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to solve problems, which were im- school logic, and the mental habits possible, as the son is careful to acquired in studying it, were among record, through want of the neces- the principal instruments in this sary previous knowledge. Time, drilling.” Numerous Latin and however, pressed ; for when the de- Greek authors of the higher order termined object-before which all were also read by him at this time; instincts and motives, even those and the book which contributed of humanity, must be sternly re- largely to his education was his Dressed-is to train a mind which father's History of India, published shall be "a quarter of a century in in 1818, when Mill was twelve years advance," even infantine minutes old. In fact, the chief work of his are precious. Accordingly, Roman, twelfth year was to assist in the Grecian, and ancient universal his- publication of this book. Next tory absorbed his hours of recrea- year, at the age of thirteen, he was tion. In his eleventh and twelfth taken through a complete course of year he wrote for his own amuse. political economy, the father delivment, besides other works, as much ering lectures during their walks, of a history of the Roman govern- the son giving a written account of ment as would have made an octavo them the next day. In reading volume, discussing all constitution- Adam Smith, his father made him al points, vindicating the agrarian apply the superior lights of Ricardo laws, and upholding the Roman de in order to detect what was fallaci. mocratic party. Compulsory verse ous in argument or erroneous in composition completed this bill of conclusion. “Such a mode of inchild-fare, which it must be admit- struction was excellently calculated ted was one of overflowing liberality to form a thinker, but it required to We must add, however, that one of be worked by a thinker as close and his greatest amusements was ex- vigorous as my father. The path perimental science without the ad- was a thorny one even to him, and vantage of experiments; and he de- I am sure it was so to me, notwithvoured treatises on chemistry with standing the strong interest I took out attending a lecture or seeing an in the subject. He was often and experiment. At the age of twelve much beyond reason provoked by he was advanced to the science of my failures in cases where success logic, beginning with the Organon. could not have been expected ; but He read at the same time several of in the main his method was right, the Latin treatises on the scholastic and it succeeded.” logic, giving each day to his father Next year, when the young Mill during his walks a minute account had reached the age of fourteen, he of what he had read. Both father left England for more than twelve and son recognised the value of an months ; “and after my return, early practical familiarity with the though my studies went on under school logic. “The first intellec- my father's general direction, he tual operation in which I arrived at was no longer my schoolmaster." any proficiency was dissecting a bad The purely educational experiargument and finding in what part ment, the endeavour to stimulate the fallacy lay; and though what by unnatural forcing the growth of ever capacity of this sort I attained pure intellect, was finished at fourwas due to the fact that it was an teen. Throughout the whole of intellectual exercise in which I was that time the successive stages of most perseveringly drilled by my forced precocity had been such father, yet it is also true that the that neither school nor school life misconceptions, the false ideas, and record of the successive steps by the pernicious institutions which which it was effected. society had unconsciously formed Mr Mill had no remembrance of and carelessly cherished.

the time when he began to learn The childhood of Mr Mill strikes Greek, but was told that it was at us as inexpressibly sad. The central the age of three years. From three figure of the family group is a stern, to seven a list of Greek authors is austere, uncompromising Scotch- given which he was bound to read man, whose inward repression of and digest; his father demanding faith, and outward struggles with in all things “not only the utmost pecuniary difficulty, had hardened a that I could do, but much that I nature which joined a vigorous un- could by no possibility have done." derstanding to a very contracted His infantine recreations were to sympathy. We hear nothing of walk with his father, narrating to the mother; as for the numerous him the substance of his last day's brothers and sisters, they are dis- reading. A number of English hismissed with slight observation upon tories were a substitute for childtheir childhood, and are never again ish play, and the story of the referred to. Nor were any of them American war inspired his infantine known or heard of in society. fancy with the feeling of national Their teaching was confided to the partisanship, until he was set right child who was their elder brother, by his father, and the instinctive and he was responsible to his father sympathy with his countrymen was for the manner in which they re- crushed by the domineering conpeated their lessons, as well as for victions of his hard-headed parent. the way in which he learned his The heavier studies of this unfortuown. Such teaching was, as Mr nate child included theories of EngMill himself says, “very inefficient lish government, the vicissitudes of as teaching; and I well know that the ecclesiastical history, and accounts relation between teacher and taught of great men exhibiting energy and is not a good moral discipline to resource in struggling against uneither.” The probability is that usual difficulties: “Of children's they grew up in the ordinary and books any more than of playthings healthy way, with more of maternal I had scarcely any, except an occacare and less exaction from the sional gift from a relation or acfather, and that between them and quaintance." From eight to twelve young Mill there was little love a long list of Latin books taxed his lost. The father evidently reserved energies and employed his time. to himself the eldest son, whose Greek poets, Aristotle, geometry abilities and mind attracted his and algebra, the differential calfavour, in order, by dint of the most culus, and other portions of the resolute and pertinacious effort, to higher mathematics, were thrown form and endow intellect in its in so that no time should be lost. highest and most isolated form. In In reference to mathematics he was the attempt to do so, he made, in under this additional difficulty that our opinion, as unflinching and un- his father had forgotten them, and justifiable an experiment as one was unable to give him the neceshuman being ever yet made upon sary aid. True, however, to his the life of another. That experi- principle of demanding “ that which ment was begun before the child could by no possibility be done," was fairly out of the cradle ; and the father continually visited his we have preserved to us an exact displeasure upon the son's inability

