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serve : ask for me to-morrow, and you shall find BEN. Romeo, away, be gone ! me a grave man.(1) I am peppered, I warrant, for The citizens are up, and Tybalt slain : this world :-A plague o' both your houses ! Stand not amaz’d:—the prince will doom thee ʼzounds,* a dog, a rat, a mouse, a cat, to scratch

death, a man to death ! a braggart, a rogue, a villain, If thou art taken :-hence !—be gone !-away! that fights by the book of arithmetic !- Why the Rom. O! I am fortune's fool ! • devil came you between us? I was hurt under BEN.

Why dost thou stay? your arm.

[Exit Romeo. Rom. I thought all for the best. MER. Help me into some house, Benvolio,

Enter Citizens, &c.
Or I shall faint : a plague o' both your houses !
They have made worm's meat of me;

1 Cit. Which way ran he, that kill'd Mercutio ? I have it, and soundly too your houses !

Tybalt, that murderer, which way ran he ? [Exeunt MERCUTIO and BENVOLIO.

BEN. There lies that Tybalt. Rom. This gentleman, the prince's near ally,

1 Cit.

Up, sir, go with me; My very friend, hath got his mortal hurt

I charge thee in the prince's name, obey. In my behalf; my reputation stain'd With Tybalt's slander, Tybalt, that an hour Enter PRINCE, attended ; MONTAGUE, CAPULET, Hath been my cousin :-0 sweet Juliet,

their Wives and others. Thy beauty hath made me effeminate, And in my temper soften’d valour's steel.

Prin. Where are the vile beginners of this fray?

BEN. O noble prince, I can discover all

The unlucky manage of this fatal brawl:
Re-enter BENVOLIO.

There lies the man, slain by young Romeo,
Ben. O Romeo, Romeo! brave Mercutio's dead; That slew thy kinsman, brave Mercutio.
That gallant spirit bath aspir’da the clouds,

LA. CAP. Tybalt, my cousin !—0 my brother's Which too untimely here did scorn the earth.

child ! Rom. This day's black fate on more days doth

O prince! O cousin! husband! O the blood is spill'd' depend ;

Of my dear kinsman !Prince, as thou art true, This but begins the woe, others must end.

For blood of ours, shed blood of Montague.

O cousin, cousin !
Re-enter Tybalt.

PRIN. Benvolio, who began this bloody * fray?

BEN. Tybalt, here slain, whom Romeo's hand Ben. Here comes the furious Tybalt back again.

Rom. Alive in triumph! and Mercutio slain! Romeo that spoke him fair, bid him bethink A way to heaven, respective lenity,

How nice 8 the quarrel was,(2) and urg'd withal And fire-ey'd fury * be my conduct d now ! Your high displeasure: all this—uttered Now, Tybalt, take the villain back again,

With gentle breath, calm look, knees humbly That late thou gav'st me; for Mercutio's soul

bow'd, Is but a little way above our heads,

Could not take truce with the unruly spleen, Staying for thine to keep him company;

Of Tybalt deaf to peace, but that he tilts Either thou, or I, or both, must go with him. With piercing steel at bold Mercutio's breast ; Tyb. Thou, wretched boy, that didst consort

Who, all as hot, turns deadly point to point, him here,

And, with a martial scorn, with one hand beats Shalt with him hence.

Cold death aside, and with the other sends
Rom.

This shall determine that. It back to Tybalt, whose dexterity
[They fight; TYBALT falls. Retorts it: Romeo he cries aloud,

did slay;

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(*) First folio, What. (+) First folio, fire and fury. a Hath aspir'd the clouds,-- ] In the use of aspire, some particle, as to or afler, is now considered indispensable. So to the word arrire we always add at, unto, or in; but the old writers frequently adopted the construction in the text. Thus Marlowe, in ** Tamburlaine," 1590,

" And both our souls aspire celestial thrones." And our author, “Henry VI.” Part III. Act V. Sc. 3 :

those powers that the Queen

Hath raised in Gallia, have arriv'd the coast."
b Alive in triumph!) So the quarto, 1597; that of 1599 has
he gan, and the folio, 1623, reads he gon in triumph. Modern
editors have, “ Alive' in triumph!"

