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He drew a step back, with a sense that she scarcely knew what was of having escaped. “I don't really going on. Her heart sounded in her mind, you know, at all," he said ; ears like great waves; and through “it was nothing but a joke. But a strange mist in her eyes, and the I'll come again with pleasure. I gathering twilight, she saw vaguely, say, what have you done to that dimly, the two beside her. Oh, if carving, Brown ?"
she could but have put her arms How glad Val was to get away round them and kissed them both from her touch, and from her intent together! But she could not. She eyes! and yet he did not want to sat down silent among the shadows, go away. He hastened to the a shadow herself, against the evenother end of the room with Dick, ing light, and saw them in a mist, who was glad also to find that the and held her peace. perplexing in terview was at an end, “You did not tell me your mother and got out his bit of carving with was a lady," said Val, as the two great relief. Val stood for a long went back together through the soft time (as they all thought) side by dusk to the river-side. side with the other, laying their “I never knew it,” said wonderheads together, the light locks and ing Dick; “I never thought it-till the dark—talking both together, as to-night.” boys do; and felt himself calm down, “Ah, but I am sure of it,” said but with a sense that something Val. “I thought you couldn't be strange had happened to him, some- a cad, Brown, or I should not have thing more than he could under taken to you like this. She's a lady, stand. The mother sat down on sure enough; and what's more," he her chair, her limbs no longer able added, with an embarrassed laugh, to sustain her. She was glad, too, “I feel as if I had known her somethat it was over-glad and sad, and where-before-I suppose, before I so shaken with conflicting emotions, was born !”
SEX IN MIND AND EDUCATION : A COMMENTARY.
A MOVEMENT has been set on foot employed young ladies, their adin this country in recent years which mission to new careers, indiscreetly deserves every sympathy and en- effected, does not appear to provide couragement, so far as it is directed a remedy. And society apparently towards improving the education of has lost one safeguard in the undue women, widening their interests in decline or timid exercise of marital life, and of facilitating their admis- authority.. sion to careers in which, as women, But female education, and the they may be useful, and in which principles upon which it is to prothe modesty of womanhood is not ceed, are of such infinite importance forgotten. But unfortunately, in to society, that their discussion must this, as in all other matters in which not be prejudiced in any way by the there is social or popular movement, vagaries of what are called excepthe air is poisoned with foolish theo- tional women. The ladies who have ries, and fantastic tricks are perpe- earned that title have, no doubt, trated in which moderation and succeeded in calling attention to the good sense are laughed to scorn. subject, but they have also succeeded One frantic feminine orator, who is in investing it, by their language a married woman of some position and their conduct, with a considerand a champion of advanced female able amount of prejudice, for which, education, is reported, in the Times' as applied to themselves instead of of 17th January 1874, thus to have their cause, we think there is, and amused and instructed a Sheffield we tell them so frankly, a fair founaudience. Remarking that women's dation. Much of their singular plea for the suffrage was a plea for sentiment is due to the influence their very lives, asking that they and writings of the late Mr Mill, might not be wholly annihilated, whose social theories are destined she proceeded : “ The woman slave to live in the affections of excephad arisen and looked her ruler in tional women, long after they have the face, and from that hour he been rejected by the deliberate judghad been troubled, uneasy, and un- ment of the rest of society. settled on his throne. (Great cheer- So much has been said recently ing.) When the working man rose in the newspapers, and in the 'Fortand said, 'I also am a man,' it was nightly Review,' upon the subject the death-knell of the aristocracy of of sex in mind and education, that birth. (Cheers.) When the woman we think it right to bring it to the said, 'I also am a human being,' it notice of our readers. Its practical was the death-knell of the aristo- importance in America is enormous, cracy of sex.” (Loud cheers.) for in that country the rage for
Greater nonsense was never talked equality—that spirit which, if we upon any platform. If hysterics be, remember right, was recently said as some women of advanced views at Glasgow to be rising like a moantell us, the normal condition of un- ing wind in Europe—has led to the
Sex in Education, by Edward H. Clarke, M.D.- Boston: 1874. Sex in Mind and Education, by Henry Maudsley, M.D. - 'Fortnightly Review,' April 1874. Sex in Mind and Education ; A Reply, by Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, M.D.- Fortnightly Review,' May 1874.
