in danger of departing from his its steps : whereas, if error is introduced into standard, justice, than if he has a written accredited confessions, still there is usually statute to guide him: and that Church is something that is valuable left (as in the exstrangely deficient which has no plain autho- ample of Rome), disagreeing with the rubbish rised voice of her own, but which speaks only piled upon it; or even if every pure creed by the mouth of her individual ministers; and article be rejected, the remembrance of with the purest intentions, these men will them cannot be entirely obliterated : there be biased by the force of circumstances, and they are on record, to be a speaking witness their decisions will have a tendency to be to the apostate how novel her preferred doccome unsettled and inconsistent. The par- trines are, and, at least, to point her whence she ticular principles maintained by different has fallen. We have instances of Churches comniunities, if not enounced in distinct ar- (the Syrian, in India, appears to be one) thus ticles, will vary from time to time. They being kept alive, to waken at last from the may be screwed up unseasonably to a higher slumber of ages, and rise once more to put pitch,—they may be relaxed till the sub- on their “beautiful garments." stance is well-nigh evaporated. And thus A liturgy, or daily service, is in this respect we have seen denominations, not fenced by of special value. It embodies the doctrines these safeguards, lapse, imperceptibly it may of a creed into continual use. It bears a tesbe, but not less surely, into fearful error, till timony, more prominent and hard to be at last they have arrived at heresy, to resist silenced than any other can be, against the inwhich, their forefathers, whose name they re- roads of evil. Articles might possibly be
neglected by the many; but a liturgy is con- pains in teaching them sacred music, and their singing tinually sounding in their ears. Besides, is a very affecting and pleasing part of their worship. therefore, its employment as a means in which The congregation consisted of about 150 persons, and to worship God, it is a record of the truth to
Mr, M.Murray informed me that the number of Inmen, alike public and enduring.
dians receiving religious instruction from him is 216 ; I would only add, carefully cherish these
many of them, however, are yet often necessarily abprecious treasures,—these stones gathered,
sent from the mission. as it were, from the Jordan, across which
"I have peculiar pleasure in being able to state, our fathers passed when escaping from the
for the information of the society, that Mr. M‘Murworse than Egyptian bondage of Rome, to be ray's missionary labours have been attended with a memorial to the Lord for ever, an altar
great success. In strictly examining some of the upon which, with joy and gladness, we may
young Indians, in the presence of Captain Anderson,
who is well acquainted with their language, I was offer unto him the sacrifice of praise and
happy to find that they have made rapid progress in thanksgiving
the acquisition of scriptural knowledge, which evinces the assiduous exertions which must have been made
at the mission for their instruction and improvement. MISSIONARY EXERTIONS IN UPPER
Chinquacounse, the chief, made use of several expresCANADA.
sions in a speech which he addressed to the assembled We intimated our purpose, a short time back, of di- | Indians at a council which I attended, that will shew recting our readers' attention to the “Society for con- more clearly than any observations which I am able verting and civilising the Indians, and propagating to make, his acquaintance with the doctrines of the the Gospel among destitute settlers in Upper Canada.” | Gospel, and the duties of the Christian life. We think we cannot better fulfil that intention than My friends (said he), the eye of the Great Spirit by making some extracts from the journal of the Rev. is upon us now that we are assembled together. It is A. Elliot, one of the travelling missionaries of the
the will of that Great Being that we should receive society, as published in its last report.