(*) First folio omits bloody.
ç Respective lenity,–) Considerate mildness.
d My conduct now !! My guide, my conductor.

e 01 I am fortune's fool!) I am the sport of fortune. The
first quarto reads, " Ah, I am fortune's slave."
f The quarto, 1597, reads,

Unhappy sight! ah, the blood is spilt.
8. How nice-] Nice here signifies, not delicate, squeamish, &c.,
as in some other instances in these Plays, but triviul, unim-
portant, as in Act V. Sc. 2,-

"The letter was not nice, but full of charge,
of dear import."

Hold, friends ! friends, part / and, swifter than As Phaeton would whip you to the west, his tongue,

And bring in cloudy night immediately. _ Hisa agile arm beats down their fatal points, Spread thy close curtain, love-performing night! And 'twixt them rushes ; underneath whose arm That run-aways' (3) eyes may wink, and Romeo An envious thrust from Tybalt hit the life

Leap to these arms, untalk'd of, and unseen ! Of stout Mercutio, and then Tybalt fled;

Lovers can see to do their amorous rites But by and by comes back to Romeo,

By* their own beauties: o or, if love be blind, Who had but newly entertain'd revenge,

It best agrees with night.—Come, civil night, And to 't they go like lightning; for, ere I Thou sober-suited matron, all in black, Could draw to part them, was stout Tybalt slain ; And learn me how to lose a winning match, And, as he fell, did Romeo turn and fly:

Play'd for a pair of stainless maidenhoods : This is the truth, or let Benvolio die.

Hood my unmann'd blood bating in my cheeks,(4) LA. CAP. He is a kinsman to the Montague, With thy black mantle ; till strange love, grown' Affection makes him false, he speaks not true:

bold, Some twenty of them fought in this black strife, Think true love acted, simple modesty. And all those twenty could but kill one life: Come, night! come, Romeo ! come, thou day in I beg for justice, which thou, prince, must give;

night! Romeo slew Tybalt, Romeo must not live.

For thou wilt lie upon the wings of night Prin. Romeo slew him, he slew Mercutio ; Whiter than snow upon a raven's back. Who now the price of his dear blood doth owe ? Come, gentle night; come, loving, black-brow'd Mon.* Not Romeo, prince, he was Mercutio's

night, friend;

Give me my Romeo : and, when he h shall die, His fault concludes but, what the law should end, Take him and cut him out in little stars, The life of Tybalt.

And he will make the face of heaven so fine, PRIN. And, for that offence,

That all the world will be in love with night, Immediately we do exíle him hence :

And pay no worship to the garish' sun.I have an interest in your

hates' proceeding, 0, I have bought the mansion of a love, My blood for your rude brawls doth lie a bleeding ; But not possessid it ; and, though I am sold, But I'll amerce you with so strong a fine, Not yet enjoy’d: so tedious is this day, That you shall all repent the loss of mine: As is the night before some festival It will be deaf to pleading and excuses ;

To an impatient child, that hath new robes, Nor tears, nor prayers, shall purchase outs abuses, And may not wear them. O, here comes my nurse, Therefore use none: let Romeo hence in haste, And she brings news; and every tongue, that Else, when he's found, that hour is his last.

speaks Bear hence this body, and attend our will:

But Romeo's name, speaks heavenly eloquence.Mercy but & murders, pardoning those that kill.

[Exeunt.

Enter Nurse, with cords.(5)

Now, nurse, what news ? What hast thou there? SCENE II.-A Room in Capulet's House.

the cords,

That Romeo bid thee fetch ?
Enter JULIET.

NURSE.

Ay, ay, the cords.

[Throws them down. JUL. Gallop apace, you fiery-footed steeds, Jul. Ah me! what news! why dost thou wring Towards Phæbus’ lodging ; ° such a waggoner

thy hands ?

(*) First folio, Cap.
(1) First folio, our.