to solve problems, which were im- school logic, and the mental habits possible, as the son is careful to acquired in studying it, were among record, through want of the neces- the principal instruments in this sary previous knowledge. Time, drilling." Numerous Latin and however, pressed; for when the de- Greek authors of the higher order termined object-before which all were also read by him at this time; instincts and motives, even those and the book which contributed of humanity, must be sternly re- largely to his education was his pressed—is to train a mind which father's History of India, published shall be “a quarter of a century in in 1818, when Mill was twelve years advance," even infantine minutes old. In fact, the chief work of his are precious. Accordingly, Roman, twelfth year was to assist in the Grecian, and ancient universal his- publication of this book. Next tory absorbed his hours of recrea- year, at the age of thirteen, he was tion. In his eleventh and twelfth taken through a complete course of year he wrote for his own amuse- political economy, the father delivment, besides other works, as much ering lectures during their walks, of a history of the Roman govern- the son giving a written account of ment as would have made an octavo them the next day. In reading volume, discussing all constitution- Adam Smith, his father made him al points, vindicating the agrarian apply the superior lights of Ricardo laws, and upholding the Roman de- in order to detect what was fallacimocratic party. Compulsory verse ous in argument or erroneous in composition completed this bill of conclusion. “Such a mode of inchild-fare, which it must be admit- struction was excellently calculated ted was one of overflowing liberality to form a thinker, but it required to We must add, however, that one of be worked by a thinker as close and his greatest amusements was ex- vigorous as my father. The path perimental science without the ad- was a thorny one even to him, and vantage of experiments; and he de- I am sure it was so to me, notwithvoured treatises on chemistry with- standing the strong interest I took out attending a lecture or seeing an in the subject. He was often and experiment. At the age of twelve much beyond reason provoked by he was advanced to the science of my failures in cases where success logic, beginning with the Organon. could not have been expected; but He read at the same time several of in the main his method was right, the Latin treatises on the scholastic and it succeeded." logic, giving each day to his father Next year, when the young Mill during his walks a minute account had reached the age of fourtcen, he of what he had read. Both father left England for more than twelve and son recognised the value of an months ; "and after my return, early practical familiarity with the though my studies went on under school logic. “The first intellec- my father's general direction, he tual operation in which I arrived at was no longer my schoolmaster.” any proficiency was dissecting a bad The purely educational experiargument and finding in what part ment, the endeavour to stimulate the fallacy lay; and though what by unnatural forcing the growth of ever capacity of this sort I attained pure intellect, was finished at fourwas due to the fact that it was an teen. Throughout the whole of intellectual exercise in which I was that time the successive stages of most perseveringly drilled by my forced precocity had been such father, yet it is also true that the that neither school nor school life was possible. The child was never out by thinking I never was told fit to mix with children; he had until I had exhausted my efforts to absorbed and assimilated knowledge find it out for myself.” This asserat a rate and in quantities which tion, together with the statement would, unless Mr Mill's recollec- that after the age of seven, the tions are altogether exaggerated, greater part of every day was conhave made schoolmasters eject him sumed in teaching his brothers and with terror from their schools. He sisters, incline us to receive with lived in a world of abstract princi- considerable doubt and hesitation ples and elaborate theories. Fit to the enormous list of books and subconverse on even terms with his jects said to have been mastered father's friends, David Ricardo, during his childhood. Joseph Hume, and Mr Bentham, he His father most anxiously guardcould neither play a game nor form ed him against self-conceit, keeping a friendship. In him metaphysics him out of the way of hearing and analysis were incarnate ; but the himself praised, or being led to gulf between him and the world in make self - flattering comparisons which he lived was already impass- between himself and others. Mill able. Common-sense and current ex- asserts with confidence that he did perience were absent; the hand and not estimate himself at all, either the heart were untaught; manners highly or lowly; his father having were unformed ; while the feelings completely succeeded in preserving which flow from society and the him from the sort of influences intercourse of lives—the instincts which he so much dreaded. But which are born in us, or flow from Mr Mill describes “the impression contact with nature -- were to all of various persons who saw me in appearance stamped out of his very my childhood. They, as I have being by the iron heel of his since found, thought me greatly father.