the religion which he hath made known to us in his however, premise, that this society (the object of
word. For our sakes and for our salvation the Lord which will be sufficiently understood from its appel- Jesus Christ came down from on high. The Lord is lation) is patronised by the lieut-governor of the merciful, and always desirous to save us. Our sins province, and under the presidency of the bishop of were a heavy burden, and it was needful that he Quebec. Among its vice-presidents we observe the should lay down his life for us. He shed his blood archdeacons and the chief-justice ; and its operations to wash away our sins ; without this we should be appear to be conducted with a degree of wisdom and wretched here on earth. Let us consider this, and zeal, which promise, under God's blessing, the hap- remember that, miserable beings as we are, he laid piest results. But we must hasten to the promised down his life for us. Now, my friends, this is what extracts from the journal of Mr. Elliot, an indefati- our ministers are teaching us, that we must look for gable and devoted labourer, who is indeed spending the salvation of our souls to the Great God, Father, and being spent in his divine Master's service. He Son, and Holy Spirit. Now, my friends, let us listen is giving an account of a missionary tour to the nor- attentively to our minister, and then we shall be enthern shores of Lake Huron, in the summer of 1835. abled to love one another, even as brothers and sisters
"On Saturday, [June] the 27th (he says), we arrived love one another. My friends, we have been hearing at the Sault St. Marie, and were received by the Rev. ministers of different denominations; but let us not William M Murray, who had been anxiously expect. on that account be strangers to one another, but good ing us for some time, with great kindness. An as- friends! Having exhorted his brethren to 'oversemblage of Indians, belonging to his congregation, come the black bird, which had been singing about saluted and welcomed us on our arrival with expres- their ears for some time past, even as the Great God sions of the greatest joy. During the short time that hath overcome the evil spirit,' he said, and let us we remained there I had the pleasure of preaching pray to the Almighty God of heaven to strengthen our several times to the Indians, and it is extremely grati- minds, that we may have power to do this.'” fying to witness their orderly and decent behaviour We quote the closing paragraphs of Mr. Elliot's while attending divine service. On one occasion, im- journal. mediately after the sermon, three Christian couples, "I addressed them, a body of Indians from Lake who had been married according to Indian usage be- Nippising, July 12, on the subject of religion, while fore their conversion, stood up in the congregation, they listened very attentively. After considerable disand their marriages were solemnised by the Rev. Mr. cussion respecting Christianity and civilisation, they
informed us, that should teachers be sent to their “ On Sunday, the 28th, we administered the holy country, they would become members of the Church. communion to thirty-five persons, most of whom had A few of them, however, have already attached thembeen baptised and instructed by Mr. M‘Murray. On selves to the Roman Catholics. It is probable that that occasion he read a part of the prayers in the if an establishment should be formed at Lake Nip
Mrs. M.Murray, who speaks that pising, the Indians in the interior would resort to the language very fluently, was kind enough to interpret mission, which might lead to their conversion and a part of my discourse to the Indians on the nature religious instruction. A young Indian from those and design of the Lord's supper. She has taken much parts repeated to Capt. Anderson a lamentable fact
LIFE OF THE HON, ROBERT BOYLE.
which the latter has frequently stated to me, that in- tian brethren! If it be a rule of action, under the stances have occurred of the natives of those distant Gospel dispensation, to give in spiritual things as solitudes being guilty of the horrid crime of killing men have received, it becomes, indeed, a momentous their nearest relatives, and afterwards feasting on consideration with them not to be behindhand in its their lifeless remains.
fulfilment." "Having returned to Penetanguishine on the 13th, These admonitions ought to be pondered by proI had the pleasure, early on the following morning, fessing Christians at home, as well as by the more of preaching to above 800 Indians, as they sat on the favoured of the inhabitants of the colony. The income ground at the military establishment. On that occa- of the society for the last year, it may be proper to sion, I recognised many persons whom I had previ- state, was 4401. 7s. 10d. ously addressed in their native wilds, who repeated their assurances that they will attend to instruction,
Biography. and attach themselves to the Church. The number of Indians who accepted my offer is 369, and 266 of these have expressed their determination to settle at
[Concluded from No. XIX.] the Manitoulin island (where Mr. E. was about to be It would, of course, be impossible to follow Mr. Boyle stationed). But there are many other Indians with through his researches from this period to the time of whom I have had intercourse, and multitudes with his death : even to give a list of the publications which whom no opportunities of communication have yet every year, nay, almost monthly, issued from the press, been afforded.
and upon which, chiefly, his prodigious fame as a phi“The more that is seen and heard of these wretched losopher is founded, would be impracticable. Nor but interesting wanderers of the wilderness, the more would it accord with our objects. Our aim is rather solicitude is felt for their speedy admission into the to exhibit the influence which religion had upon his flock of Christ; and the thought ought not to be en- heart; and to shew how, in the midst of his profound tertained, that any churchman, who is under the in- investigations, the “wisdom that is from above” doAuence of the benevolent spirit of our religion, can mineered, in his regards, above all other, and brought withhold his aid in rescuing those from destruction every study of this great man into captivity to itself. for whom his Redeemer died.
