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And various idols through the heathen world.
Say, Muse, their names then known, who first, who last,
Roused from the slumber on that fiery couch
At their great emperor's call, as next in worth
Came singly where he stood on the bare strand,
While the promiscuous crowd stood yet aloof?
The chief were those who from the pit of hell,
Roaming to seek their prey on earth, durst fix
Their seats long after next the seat of God,
Their altars by his altar, gods adored
Among the nations round; and durst abide
Jehovah thundering out of Sion, throned
Between the cherubim ; yea, often placed
Within his sanctuary itself their shrines,
Abominations, and with cursed things
His holy rites and solemn feasts profaned,
And with their darkness durst affront his light.
First Moloch, horrid king, besmeared with blood
Of human sacrifice and parents' tears,
Though for the noise of drums and timbrels loud
Their children's cries unheard, that passed through fire
To his grim idol. Him the Ammonite
Worshiped in Rabba and her watery plain,
In Argob and in Basan, to the stream
Of utmost Arnon. Nor content with such
Audacious neighborhood, the wisest heart
Of Solomon he led by fraud to build
His temple right against the temple of God
On that opprobrious hill, and made his grove
The pleasant vale of Hinnom, Tophet thence
And black Gehenna called, the type of hell.
Next Chemos, the obscene dread of Moab's sons
From Aroar to Nebo and the wild
Of southmost Abarim ; in Hesebon
And Horonaim, Seon's realm, beyond
The flowery dale of Sibma clad with vines,
And Eleäle to the Asphaltic pool.
Peor his other name, when he enticed
Israel in Sittim, on their march from Nile,
To do him wanton rites which cost them woe.
Yet thence his lustful orgies he enlarged
E'en to that hill of scandal by the grove
Of Moloch homicide, - lust hard by hate,
Till good Josiah drove them thence to hell.
With these came they, who, from the bordering flood
Of old Euphrates to the brook that parts
Egypt from Syrian ground, had general names
Of Baalim and Ashtaroth : those male,
These feminine; for spirits, when they please,
Can either sex assume, or both; so soft
And uncompounded is their essence pure,
Not tied nor manacled with joint or limb,

Nor founded on the brittle strength of bones,
Like cuinbrous flesh; but in what shape they choose,
Dilated or condensed, bright or obscure,
Can execute their airy purposes,
And works of love or enmity fulfill.
For those the race of Israel oft forsook
Their living Strength, and unfrequented left
His righteous altar, bowing lowly down
To bestial gods; for which their heads, as low
Bowed down in battle, sank before the spear
Of despicable foes. With these in troop
Came Astoreth, whom the Phænicians called
Astarte, queen of heaven, with crescent horns;
To whose bright image nightly by the moon
Sidonian virgins paid their vows and songs:
In Sion also not unsung, where stood
Her temple on the offensive mountain, built
By that uxorious king, whose heart, though large,
Beguiled by fair idolatresses, fell
To idols foul. Thammuz came next behind,
Whose annual wound in Lebanon allured
The Syrian damsels to lament his fate
In amorous ditties all a summer's day;
While smooth Adonis from his native rock
Ran purple to the sea, supposed with blood
Of Thamruz yearly wounded. The love-tale
Infected Sion's daughters with like heat;
Whose wanton passions in the sacred porch
Ezekiel saw, when, by the vision led,
His eye surveved the dark idolatries
Of alienated Julah. Next came one
Who mourned in earnest when the captive ark
Maimed his brute image, head and hands lopped off
In his own temple, on the grunsel edge,
Where he fell flat, and shamed his worshipers :
Dagon his name, sea-monster, — upward man,
And downward fish; yet had his temple high
Reared in Azotus, dreaded through the coast
Of Palestine, in Gath and Ascalon
And Accaron, and Gaza's frontier bounds.
Him followed Rimmon, whose delightful seat
Was fair Damascus, on the fertile banks
Of Abana and Pharpar, lucid streams.
He also 'gainst the house of God was bold :
A leper once he lost, and gained a king;
Ahaz his sottish conqueror, whom he drew
God's altar to disparage and displace
For one of Syrian mode, whereon to burn
His odious offerings, and adore the gods
Whom he had vanquished. After these appeared
A crew, who, under names of old renown, -
Osiris, Iris, Orus, and their train, —

With monstrous shapes and sorceries abused'
Fanatic Egypt and her priests to seek
Their wandering gods disguised in brutish forms
Rather than human.

OTHER DISTINGUISHED AUTHORS OF

MILTON'S TIME.

Thomas FULLER. - 1608-1661. Witty divine. “Church History of Britain;" Worthies of England;" essays, tracts, and sermons.

JEREMY TAYLOR. - 1613-1667. Brilliant writer of sermons and essays.

Edward Hyde (Earl of Clarendon). — 1608-1674. “History of the Rebellion," and other works.

Sir William DAVENANT. — 1605-1668. Succeeded Ben Jonson as laureate.
EDMUND WALLER. — 1605-1687. Poet and politician.

HENRY VAUGHN. — 1621-1695. Devotional poems. Thomas, his brother, wrote books on alchemy.

