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tude for his patriotism, or sympathy for his sufferings, than if his eyes had first opened upon the light in Massachusetts, instead of South Carolina? Sir, does he suppose it in his power to exhibit a Carolina name so bright as to produce envy in my bosom? No, sir ! — increased gratification and delight, rather. Sir, I thank God, that, if I am gifted with little of the spirit which is said to be able to raise mortals to the skies, I have yet none, as I trust, of that other spirit which would drag angels down.

When I shall be found, sir, in my place here in the Senate, or elsewhere, to sneer at public merit because it happened to spring up beyond the little limits of my own State and neighborhood; when I refuse for any such cause, or for any cause, the homage due to American talent, to elevated patriotism, to sincere devotion to liberty and the country; or if I see an uncommon endowment of heaven, if I see extraordinary capacity and virtue in any son of the South; and if, moved by local prejudice, or gangrened by State jealousy, I get up here to abate the tithe of a hair from his just character and just fame,

- may my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth! Sir, let me recur to pleasing recollections; let me indulge in refreshing remembrances of the past; let me remind you, that, in early times, no States cherished greater harmony, both of principle and of feeling, than Massachusetts and South Carolina. Would to God that harmony might again return! Shoulder to shoulder they went through the Revolution; hand in hand they stood round the administration of Washington, and felt his own great arm lean on them for support. Unkind feeling (if it exist), alienation, and distrust, are the growth, unnatural to such soils, of false principles since sown. They are weeds, the seeds of which that same great arm never scattered.

Mr. President, I shall enter on no encomium upon Massachusetts: she needs none. There she is: behold her, and judge for yourselves. There is her history: the world knows it by heart. The past, at least, is secure.

There is Boston and Concord and Lexington and Bunker Hill; and there they will remain for ever. The bones of her sons, falling in the great struggle for independence, now lie mingled with the soil of every State, from New England to Georgia; and there they will lie for ever. And, sir, where American liberty raised its first voice, and where its youth was nurtured and sustained, there it still lives in the strength of its manhood, and full of its original spirit. If discord and disunion shall wound it; if party strife and blind ambition shall hawk at and tear it; if folly and madness, if uneasiness under salutary and necessary restraint, shall succeed to separate it from that union by which alone its existence is made sure, it will stand in the end by the side of that cradle in which its infancy


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was rocked; it will stretch forth its arm, with whatever of vigor
it may still retain, over the friends who gather round it; and it
will fall at last, if fall it inust, amidst the proudest monuments of
its own glory, and on the very spot of its origin.
Mr. President
, I have thus stated the reasons of


dissent to the doctrines which have been advanced and maintained. I am conscious of having detained you and the Senate much too long. I was drawn into the debate with no previous deliberation such as is suited to the discussion of so grave and important a subject: but it is a subject of which my heart is full; and I have not been willing to suppress the utterance of its spontaneous sentiments. I can not, even now, persuade myself to relinquish it, without expressing once more my deep conviction, that, since it respects nothing less than the union of the States, it is of most vital and essential importance to the public happiness. I profess, sir, in my career hitherto, to have kept steadily in view the prosperity and honor of the whole country, and the preservation of our Federal Union. It is to that Union that we owe our safety at home, and our consideration and dignity abroad. It is to that Union that we are chiefly indebted for whatever makes us most proud of our country. That Union we reached only by the discipline of our virtues in the severe school of adversity. It had its origin in the necessities of disordered finance, prostrate commerce, and ruined credit. Under its benign influences, these great interests immediately awoke as from the dead, and sprang forth with newness of life. Every year of its duration has teemed with fresh proofs of its utility and its blessings; and although our territory has stretched out wider and wider, and our population spread farther and farther, they have not outrun its protection or its benefits. It has been to us all a copious fountain of national, social, and personal happiness. I have not allowed myself, sir, to look beyond the Union to see what might lie hidden in the dark recess behind. I have not coolly weighed the chances of preserving liberty when the bonds that unite us together shall be broken asunder. I have not. accustomed myself to hang over the precipice of disunion to see whether, with my short sight, I can fathom the depth of the abyss below; nor could I regard him as a safe counselor in the affairs of this government whose thoughts should be mainly bent on considering, not how the Union should be best preserved, but how tolerable might be the condition of the people when it shall be broken up and destroyed. While the Union lasts, we have high, exciting, gratifying prospects spread out before us for us and our children. Beyond that, I seek not to penetrate the veil. God grant, that, in my day at least, that curtain may not rise! God grant, that on my vision never may