(t) First folio, It.
(8) First folio, not.

a His agile arm-] So the quarto, 1597 ; that of 1599, and folio, 1623, read aged, which the editor of the second folio altered to able.

b Your hates'-) The quarto, 1599, and folio, read hearts.

c Towards Phæbus' lodging;] The first quarto reads, To Phæbus' mansion.

d Immediately.-) Here Juliet's speech terminates in the first quarto, 1597; the whole scene is very much amplified in the edition of 1599.

e By their own beauties :) Steevens observed that Milton, in his " Čomus," might have been indebted to this passage:

“ Virtue could see to do what virtue would,
By her own radiant light, though sun and moon

Were in the flat sea sunk."
f Grown bold,–] An emendation of Rowe's; the old copies
have, "grow bold.”

(*) First folio, And by. & Whiter than snow-) So the undated quarto; the other editions read,

Whiter than new snow upon a raven's back. h And, when he shall die,–] This is another valuable emendation of the undated quarto; all the other early editions read, “when I shall die."

i Garish sun.-] That is, gaudy, blazing, sun. . Milton was not unmindful of this beautiful speech when he composed " Il Penseroso ;" compare-

Come, civil night, Thou sober-suited matron,-" and

“Pay no worship to the garish sun," with his

" Till civil-suited morn appear." and

“Hide me from day's garish eye.'

99

Romeo can,

b

NURSE. Ah, well-a-day! he's dead, he's dead, Despised substance of divinest show! he's dead !

Just opposite to what thou justly seem'st, We are undone, lady, we are undone !

A damned saint,' an honourable villain !. Alack the day !

She's gone, he's killid, he's dead! O, nature ! what hadst thou to do in hell, Jul. Can heaven be so envious ?

When thou didst bower the spirit of a fiend NURSE.

In mortal paradise of such sweet flesh ?Though heaven cannot :40 Romeo ! Romeo !- Was ever book, containing such vile matter, Who ever would have thought it?—Romeo ! So fairly bound ? O, that deceit should dwell JUL. What devil art thou, that dost torment In such a gorgeous palace ! me thus ?

NURSE.

There's no trust, This torture should be roar'd in dismal hell. No faith, no honesty in men; all perjur’d, Hath Romeo slain himself ? say thou but 1,4 All forsworn, all naught, all dissemblers. And that bare vowel I shall poison more

Ah, where's my man? give me some aqua vitæ : Than the death-darting eye of cockatrice : These griefs, these woes, these sorrows make me I am not I, if there be such an I;

old. Or those eyes shut,* that make thee answer, I. Shame come to Romeo ! If he be slain, say—I ; or if not—no :

JUL.

Blister'd be thy tongue, Brief sounds determine of my weal, or woe. For such a wish! he was not born to shame: Nurse. I saw the wound, I saw it with mine Upon his brow shame is ashamed to sit ; eyes,

For 'tis a throne where honour may be crown'd God save the mark! _here on his manly breast : Sole monarch of the universal earth. A piteous corse, a bloody piteous corse ;

O, what a beast was I to chide at * him ! Pale, pale as ashes, all bedaub’d in blood,

NURSE. Will you speak well of him that kill'd All in gore blood ;-I swounded at the sight. Jul. O break, my heart !-poor bạnkrupt, Jul. Shall I speak ill of him that is my husbreak at once !

band ? To prison, eyes ! ne'er look on liberty !

Ah, poor my lord, what tongue shall smooth thy Vile earth, to earth resign ; end motion here ;

name, And thou, and Romeo, press one heavy bier ! When I, thy three-hours' wife, have mangled it ?

NURSE. O Tybalt, Tybalt, the best friend I had ! But, wherefore, villain, didst thou kill my cousin ? O courteous Tybalt ! honest gentleman !

That villain cousin would have kill'd

my

husband : That ever I should live to see thee dead !

Back, foolish tears, back to your native spring; JUL. What storm is this, that blows so contrary? Your tributary drops belong to woe, Is Romeo slaughter'd ? and is Tybalt dead ? Which you, mistaking, offer up to joy. My dear-lov’dt cousin, and my dearer lord ?- My husband lives, that Tybalt would have slain ; Then, dreadful trumpet, sound the general doom ! And Tybalt's dead, that would have slain my husFor who is living, if those two are gone ?

band : NURSE. Tybalt is gone, and Romeo banished; All this is comfort; wherefore weep I then ? Romeo, that kill'd him, he is banished.