identical co-education of the sexes, logy of the matter, his intention regardless of their physiological being “to look the matter honestly needs and differences, to an extent in the face.” The consequence is, which (combined with other causes) we are treated to a discussion which, threatens, according to American however appropriate to the pages of physicians of repute and experience, a medical publication, is a novelty chronic invalidism to women, and in English current literature. And speedy degeneracy to the race. Its a collateral question of some impractical importance in England is portance arises, whether the necesat present not nearly so great, for sity for so much frankness is made co-education of the sexes, in the out, or whether the writer is not sense in which it exists in America, amenable to grave censure for havhas not yet been tried in this ing needlessly introduced an objeccountry; and we have that con- tionable and disagreeable inquiry? fidence in the good sense of our The decision of that question decountrymen and countrywomen that pends upon whether we consider we believe it never will, at least to that the topics so obtruded upon any appreciable extent. Neverthe- our attention are of any immeless, it has seemed good to the 'Fort- diate practical importance in this nightly' to introduce the discussion country. Considerations of delicacy of this subject in a manner more re- and decency are usually held to immarkable for its fulness than its del- pose some reserve both upon editors icacy. The two medical combat- and authors, and it is not in the ants who have handled it in that interest of English literature and journal have treated it in great de- the English public that any violatail, and with some acrimony. But tions of them should pass unnoticed they have never succeeded in bring- and unchallenged. A reply to Dr ing it to an intelligible or practical Maudsley's article by Mrs Garrett issue, as we will show further on. Anderson, M.D., appeared in the One has denounced the American May number of the Fortnightly.' system; the other has defended the Fairness compels us to except her English one, which is totally differ- paper from the same censure which ent. Both have discussed the ex- is justly due to Dr Maudsley; for tent to which women are “ handi- if women are to be made the subcapped” by their physical constitu- ject of discussions of that nature tion; and though one is inclined to to their disadvantage, real or supexaggerate and the other to make posed, they may be expected to light of female disabilities, the argu- reply. They cannot, so they say, ments of both will justify the Eng- be silent, in obedience to consideralish and condemn the American tions which are disregarded by their system of higher female education. opponents. After weighing the sub
Dr Maudsley, who is one of the jects of practical controversy—both combatants, has in the April num- those which are ostensibly treated, ber of the "Fortnightly' placed and those which are obviously supbefore its readers a paper, in which pressed—it seems to us that the he treats, in a manner which leaves medical discussion, however necesnothing to the imagination, the sub- sary in America, was premature and ject of female organisation, and the unjustifiable here. There being no demands which its special functions attempt in this country to introduce make upon its strength. He has the system of early co-education of observed no reticence of any sort or the sexes, so prevalent in America, kind upon what he calls the physio- and so fiercely denounced by medical authorities there, the only rele- they insist upon the equal rights of vancy of such a discussion to any. the sexes, and that unrestricted comthing which exists here is as re- petition between them should be gards those who are seeking to enter permitted and fostered. Mr Mill a medical career, or who may seek started the doctrine in this country, degrees at London University, pro- He declared, in his own confident vided its charter be remodelled; or way, that the nature of woman was who desire to work in factories un- eminently artificial, whereas physitrammelled by the restrictive rules ologists say it has a scientific and of factory legislation. The objection- complete explanation. Mr Mill able details, however, refer not to said that that “ artificial nature" grown women, but to growing girls (sic) was the result of forced represat the educational period of life, sion in some directions, unnatural rather than at that of operative or stimulation in others ; physiologists professional or even university work. tell us that that nature is not arIt is not pretended that English tificial, that it demands its own girls are likely to fall victims while special development, and cannot still children to any senseless system be contradicted or disregarded with of education existing or suggested. impunity. Mr Mill denied that Under these circumstances, much there was any radical inequality beas we may need a warning on the tween the sexes, and that their subject of unduly stimulating femi- general relations in all affairs of life, nine rivalry and competition, the even in marriage, are those of ablaws of nature have not yet been solute equality. “ Standing on the openly defied, or even threatened ground of common-sense and the with neglect; and until a writer can constitution of the human mind." demonstrate that they have, he will he denied “that any one knows, or do well to observe some delicacy. can know, the nature of the two The minute details in which Dr sexes, as long as they have only Maudsley has indulged were not been seen in their present relations merely unnecessary; they are the to one another.” Physiologists are weakest part of an otherwise power- apparently agreed that there is sex ful article, and have laid him open in mind as well as in body, and to the charge of exaggeration, which that the mental qualities of the it would have been prudent to sexes correlate their physical differavoid.
