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They presented a rattle to the infant, of whom I have spoken in the last note. He was then seventeen months old. He had encountered some difficulty in using this instrument, but as soon as he had discovered the method of working it, and observed the sound, which it created, he called it cricac.
Pzy, gay, gax, represent the sound of something which is broken or rent in pieces. Hence pryw, frywous, pnyuw, I break, faryou the imperfect of payw no longer in use which possesses the same signification ; púxos, tattered garments, torn vestments.
Ilate resembles the sound, which we create by striking something : hence altiw, Tandoow, I strike. It expresses also the noise, which we make, by stamping the ground in the act of walking. From which proceed Titaw, I trample upon, I walk and aztos the act of walking, whence the peripateticians received their cognomen. We say in common conversation, speaking of a genteel, fashionable person. Il va patata patata. Itis perhaps likewise from Bı, similar to Ila in sound, that Baw, Bu, I walk has been deduced.'
Ilda, ahn, represent the sound caused by certain blows : from which come πλαγω, πλήγω, πλήσσω, I strike ; Πλαγον, whicle proves the ancient usage of πλαγω no longer employed, as Πληγον proves that of πλήγω: ΙΠληγή, in Eolic πλάγα and in Latin lplagα (a blow, wound.)
The syllable: Sa, Ye, and also yw, appear to have been regarded, as bearing some resemblance to the noise of water boiling, or of a burning substance falling into water. Hence Yew, I experience great heat. I boil. This idea of heat, has been extended to that vivifying heat, the absence of which, produces the cessation of life : from which, proceed Yiw I live (wr, life; Gãoy, every thing possessing animation. From which proceeds also, the name of the author of vital heat, of that being, who presides over the vivifying air, Srir, Çeus, gdeus. Deus, Dieu, God.
The word grož, a flame, has been also formed by the imitative faculty.
The waves of the ocean striking against a rock, or the sides of a ship, produce a sound, which is well represented by the syllable çaol. Hence croiosos, the sound caused by the ocean ware. It is from a close imitation of the same onomatopia that the Latins, formed fluó (I flow), fluctus (flot) a wave. The Greeks employed the syllable chv, in order to express the noise caused by ebullition : whence : φλύω, φλυζω, I boil; φλυαρία, bagatelles, trifles, words devoid of sense ; which make but au insignificant noise, like that of water boiling.
The syllables gæ, ge, gi, go, gu, represent the sound created by the efflux of a fluid. Thus pźw signified I pour out, I scatter, I water, and the derivative pai'w retains the same signification.
The same syllable very appropriately expresses the noise of something, which we break, or tear; which interpretation imparted to the verb pic, the sense of breaking, or tearing, as its derivative pioow deinonstrates.
The sound pe represents the noise caused by water, flowing silently in a bed of flint. This is the proper signification of the verb péw, and by extension, it signifies the flow of speech : as pów, I speak ; prois, discourse and for distinction, a remarquable expression ; priwg, an orator.
From the syllable gi, comes piov, a promontory, cape, mountain, the base of which runs into the sea, and is lashed by its waters. We may attribute to this element the word pisa, a root, since roots seem to extend themselves, and expand beneath the earth like a fluid.
Po expresses an efflux louder, and more impetuous than pe. Hence poñ, the current of a river ; pólos, pólov, the roaring of the sea.
Pu designates a current less progressive, and more obstructed; it expresses the mouvement of any liquid substance, which is drag. ged along, and by this means, compelled to flow : Hence pów, I drag. However the syllables gu, and geu simply indicated the efflux of all fluid bodies, as we see by the words púois, peŪua, flux current.
The syllable gıt, represents the sound, caused by a body, which rends the air, through which it is lanched ; from it, was formed, pintw, I dart, I hurl with force.
The syllable at differs very little in signification, from the syllable git; it expresses also the noise caused by the air, when it yields to a falling body : thus tittw I fall, is derived. The syllable he had the same signification. The ancient existence of the verb, néw, I fall, is proved by the future néow.
The syllable dou II designates a heavy fall ; from which were deduced, doutos, a dead, heavy fall ; douréw, I make a noise by falling in a heavy, helpless manner. The two syllables azz, represent the sound, which hard, sonorous bodies make, coming in collision ; an onomatopia, more expressive as I opine than the French onomatopia cliquetis : hence agaßos, a shrill sound resembling the clashing of arms. Homer describes in an imitative verse.
Δούπησεν δε Πέσων, αράβησέ τε τεύχε επ' αυτώ,
Il fit doup en tombaut, et sesarmes firent ara sur lui, (he douped when he fell, and his arms arad upon him.) In this verse, the onomatopia is relieved by the termination. In the French language, the onomatopice are often but an indifferent imitation of natural sound, and are employed adverbially. Il tombe poof, il va dar dar dar, il frappe pan pan pan, ilbrise tout patatra. It is not in this department, that the French language is by any means pre-eminent ; but it possesses select onomatopice in the words tomber, when the fall is heavy, briser, casser, fracasser, piquer, and a thousand others.