Mr. Boyle, in 1654, took up his residence at Oxford, "At a loss to account for the diversity of parties whither the Philosophical Society had removed from and persuasions into which the Christian world is un- the turbulence of London. At Oxford he mostly rehappily divided, and perplexed by the various views sided fourteen years, during which time he invented in which religion is represented, but desirous to be the air-pump, by the help of which he laid a foundapartakers of the blessings which we enjoy, these sim- tion for a complete theory of pneumatics. But he ple sojourners of the rocks are calling upon us to studied theology here as well as philosophy, assisted shew them the way of salvation.' I need scarcely by Dr. Pococke and Mr. Samuel Clarke, both great recommend them to the charitable consideration of orientalists: he was also very intimate with Dr. Barlow, the committee ; and I hope that some effective plan who was then head-librarian of the Bodleian Library, may soon be devised for the promotion and accom- and afterwards Bishop of Lincoln, a man of known plishment of the primary object of the society. the piety and varied learning. conversion and civilisation of the Indians by the agency On the restoration of Charles the Second he was of the Church.”
treated with high respect by the king and his minisWe trust that this affecting appeal will be largely ters, Southampton and Clarendon. The latter strongly responded to; and we will only add a brief extract from urged him to enter into holy orders, thinking that he the committee's report. “He [Mr. Elliot) expresses would cast lustre on the Church of England ; but he his apprehension, and in stronger terms than ever, declined the proposal, saying, that " whatever he did lest the anxious efforts of the members of the Church or wrote on the subject of religion would have greater to obtain her fixed ministrations, which he now re- weight in coming from a layman, since he well knew peatedly witnesses, should languish from the want of that the irreligious fortified themselves against all that timely encouragement; and that with the present ge- the clergy could offer, by saying that it was their trade, neration should expire, if not the remembrance, at and that they were paid for it." The admirable point least the predilection for the faith of their forefathers. in Mr. Boyle's character was, that all his efforts were In the heart of a city, with a capacious church, and a directed to the promotion of “ whatsoever things were numerous society, this danger is not so sensibly per- lovely and of good report.” His studies and his inceived; but, in the woods, it assumes a painful reality, fluence were directed to promoting religion and virtue. and is felt, perhaps, to be the greatest aggravation of He had considerable weight with the king and his their privations. The inhabitants, therefore, of the ministers, and he employed it in behalf of the society capital, and the more thickly peopled districts of the for the propagation of the Gospel in New England. province, who abound in the outward means of grace, His character was known and respected far and wide: should remember, with tenderness, the spiritual desti- as proofs of it, the Grand Duke of Tuscany requested tution of the backwoodsman, and send from time to to be permitted to correspond with him; and Charles time, by the hand of zealous and faithful missionaries, II. nominated him, unasked, to the provostship of to inquire after his religious welfare. Were situations Eton, which was thought to be the fittest post for him exchanged for a moment, how' beautiful' would they in the kingdom. This, liowever, against the advice of acknowledge the feet' of those to be who brought all his friends, he declined, because he must forsake to their secluded dwelling the salvation of their Chris- his present pursuits, whereby he could effectually support the cause of religion ; and, also, because he must whose name, as connected with missionary efforts, is take orders, to which, as we have before stated, he had well known. His letter to Mr. Elliot is an instance of an objection. He refused also to become president of his aversion to religious persecution in every shape. the Royal Society, which his name and services had After this time his health gradually declined: feelso much dignified. The highest public office he ever ing this, he made the best use of the remainder of his held was that of governor of the Corporation for the days, which were now fast drawing to a close, in Propagation of the Gospel, and this he resigned when arranging his scattered writings. He also felt the nehe found his health declining. He had been many cessity of " setting his house in order” in temporal years one of the directors of the East India Company, respects; and accordingly, in the middle of the year and was extremely useful in procuring their charter; 1689, he signed and sealed his last will. His dishis main inducement in doing which was the hope of order increasing, he departed this life the 30th of prevailing with the company to exert themselves for December, in the sixty-fifth year of his age, and was spreading the Gospel in that extensive quarter of the interred in the church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, on world. There is a letter of his extant, which he wrote the 7th of January following. to that company, urging upon them the duty of such Dr. Gilbert Burnet, bishop of Salisbury, preached his efforts wherever their commerce gave them an oppor- funeral sermon, from a text most apposite to the subtunity. Nor was he backward to contribute to this ject-Eccles. ii. 26. “For God giveth to a man that excellent design : as a proof of it, he caused five hun- which is good in his