opened what lies behind! When my eyes shall be turned to behold for the last time the sun in heaven, may I not see him shining on the broken and dishonored fragments of a once-glorious Union; on States dissevered, discordant, belligerent; on a land rent with civil feuds, or drenched, it may be, in fraternal bl d! Let their last feeble and lingering glance rather behold the gorgeous ensign of the republic, now known and honored throughout the earth, still full high advanced, its arms and trophies streaming in their original luster, not a stripe erased or polluted, nor a single star obscured; bearing for its motto no such miserable interrogatory as, What is all this worth ? nor those other words of delusion and folly, Liberty first, and Union afterwards; but everywhere, spread all over in characters of living light, blazing on all its ample folds, as they float over the sea and over the land, and in every wind under the whole heavens, that other sentiment, dear to every true American heart, — Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable.



Has left a few fragments of sufficient excellence to prove that he lacked the one great element of successful genius, - the decision of character to execute a plan. His essays and fragments of poems are valued for the critical and imaginative power shown.



It is an ancient mariner,
And he stoppeth one of three :
“ By thy long gray beard and glittering eye,
Now wherefore stopp’st thou me ?

“ The bridegroom's doors are opened wide,
And I am next of kin;
The guests are met, the feast is set :
Mayst hear the merry din.”

He holds him with his skinny hand :
“ There was a ship,” quoth he.
“ Hold off! unhand me, gray-beard loon !”
Eftsoons his hand dropped he.

He holds him with his glittering eye:
The wedding-guest stood still,
And listens like a three-years' child :
The mariner bath his will.

The wedding-guest sat on a stone;
He can not choose but hear;
And thus spake on that ancient man,
The bright-eyed mariner :

“ The ship was cheered, the harbor cleared :
Merrily did we drop
Below the kirk, below the hill,
Below the lighthouse top.

“ The sun came up upon the left;
Out of the sea came he;
And he shone bright, and on the right
Went down into the sea.

“Higher and higher every day,
Till over the mast at noon
The wedding-guest here beat his breast;
For he heard the loud bassoon.

The bride hath paced into the hall ;
Red as a rose is she :
Nodding their heads, before her goes
The merry minstrelsy.

The wedding-guest he beat his breast,
Yet he can not choose but hear;
And thus spake on that ancient man,
The bright-eyed mariner :

“ And now the storm-blast came; and he
Was tyrannous and strong:
He struck with his o'ertaking wings,
And chased us south along.

“ With sloping masts and dipping prow,
As who pursued with yell and blow
Still treads the shadow of his foe,
And forward bends his head,
The ship drove fast; loud roared the blast;
And southward aye we fled.

6 And now there came both mist and snow;
And it grew wondrous cold;
And ice mast-high came floating by,
As green as emerald.

« And through the drifts the snowy cliffs
Did send a dismal sheen :
Nor shapes of men nor beasts we ken, –
The ice was all between.

“ The ice was here, the ice was there,
The ice was all around:
It cracked and growled, and roared and howled,
Like noises in a swound.

“At length did cross an albatross ;
Thorough the fog it came :
As if it had been a Christian soul,
We hailed it in God's name.

“ It ate the food it ne'er had eat,
And round and round it flew :
The ice did split with a thunder-fit;
The helmsman steered us through.

“ And a good south wind sprung up behind:
The albatross did follow,
And every day, for food or play,
Came to the mariners' hollo.

“ In mist or cloud, on mast or shroud,
It perched for vespers nine;
Whiles all the night, through fog-smoke white,
Glimmered the white moonshine."

“ God save thee, ancient mariner,
From the fiends that plague thee thus !
Why look’st thou so ?” – “With my cross-bow
I shot the albatross.”


“ The sun now rose upon the right:
Out of the sea came he,
Still hid in mist, and on the left
Went down into the sea.

“ And the good south wind still blew behind;
But no sweet bird did follow,
Nor any day, for food or play,
Came to the mariners' hollo.

“ And I had done a hellish thing,
And it would work 'em woe;
For all averred I had killed the bird
That made the breeze to blow.
* Ah, wretch !' said they, “the bird to slay
That made the breeze to blow !'

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