Some word there was, worser than Tybalt's death, JUL. O God !—did Romeo's hand shed Tybalt's That murder'd me: I would forget it fain; blood ?

But, O! it presses to my memory, NURSE. It did, it did; alas the day! it did." Like damned guilty deeds to sinners' minds :

JUL. O serpent heart, hid with a flow’ring face ! Tybalt is dead, and Romeo--banished; Did ever dragon keep so fair a cave ?

That-banished, that one wordbanished, Beautiful tyrant! fiend angelical!

Hath slain ten thousand Tybalts. Tybalt's death Dove-feather'd raven ! o wolvish-ravening lamb ! Was woe enough, if it had ended there :

your cousin ?

(*) Old copies, shot.

(1) First folio, dearest. * Say thou but I,-! The old spelling of the affirmative, Ay, is of necessity retained in this passage.

b Denth-darting eye of cockatrice:] Shakespeare has several allusions to the supposed destructive power of this fabled monster's eye. Thus, in “Henry VI." Part II. Act III. Sc. 2:

Come, basilisk,
And kill the innocent gazer with thy sight."
So, also, in Part III. of the same Play, Act 111. Sc. 2:-

"I'll slay more gazers than the basilisk." And again, in “Twelfth Night,” Act III. Sc. 4:

they will kill one another by the look, like cockatrices." ¢ God save the mark!-) This exclamation appears to have

(*) First folio omits at. been proverbial, but its meaning has hitherto baffled the research and sagacity of every commentator. It occurs again in "Henry IV." Part I. Act I. Sc. 3, and in “The Merchant of Venice," Act II. Sc, 2; and in “Othello," Act I. Sc. 1, we have God bless the mark. In the quarto, 1597, instead of “God save the mark !" in the present passage, we have, “God save the sample," an expression equally obscure.

d Alas the day! it did.] The speeches here are misappropriated in the quarto, 1599, and the folio, 1623, but are correctly given in the undated quarto. e Dove-teather'd raven !) The quarto, 1599, and folio read

Rarenous dove-feather'd raven, wolvish-ravening lamb."

f A damned saint,-) So the undated quarto. That of 1599 has dimme, the folio, 1623, dimne.

corse :

are

Or,-if sour woe delights in fellowship,

Fri.

Too familiar
And needly will be rank'd with other griefs, Is my dear son with such sour company:
Why follow'd not, when she said— Tybalt's dead, I bring thee tidings of the prince's doom.
Thy father, or thy mother, nay, or both,

Rom. What less than dooms-day is the prince's Which modern lamentation might have mov'd ?

doom? But, with* a rear-ward following Tybalt's death, Fri. A gentler judgment vanish'd from his lips, Romeo is banished,—to speak that word,

Not body's death, but body's banishment. Is father, mother, Tybalt, Romeo, Juliet,

Rom. Ha! banishment ? be merciful, sayAll slain, all dead :-Romeo is banished !

death : There is no end, no limit, measure, bound,

For exile hath more terror in his look, In that word's death ; no words can that woe Much more than death: do not say—banishment. sound.—.

FRI. Here from Verona art thou banished: Where is

my

father, and my mother, nurse ? Be patient, for the world is broad and wide. NURSE. Weeping and wailing over Tybalt’s Rom. There is no world without Verona walls,

But purgatory, torture, hell itself.
Will you go to them ? I will bring you thither. Hence banished is banish'd from the world,
Jul. Wash they his wounds with tears; o mine And world's exile is death :—then banished
shall be spent,

Is death mis-term’d: calling death, banishment,*
When theirs are dry, for Romeo's banishment. Thou cutt'st my head off with a golden axe,
Take

up
those cords : poor ropes, you

And smil'st upon the stroke that murders me. beguild,

Fri. O deadly sin ! O rude unthankfulness ! Both you and I; for Romeo is exil'd :

Thy fault our law calls death ; but the kind prince, He made you for a highway to my bed ;

Taking thy part, hath rush'd aside the law, But I, a maid, die maiden-widowed.