ences. As the question in this country Identical co-education of the is still principally one of theory, sexes, unrestricted competition bethe application of which is remotely tween them, the reduction of marpossible, we will first state the riage to the state of partnership at theory and trace its origin, and then will, with equal rights and limited refer to America, where it has been liability, follow from Mr Mill's reduced to practice. It is well theory; but are alike opposed to known that the advocates of what the teachings of physiology, religion, are called Women's Rights, as well common-sense, and experience. He here as in America, insist upon the was bitterly opposed to “the Subequality of the sexes, without limi- jection of Women” in any of its tation. Regardless of the uniform forms. It is right to draw attention teaching of history in all ages, races, to the position and surroundings of and climates and regardless, the the authors of the book which is doctors tell us, of the most elemen- known by that title. They are distary rules of physiological science- closed to us in his Autobiography.'
It was the result of that “partnership women, who in that country as well of thought, feeling, and writing," as this seem to think that anywhich existed between him and Mrs thing appertaining to the education Taylor for twenty years of their lives, of their sex is their own special and which was succeeded, on the property, forthwith to take a place death of Mr Taylor, by the "partner- in the programme of the rights of ship of their entire existence." The women. The subject, however, if book emanated “from the fund of allowed to be managed on Amerithought which had been made can principles, will soon become common to them both, by their of transcendent importance to the innumerable conversations and dis human race. Amongst Americans cussions on a topic which filled so the subject has become menacing large a place in their minds.” We and dangerous to the last degree. have already in these pages reviewed The first observation of a European Mr Mill's account of his career, and landing amongst them is, that their endeavoured to do justice to his women are a feeble race; and their eminent character and achievements. physicians emphatically declare that And therefore we shall the more one of the causes, which has been readily say that his relations to Mrs recently aggravated in its intensity, Taylor during her husband's life is the educational method adopted were the great blot upon his career; in their schools and colleges. “If and that the social theories which these causes,” they say, “should he elaborated with her, as a weapon continue for the next half-century, of defence against adverse social and increase in the same ratio as opinion, are a stain upon his philoso- they have for the last fifty years, it phic system. The rights of women requires no prophet to foretell that were, on Mr Mill's own showing the wives who are to be mothers in pushed by them to an extreme our Republic must be drawn from which precluded in principle any Transatlantic homes. Thesons of the duties in a wife, and in practice New World will have to react, on a denied to the unfortunate husband magnificent scale, the old story of even a title to divorce. Such a rela- unwived Rome and the Sabines.” tionship between them, and such der · Dr Edward Clarke, a physician of eliction of duty on the part of one of some repute in America, and who them to ber husband, were defens- was at one time a professor in Harible only upon theories which are vard College, has published a small better known than approved. They book which endeavours to solve the might have enabled Mr Mill and Mrs problem of woman's sphere by the Taylor to reconcile their conduct to aid of physiological science. It is their consciences. But they cannot entitled Sex in Education ;' and is be generally accepted without up- devoted to prove the obvious truth setting the relations between the that the educational capacities of sexes, and overturning the founda- boys and girls correlate the differtions of domestic morality..
ences in their sex, and that the acWith these theories partially afloat tual training both of mind and in England, attention is drawn to the body must do the same. “The circumstance that identical co-educa- cerebral processes," he says, “by tion of the sexes—which is the first which the acquisition of knowstep towards enforced equality—is ledge is made, are the same for each being tried in America; that the sex ; but the mode of life which physicians denounce it, and are in gives the finest nurture to the brain, their turn assailed by exceptional and so enables those processes to