The two united syllables Taza, very well represent a confused noise of many voices, of many mouvements. From which are derived tagaxen, tumult ; tagioow, I trouble, I put into confusion.
The iterated syllable aanz, aptly expresses a prattling of which we only hear the sound; from it the verb hadā, I speak wag formed.
The sound of the syllable ax, resembles the noise made by a pointed instrument, piercing a slender dry substance, such as a skin, or parchment. Hence, axr, a point, and also axes, which was not employed by the Greeks, but from which, the Latins formed acus, (aiguille, a needle). From the name of the instrument, the Greeks formed axéw, axeonar, I restore health, I heal. The idea of point, which appertains to the sense of touching, has been translated by the Latins to the sense of taste. From the Greek axen, a point, they formed the verbs aceo, acesco, I become bitter, and the adjectives acidus (acid). Thus speaking of an acid substance, the French say, it possesses un gout piquant, (sharp taste). In the same language, we also say in common conversation, une sauce pointue, we also assert that a beauty, a physiognomy, is piquante*, (an excellent sauce full of animation) and that a man possesses du piquant, de la pointe, in his style, or genius.
I could easily protract this subject to a much greater length, but it is not necessary to write diffusely in order to appear sufficiently explicit.
* The Arabs have an idiomatical expression, which conveys the same meaning with the “ un femme piquante” of the French: they call a woman who possesses physiognimcal character Zin Mill’h, which figuratively means an animated beauty, but literally a salt beauty; Millah in Arabic being the term for salt.
MEDICAL AND PHYSICAL SOCIETY.
At the Meeting of the Medical and Physical Society, on the 4th June, 1831, Mr. J. Hall, Dr. D. Russell, Mr. W. Morgan, Dr. H. Mackintosh, and Mr. J. Kellie, formerly proposed, were elected Members of the society; and Rajah Kalikis, sen was elected a corresponding Member. Dr. Strachan, Deputy Inspector General of Hospitals, His Majesty's Service, at Madras, and Mr. Rutledge, Surgeon of his Blajesty's 55th Regiment, were proposed as Members, by Mr. Wilson and Mr. Twining:
The following Medical communications were then laid before the Society. Mr. Henderson's account of Cholera. Dr. H. Mackenzie's Essay on the employment of V. S. in the cold stage of Ague. Mr. Galt's case of Fever, terminating fatally, by rupture of the heart. Dr. R. Tytler's case of Snake bite. Appendix to his former report on Vaccination, by Mr. Cameron. Mr. Hutchinson presented a Bengalee Translation of his Essay on Alvine Fluxes of the natives.
Mr. F. P. Strong presented a small printed Treatise on Fevers, denominated Pyretologia, by J. Fisher.
Mr. Hutchinson's Essay on Fever was then read and discussed by the Meeting.
Mr. Hutchinson commences his Essay with observing, that he intends to treat of the common fever of Bengal; and would call it common, because the attack, though generally of the remittent character at first, almost invariably becomes continued, it its duration exceed a second paroxysm; and he states, that from the commencement, it nearly as often appears in the continued, as in the remittent form. Afier a short remark on Mr. Annesley's work, he says, that the introduction to Dr. J. Johnson's book on the Diseases of Tropical Climates, containing the account of the Endemic of Bengal, had formerly appeared so imperfect, that he intended to have thrown together the present observations in the form of a commentary on its inaccuracies; but on reperusing the work with this object in' view, he was much struck with the judgement and ability displayed in that portion of it, and does not observe the necessity of making any absolute change in the grand doctrines laid down by Dr. Johnson, whose outline of the disease he now intends to fill up and complete : considering this minuter detail requisite, from the conviction, that a strict adherence to the instructions contained in that work, would not conduct us to a successful mode of treatment, and he believes, that further experience would have led that Author to modify his practice, Mr. Hutchinson states, that though fevers of a most dangerous character occasionally prevail during the hot weather, that generally the attacks occurring at that time are little more than ephemeral : bat be considers the condition of the atmosphere during the rains, and for some time after their conclusion, tends to the production of fevers, and to heighten the virulence of the disease; and he questions if fever be not much modifed in character by the patient's constitution and habits, &c. while, no doubt, the mineral impregnations of the soil occasionally communicate a peculiar character to fevers. The Author goes on to state, that in his experience, the following were the most commou causes of fever. Exposure to the sun, especially at unhealthy seasons ; sitting in damp wet clothes, indulgence in venereal excesses; use of cold washy fruits, such as oranges and limes; the use of Seidlitz powders, and Soda water; the frequent or too protracted use of the cold bath; sudden reduction of the usual mode of living ; mental inquietude; and more than all these, ex. posure to marsh exhalations. Mr. II. adopts the usual doctrines of Malaria, and its influence in causing fevers, to the fullest extent that its advocates could desire ; and goes on to explain his views of Malaria, as a certain noxious principle, result