And turn'd that black word, death, to banishment: Come, cords; come, nurse ; I'll to my wedding bed; This is dear mercy, and thou seest it not. And death, not Romeo, take my maidenhead! Rom. 'Tis torture, and not mercy: heaven is NURSE. Hie to your chamber: I'll find Romeo

here, To comfort you :-I wot well where he is.

Where Juliet lives; and every cat, and dog,
Hark ye, your Romeo will be here at night; And little mouse, every unworthy thing,
I'll to him ; he is hid at Laurence' cell.

Live here in heaven, and may look on her,
JUL. O find him! give this ring to my true knight, But Romeo may not.—More validity,
And bid him come to take his last farewell. More honourable state, more courtship lives

[Exeunt. In carrion flies, than Romeo; they may seize

On the white wonder of dear Juliet's hand,

And steal immortal blessing from her lips ; SCENE III.-Friar Laurence's Cell. Who, even in pure and vestal modesty,

Still blush, as thinking their own kisses sin ; Enter FRIAR LAURENCE and ROMEO.

This may flies do, when I from this must fly;

But Romeo may not; he is banished." Fri. Romeo, come forth ; come forth, thou fear- And say'st thou yet, that exile is not death ?_*

Hadst thou no poison mix’d, no sharp-ground knife, Affliction is enamour'd of thy parts,

No sudden mean of death, though ne'er so mean, And thou art wedded to calamity.

But—banished—to kill me ; banished ? Rom, Father, what news ? what is the prince's O friar, the damned use that word in hell; doom?

Howlings attend it: how hast thou the heart, What sorrow craves acquaintance at my hand, Being a divine, a ghostly confessor, That I yet know not?

A sin-absolver, and my friend profess'd,

ful man;

(*) First folio, banished.

(*) First folio, which, a Sour woe delights in fellowship,-) Compare

“Solamen miseris socios habuisse doloris." b Modern lamentation- ] That is, ordinary, well-known lamentation. So, in “All's Well That Ends Well," Act II, Sc. 3:

" - Make modern and familiar things,

Supernatural and causeless." And in " As You Like It," Act II. Sc. 9:

"Full of wise saws, and modern instances." c Wash they his wounds with tears;] All the modern editions place a note of interrogation after these words, but perhaps in

The Nurse tells Juliet her father and mother are weeping

over Tybalt's corse, and asks if she will go to them; to which Juliet replies,-"No, let them wash his wounds with tears; mine shall be spent in wailing Romeo's banishment."

d He is banished.] Here, in the quarto, 1599, occur the following two lines; they are omitted in the folio:

“ Flies may do this, but I from this must fly,

They are free men, but I am banished." Capell rightly conjectures that the author's first draft of this passage was left standing in the MS., and so got printed with the after version.

e That exile is not death?-) This line and the preceding one are transposed in the old copies.

error.

[graphic][subsumed]

'To mangle me with that word—banished ?

Fri. Thou fond mad man, hear me a little speak.“ Rom. O, thou wilt speak again of banishment.

Fri. I'll give thee armour to keep off that word; Adversity's sweet milk, philosophy, To comfort thee, though thou art banished.

Rom. Yet banished ?-hang up philosophy! Unless philosophy can make a Juliet, Displant a town, reverse a prince's doom ; It helps not, it prevails not ; talk no more.

FRI, 0, then I see that madmen have no cars. Rom. How should they, when that* wise men

have no eyes? Fri. Let me disputet with thee of thy estate."

Rom. Thou canst not speak of that thou dost

not feel : Wert thou as young as I,* Juliet thy love, An hour but married, Tybalt murdered, Doting like me, and like me - banished, Then might'st thou speak, then might'st thou tear

thy hair, And fall upon the ground, as I do now, Taking the measure of an unmade grave.

[Knocking within. Fri. Arise, one knocks; good Romeo, hide

thyself. Rom. Not I; unless the breath of heart-sick

groans,

my

love.

(*) First folio omits, that. (+) First folio, dispaire. 2 Thou fond mad man,-) So the undated quarto: the other quartos read then for thou; the folio, 1623,

“ Then fond mad man, hear me speak."

(*) First folio, as Juliet b Dispute with thee of thy estate.) Let me reason with you upon your affairs.

'c Knocking within.] The stage direction in the old copies is, Enter Nurse, and knockes."

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