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razorbill, spoonbill, shoveller, wryneck, swift, yellow-hammer, redpole, gold-crest, fire-crest, pintail, turnstone, wheatear, chatterer, stonechat, whinchat, blackcap, wagtail, butcher-bird, kingfisher and oyster-catcher serve our turn. The poetry of these appellations is doubtless rather commonplace, most of the suggestions being simple or superficial; nevertheless there is a distinct advance from the victual list. Be it noticed, moreover, that some of the commonest birds are omitted from the above catalogue, because, being abundant and familiar, they were no doubt christened at a very early period, and the philology of many of their names is now as much a matter of speculation as that of the meats and animals before mentioned. Others are traceable to several linguistic generations, and of these may be instanced rook, robin, grouse, partridge, sparrow, gull, wren, pigeon, lark, hawk, and thrush.
When we reach insects, plants, and flowers, we have arrived at a department of objects still farther removed from the necessaries of life, and which, therefore, we ought to find invested with names more fanciful or poetical than those of any class yet specified. Let the following illustrations speak for themselves. Among butterflies we have the following names :— Red admiral, tortoiseshell, painted lady, swallowtail, peacock, marbled white, brimstone, purple emperor, white admiral, orange - tipped, grizzled skipper, comma, silver-studded blue, silver-washed fritillary, pearl-bordered fritillary, clouded yellow, purple hair-streak, and others.
Among moths we have the following appellations, more plentiful and various than the foregoing, as are also the insects themselves :-Death's head, latticed heath, lobster, chimney-sweeper, black rustic, scorched carpet, sloe carpet, maiden's blush, vapourer, marbled coronet, royal mantle, seraphin, leopard, tiger, ghost-swift, festoon, muslin, satin wave, smoky wave, fan-footed wave, lunar marbled, figure of eight, eyed-hawk, elephant-hawk, fiery clearwing, feathered ranunculus, feathered thorn, marbled clover, spotted sulphur, burnished brass, old lady, mouse, Brussels lace, peppered, lace border, flame brocade, brindled pug, dotted footman, black arches, angle shades. Moths are chiefly to be observed and obtained by night; there is therefore much difficulty attending their study and examination; and accordingly it is not at all surprising that this tribe should for a long time have attracted but little attention, and been left without names. During this leisurely interval men would have plenty of leisure to reflect on such specimens as were brought to light, so that by the time entomology was sufficiently matured to be styled a study or a science, poetry would be more advanced, the more trite appellations would have been rejected, quainter suggestions would have been liberated, curious resemblances detected, and a poetical vocabulary of prænomens built up.
Among flowers and plants let the following names be registered :— Foxglove, heartsease, cardinal flower, red-hot poker, love-lies-bleeding, maid-in-a-mist, larkspur, Jacob's ladder, Job's tears, Aaron's rod, Adam's needle, Solomon's seal, witch's thimble, golden rod, cowslip, buttercup, crowsfoot, dog's tooth violet, eyebright, speedwell, colt's foot, dentde-lion, monk's hood, lady's slipper, lady's smock, Venus' flycatcher, Venus' looking-glass, scullcap, cockscomb, turncap lily, tiger lily, prince's feather, snowdrop, daisy (day's eye), asters (stars), golden feather, silver weed. Among ferns and grasses may be mentioned :— Adder's tongue, hart's tongue, maidenhair, lady fern, horsetail, wolf's foot, hare's foot, stag's horn, basket and shield ferns, and foxtail, feather, mare's tail, tufted hair, ribbon, spear, quaking, and mouseear grasses. Some of the commonest flowers, however, are named after the botanists who discovered or introduced them; their advent into the science being late, a name was required immediately, and, as in the case of comets and planets, this name had to be devised by unpoetical men of science, who got out of the difficulty accordingly by calling the object after themselves or each other: the lobelia, dahlia, fuschia, begonia, camellia, and gloxinia are instances of this. So likewise some of the commonest flowers have old and unpoetical names; the rose, for example, so called because it is red; the lily, because it is white; and myrtle, because it has a perfume. Many other botanical appellations have their poetry obscured by the language, Latin and Greek, &c., in which they are couched. Thus calceolaria is so called because the blossom is like a slipper (L. calceolus); cineraria because of the substance like ashes that comes on the leaves (L. cineres); gladiolus because it is shaped like a sword (L. gladius); nasturtium because the odour torments the nose (L. nasus tortus); geranium on account of the beak-like prongs that appear after the blossom has fallen off (yépâvos, a crane); pelargonium for a similar reason (Telapyós, a stork); hydrangea because of the capsules being like water vessels (üdwp, water, åyyelov, vessel); chrysanthemum because of its golden bloom (xpüoós, gold, ävdos, a flower); heliotrope because its stem turns towards the sun (ñxicos, the sun, tpétw, to turn); mimulus because its flower is like an ape that mimics Cuquos, a mimic).