and disagreeably self - conceited ; The effect of the education to probably because I was disputathe age of fourteen shows, accord- tious, and did not scruple to give ing to Mr Mill, the ease with direct contradictions to things which knowledge, in what are con- which I heard said. I suppose I sidered the higher branches of acquired this bad habit from having education, can be imparted dur- been encouraged in an unusual ing childhood. He denies that he degree to talk on matters beyond was by nature extremely quick of my age, and with grown persons, apprehension, or possessed a very while I never had inculcated in me accurate and retentive memory, the usual respect for them. My or was of a remarkably active and father did not correct this ill-breedenergetic character. In those nat- ing and impertinence, probably ural gifts he describes himself as from not being aware of it; for I rather below than above par.

was always too much in awe of “Mine, however, was not an him to be otherwise than extremely education of cram. My father subdued and quiet in his presence." never permitted anything which I It was at the close of this childlearnt to degenerate into a mere hood education, on the eve of going exercise of memory. He strove to abroad, that his father (the very make the understanding not only place in Hyde Park where he did go along with every step of the so being remembered by the son all teaching, but if possible precede it. his life) pointed out to him the Anything which could be found superiority over all his contemporaries which he had derived from seems to have expected effects withhis training. The son felt that out causes." what his father said respecting his It is impossible to imagine a state peculiar advantages “ was exactly of more complete isolation from the the truth and common-sense of the life and the world which he was inmatter, and it fixed his opinion and tended to regenerate. He was cast feeling from that time forward.” from his father's workshop, fearfully The frankness of this statement and wonderfully fashioned, upon a is well borne out by several pas- world of which he knew nothing in sages in his book. There is abun- its ordinary experiences, daily life, dant evidence in the exaggerated and natural human interests and symrecollection of his childish achieve- pathies. The power of knowing men ments, in the implied meaning of and characters, of understanding the his exalted compliments to his wife, real nature which had been crushed in the estimate of his books, in his out of him, was lost and never afterremarks upon his official relations wards acquired. In later life he and his relations to society, that knew no more of men and women notwithstanding some self-deprecia- than at fourteen he knew of schooltory observations, a consuming but boys. not altogether obtrusive vanity had The whole moral influence which been developed during his child- centred upon the child appears, so hood, and remained as the basis of far as this Autobiography reveals it, his character through life.

to have been exercised by the father. Now let us examine the negative The mother's influence, at all events, side of this marvellous training. is not remembered. The brothers The child was carefully kept from and sisters are recalled as the unintercourse with other boys, in willing victims of his instruction, order to escape “ the contagion of who bored him and probably disvulgar modes of thought and feel liked him. Of companions and ing." He paid the price of inferi- playfellows he had none. The father ority in schoolboy accomplishments. was ubiquitous, bent on moulding He had no holidays, and no boy him, never relaxing his vigilance. companions. His daily leisure for "My father's senses and mental amusement was devoted to occupa- faculties were always on the alert; tions of a bookish turn. He was he carried decision and energy of through life. inexpert in anything character in his whole manner, and requiring manual dexterity, — his into every action of life, and this as mind as well as his hands did its much as his talents contributed to work very lamely when applied to the strong impression which he practical details, and he was con- always made upon those with whom stantly meriting reproof by inat he came into personal contact.” tention, inobservance, and general Mill describes his father as having slackness of mind in matters of produced an enormous effect upon daily life." His education was his character. He gravely exhorted limited to training him to know or sternly reproved conduct with a rather than to do. The son's de- view to “justice, temperance (to ficiencies arose from absence of which he gave a very extended apschool life; yet, both as a boy and plication), veracity, perseverance, as a youth, he smarted incessantly readiness to encounter pain, and under his father's severe admoni- especially labour-regard for the tions. “Here, as well as in some public good, estimation of persons other points in my tuition, he according to their merits, and of

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