Sir John DENHAM. — 1615-1668. “Cooper's Hill," a local poem.
RICHARD LOVELACE. — 1618-1658. Odes and songs.

ABRAHAM COWLEY. — 1618-1667. “Miscellanies,” “Pindaric Odes," and “Love Verses.”

WILLIAN CHAMBERLAYNE. – 1619-1689. “Love's Victory,” “ Pharonnida."
CHARLES COTTON. - 1630-1687. Witty poet-friend of Izaak Walton.

Jony GAUDEN. — 1605 -1662. “Eikon Basilika; or, Portraiture of his Most
Sacred Majesty, Charles I., in his Solitude and Sufferings.”

Sir Thomas BROWNE. — 1605–1682. “Religio Medici,” “Pseudodoxia Epidemica."

Ralph CudwORTH. — 1617-1688. “The True Intellectual System of the Universe," " Eternal and Immutable Morality,” and others.

Jonn EVELYN. — 1620-1706. “Sylva,” “ Tessa,” and “ Diary.”

ANDREW MARVEL. — 1620-1678. “Popery and Arbitrary Government in England." The friend of Milton.

ALGERNON SIDNEY. — 1621–1683. “Discourses on Government,” in opposition to the doctrine of the divine right of kings.

ROBERT BOYLE. — 1627–1691. Distinguished philosopher. “ Occasional Reflections on Several Subjects."

Sir WillIAM TEMPLE. — 1628–1699. Accomplished diplomatist, and elegant writer of the English language. “Essays."

John Ray.- 1628–1705. “General History of Plants,” and “Wisdom of God in the Works of Creation."

John Tillotson. — 1630 –1694. “Sermons."

Isaac Barrow.— 1630-1677. Mathematical works in Latin, and theological in English.

SAMUEL PEPYS. – Died 1703. "Diary.”

ROBERT South. — 1633-1716. Witty divine; fierce upholder of the doctrines of passive obedience and divine right.

FRANCIS BACON, VISCOUNT ST. ALBAN'S.

1561-1626.

His " Essays" and " Advancement of Learning ” were written in English. The “Novum Organum," his greatest work, explains the inductive method of reasoning, - that is, from particular facts to general laws, – and for the first time places all philosophy upon its true basis. Upon this work, which was a part of a magnificent inexecuted plan, rests his immortal fame.

STUDIES.

· STUDIES serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight is in privateness and retiring, for ornament is in discourse, and for ability is in the judgment and disposition of business : for expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshaling of affairs, come best from those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies is sloch; to use them too much for ornament is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules is the humor of a scholar. They perfect Nature, and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning by study; and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience. Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them; for they teach not their own use: but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation. Read not to contradict and confure, nor to believe and take for granted, nor to find talk and discourse, but to weigh and consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested : that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others : but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books; else distilled books are, like common distilled waters, flashy things. Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man: and therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit; and, if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know that he doth not.

OF BOLDNESS.

It is a trivial grammar-school text, but yet worthy a wise man's consideration. The question was asked of Demosthenes, “ What is the chief part of an orator ?" He answered, “Action.” What next? “Action.” What next again? “Action.” He said it that knew it best, and had by nature himself no advantage in that he commended. A strange thing, that that part of an orator which is but superficial, and rather the virtue of a player, should be placed so high above those other noble parts of invention, elocution, and the rest; nay, almost alone, as if it were all in all! But the reason is plain: there is in human nature generally more of the fool than of the wise; and therefore those faculties by which the foolish part of men's minds is taken are most potent. Wonderful like is the case of boldness in civil business. What first ? " Boldness." What second and third ? “Boldness,” And yet boldness is a child of ignorance and baseness, far inferior to other parts; but, nevertheless, it doth fascinate, and bind hand and foot, those that are either shallow in judgment, or weak in courage, which are the greatest part; yea, and prevaileth with wise men at weak times: therefore we see it hath done wonders in popular statės, but with senates and princes less; and more ever upon the first entrance of bold persons into action. than soon after; for boldness is an ill keeper of promise. Surely, as there are mountebanks for the natural body, so are there mountebanks for the politic body, — men that undertake great cures, and perhaps have been lucky in two or three experiments, but want the grounds of science, and therefore can not hold out. Nay, you shall see a bold fellow many times do Mahomet's miracle. Mahomet made the people believe that he would make the hill come to him, and from the top of it offer up his prayers for the observers of his law. The people assembled. Mahomet called the hill to come to him again and again; and, when the hill stood still, he was never a whit abashed, but said, “If the hill will not come to Mahomet, Mahomet will go to the hill.” So these men, when they have promised great matters, and failed most shamefully, yet (if they have the perfection of boldness) they will but slight it over, and make a turn, and no more ado. Certainly, to men of great judgment, bold persons are sport to behold; nay, and to the vulgar, also, boldness hath somewhat of the ridiculous: for, if absurdity be the subject of laughter, doubt you not that great boldness is seldom without some absurdity. Especially it is a sport to see when a bold fellow is out of countenance, for that puts his face into a most shrunken and wooden posture, as needs it must: for in bashfulness the spirits do a little and come; but with bold men, upon

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