sight, wisdom, knowledge, and dred copies of the four Gospels, with the Acts of the joy." Apostles, in the Malayan language, to be printed at He says that he was the better able to describe Mr. Oxford in 1677, and sent abroad at his own expense. Boyle's character, from the many happy hours he had He gave a noble reward to Dr. Pococke, who, at his spent in conversation with him, in the course of request, had translated “Grotius on the Truth of the twenty-nine years. The account of one so well qualiChristian Religion," into Arabic ; and was at the ex- fied to form a just estimate of his merits, cannot but pense of the whole impression, which he took care be received with interest: out of this account, thereshould be distributed in the Levant. He had resolved fore, we shall gather the general notice of his characto carry on the printing of the New Testament in ter, which will conclude our memoir. Turkish ; but the company thought that they ought to Bishop Burnet gives a large account of Mr. Boyle's do this, and they only allowed him to contribute to the sincere and unaffected piety, and more especially of work, which he did largely. He gave 7001. to the
his zeal for the Christian religion, without having any edition of the Irish Bible, and took measures for its narrow notions concerning it, or mistaking, as so many being distributed in Ireland ; he contributed, also, do, a bigoted heat in favour of a particular sect, for hberally to the impression of the Welsh Bible. He that zeal which is the ornament of a true Christian. gate, during his life, 3001. towards the design of dif- He mentions, as a proof of this, his noble foundation fusing Christianity in America ; and as soon as he for lectures in defence of the Gospel against infidels heard that the East India Company were entering on
of all sorts. He had intended in his lifetime to esthe like work in the East, he sent 1007. to set an ex
tablish this lecture, but was prevented by important ample, meaning to do much more when he should find reasons from doing so : in his last will, however, he the plan set on foot in earnest. Surely all this was to appropriated a liberal sum of money for a clergyman, " honour the Lord with his substance :" this was not
who should, " in a few well-digested sermons, every " to lay up treasure for himself, but to be rich towards year set forth the truth of the Christian religion in God." Rich men often give liberally towards objects general, without descending to the subdivisions among which are commendable, but unconnected with God's Christians." The effects of this noble foundation have honour ; others, again, cast in, of their abundance, to been conspicuous in the many volumes of excellent some cause of a religious kind; but it is from a regard discourses which the “ Boyle's Lecture” has given to decency, and not out of a hearty interest in the
birth to. “His knowledge,” says Burnet, “ was of so merits of the cause. But, when we see a man thus vast an extent, that, if it were not for the variety of systematically labouring, at a vast personal cost, to
vouchers in their several sorts, I should be afraid to send the Scriptures of truth far and wide - that man say all I know. He carried the study of the Hebrew being himself profoundly versed in, and widely famed very far into the Rabbinical writings, and the other for human knowledge - we cannot but decide, that he oriental tongues. He had read so much of the Faestimated far above all earthly wisdom (though he had thers, that he had formed a clear judgment of all the explored its depths) the becoming “wise unto salva- eminent ones. He had read a vast deal on the Scription, through faith which is in Christ Jesus.”
tures, had gone very nicely through the various conIn 1678 the Royal Society elected him as their pre
troversies in religion, and was a true master of the sident, but he declined that great honour, alleging whole body of divinity. He read the whole compass
peculiarly tender in point of oaths.” of the mathematical sciences, and knew the abstrusest About this time Dr. Burnet, being engaged in com
parts of geometry; but his peculiar and favourite piling his History of the Reformation, Mr. Boyle gave study was chemistry. He spent neither his time nor largely towards the expense of publishing it. Dr. B. fortune upon the vain pursuits of high promises and acknowledges his gift in the preface to the second pretensions : he always kept himself within the comvolume. This, probably, was the period when he was pass that his estate might well bear; and, as he made engaged in promoting the spread of the Gospel among chemistry much the better for his dealing in it, so he the American Indians, for he was at this time in cor- hever made himself either worse or the poorer for it. respondence with Mr. John Elliot, of New England, It was a charity to others, as well as an entertainment
that he was
to himself; for the produce of it was distributed by his civility, and would never assume the authority which sister and others, into whose hands he put it. He had all the world was ready to pay him. He allowed himpossessed himself with such an amiable view of our self a great deal of decent cheerfulness; so that he holy religion, separated either from superstitious prac- had nothing of the more