III. BEAUTY ATTACHES ONLY TO UTILITY.
1. Objective Utility.
The next proposed law of beauty is that it exists only as it coexists with utility, a proposition, perhaps, which will not be so readily granted as the previous ones. Let us, however, bring the matter to the test. Utility is twosided, and may be objective or subjective according as its mental or material side is looked at: the former relates to material objects, the latter to mental faculties. Generally speaking, objective utility may be said to consist in things, and subjective utility in knowledge; we shall treat of the former first, reserving the latter for another chapter. This division, however, is only adopted for convenience, and will only be adhered to in a general way.
Useful things may be divided into two great categories : first, those which enable us to avoid pain; and secondly, those which enable us to secure pleasure. Among useful objects belonging to the first class we find most of the necessaries of life, e.g., wearing apparel, together with its accessories—boots, hats, umbrellas, soap, &c.; foods, such as bread, meat, vegetables, water, milk, &c.; furniture, such as chairs, tables, beds, &c.; buildings, such as houses, offices, shops, warehouses, bridges; also streets, roads, paths, ships, wharfs, coal, candles, and other miscellaneous articles, which, in fact, may be termed generally the indispensables of civilised life. Some of these articles may not, of course, be absolutely necessary to existence, but they are all in some measure essential to society in refined communities, and their utility consists in enabling us to avoid pain or to procure pleasure. Many a man's life largely depends upon the produce brought in ships from far-off countries, although he knows hardly anything about marine commerce, and perhaps has never seen a ship in his life. Let ships be done away with, however, and mark what follows. The vegetables, or corn, or coals imported come to an end; other markets must be frequented; higher prices must be paid, and more anxiety and expense incurred. Failing other markets, new ground must be broken up and tilled and sown, trees must be cut down, or timber or turf must be bought and burned; and, altogether, other occupations must be neglected, harder work must be done, and, in most cases, less food must be consumed and more privations suffered. Thus ships must be classed among those articles which, at least, enable us to avoid pain. From these remarks it may be easy to understand how buildings, clothes, furniture, and the other objects named come under the same category. Houses protect us against the inclemency of the weather, against the scorching heat of the sun, the bad effects of the rain, of frost and snow and wind, which otherwise would bring on ague, colds, rheumatism, neuralgia, fever, and death. Law courts, business offices, &c., protect others from the like mischiefs while engaged in discharging their duties and making arrangements which are essential to the well-being of the nation.
The second class of useful articles—those which enable us to procure pleasure-consist of such things as follows: -Scents, sweetmeats, spices, condiments, delicate things to eat and drink, and soft and comfortable things to wear and sit upon, attractive things to look at, carpets, cushions, sofas, curtains, pictures, flowers, plants, musical instruments, song-birds, carriages, yachts, jewellery, ribbons, gloves, pets—in short, those things that are known as the luxuries of life, the superfluous comforts of existence. No