Needs, Opportunities and Strategies for a Long-term Oceanic Sciences Satellite Program, Брой 185

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National Center for Atmospheric Research., 1981 - 72 страници
 

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Страница vii - Thou glorious mirror, where the Almighty's form Glasses itself in tempests; in all time, Calm or convulsed, — in breeze, or gale, or storm, Icing the pole, or in the torrid clime Dark heaving; — boundless, endless, and sublime. The image of eternity, the throne Of the Invisible; even from out thy slime The monsters of the deep are made; each zone Obeys thee; thou goest forth, dread, fathomless, alone.
Страница 1 - HC A99/MF A01 CSCL 08C Oceanic dynamics was traditionally investigated by sampling from instruments in situ, yielding quantitative measurements that are intermittent in both space and time; the ocean is undersampled. The need to obtain proper sampling of the averaged quantities treated in analytical and numerical models is at present the most significant limitation on advances in physical oceanography. Within the past decade, many electromagnetic techniques for the study of the Earth and planets...
Страница 1 - Avail: NTIS HC A99/MF A01 CSCL 08C Oceanic dynamics was traditionally investigated by sampling from instruments in situ, yielding quantitative measurements that are intermittent in both space and time; the ocean is undersampled. The need to obtain proper sampling of the averaged quantities treated in analytical and numerical models is at present the most significant limitation on advances in physical oceanography. Within the past decade, many electromagnetic techniques for the study of the Earth...
Страница v - Administration (NASA), together with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Department of Defense (DoD), planned for the first operational demonstration of a spaceborne ocean observing system, the National Oceanic Satellite System (NOSS).
Страница 2 - ... exploited in future programs of ocean sciences research. Such exploitation requires a developing synergism between specific space-based techniques and missions, on the one hand, with research experiments on important oceanographic problems that benefit from those techniques, on the other. The uncertainties associated with inference from remote sensing, and the difficulties of reconstructing the overall picture from observations in situ imply that the acceptance of new information will come only...
Страница 16 - The temperature of the sea surface is one of the important physical factors that determine the exchange of heat energy between the atmosphere and ocean...
Страница 2 - Communication with sensors on fixed and drifting buoys, and the location of nonfixed systems through satellites make possible all sorts of composite subsurface measurement systems which would otherwise be quite impracticable. Remote sensors operating from the vantage point of space will never replace direct measurements and acoustic remote sensing, because the ocean is...
Страница 2 - ... through repeat observations), so that it is attractive as a unique complement to information derived from direct observations. The orderly evolution of composite systems also needs long-range vision and stability of institutional arrangements which transcend the traditional boundaries of funding...
Страница 2 - ... effort. To do otherwise would risk not extracting the full advantage of the very large investment in the satellite portion of the system. New observing tools can transform the basic perception of old problems, but only after their interpretation has been established, necessary corrections have been applied, and calibrations and error estimates are known. There are few applicable standards for "surface truth".
Страница 10 - One might hope to initialize by running a model for a longer period of time with known winds and verifying the model against data collected during the period corresponding to the end of the model run.

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