oroseness to which philosophers tices or the sourness of parties, that, as he was fully think they have some right, nor of the affectations persuaded of the truth of it, and, indeed, wholly pos- which men of an extraordinary pitch of devotion go into sessed with it, so he rejoiced in every discovery that sometimes, without being well aware of them. He nature furnished him with to illustrate it, or to take was, in a word, plainly and sincerely, in the sight of off the objections against any part of it. He always God, as well as in the view of men, “a good man,' considered it as a system of truth, which ought to purify even one of a thousand.' the heart and govern the life.” “ He had the pro- “ I might here challenge the whole tribe of liberfoundest veneration," continues Burnet, “ for the great tines to come and view the usefulness as well as the God of heaven and earth that I ever observed in any excellence of the Christian religion, in a life that was person. The very name of God was never mentioned entirely dedicated to it, and see what they can object. by him without a pause and a visible stop in his dis- I ought to call on all that were so happy as to know course, in which one that knew him most particularly him well, and observed his temper and course of life, above twenty years (this was Sir Peter Pett), hath and charge them to sum up and lay together the told me he was so exact, that he does not remember to many great and good things they saw in him, and have observed him once to fail in it. And, indeed, it from thence to remember always, to how vast a subliappeared to those who conversed most with him on mity the Christian religion can raise a mind that does his inquiries into nature, that his main design in that both thoroughly believe it, and is entirely governed by (on which, as he had his own eye most constantly, so it. I might here also call up the multitudes of those he took care to put others often in mind of it) was to who have been made both the wiser and the easier, raise in himself and others vaster thoughts of the the better and the happier, by his means. But, that greatness and glory, and of the wisdom and goodness I might do all this with the more advantage, I ought of God.”
to bring all at once into my memory, the many hours' Mr. Boyle was a true member of the Church of conversations that, in a course of nine and twenty years, England ; that is, he adhered to her communion from have fallen to my own share (which were very frequent an intelligent preference of her principles and ser- and free for above half that time), that have so often vices. For Bishop Burnet goes on to say — “He did both humbled and raised me, by seeing how exalted he thoroughly agree with the doctrines of our Church, was, and, in that feeling, made me more sensible of and conform to our worship ; and he approved of the my own nothingness and depression, and which have main of our constitution ; but he much lamented some always edified, and never once, nor in any one thing, abuses that he thought still remained amongst us. He have been uneasy to me. When I remember how gave eminent instances of his value for the clergy. He much I saw in him, and learned, or at least might was constant to the Church, and went to no separate have learned from him ; when I reflect on the gravity assemblies, how charitably soever he might think of of his appearance, the elevation of his thoughts and their persons, and how plentifully soever he might discourses, the modesty of his temper, and the humihave relieved their necessities. He was exactly civil, | lity of his whole deportment, which might have forced rather to ceremony; and though he felt that his easi- the best thoughts upon the worst minds; when, I say, ness of access, and the desire of many (all strangers, in I bring all this into my mind, as I form upon it too particular) to be much with him, made great waste on bright an idea to be easily received by such as did not his time ; yet as he was severe in that, not to be know him, so I am very sensible that I cannot raise it denied when he was at home," (no new practice, then, equal to the thoughts of such as did. How divine and it appears, though a most extensive one in our own how pure must that religion be in itself which proday: but bringing much guilt upon the authors of it, duced so long a series of great effects through the since they not only are the authors of the lie, but whole course of this shining life ! What a thing would make their dependents partakers of their sin :) “so he mankind become if we had many such! And how said he knew the heart of a stranger, and how much little need would there be of many books writ for the eased his own bad been while travelling, if admitted truth and excellency of our religion, if we had more into the conversation of those he desired to see ; there- such arguments as this one life hath produced! Such fore he thought his obligation to strangers was more single instances have great force in them. But, when than bare civility, it was a piece of religious charity they are so very single, they lose much of their strength in him.
by this, that they are ascribed to singularity, and “He was most constant and serious in secret ad- something particular in a man's humour and inclinadresses to God.
tions that makes him rise above common measures. “ He spake of the government, even in times which It were a monopoly for any family, or set of men, to he disliked, and upon occasions which he spared not engross to themselves the honour which arises from to condemn, with an exactness of respect.
the memory of so great a man. It is a common not “He affected nothing that was solemn or superci- to be enclosed. It is large enough to make a whole lious. He used no methods to make multitudes run nation, as well as the age he lived in, look big and be after him. It never appeared that there was any happy. But, above all, it gives a new strength, as thing hid under all this appearance of goodness that well as it sets a new pattern, to all that are sincerely was not truly so. He hid both his piety and his cha- zealous for their religion. He was, while amongst us, rity all he could. He lived in the truest methods of indeed, one of a thousand,' and is now one of those