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correspondence with the new comers, whom they confidered as intruders upon their property.

The inland inhabitants are represented as extremely numerous, living in cottages thatched with straw, and feeding large herds of cattle. They lived mostly up- . on milk or flesh procured by the chace. What cloaths, they wore to cover any part of their bodies, were usually the skins of beasts; but much of their bodies, as the arms, legs, and thighs, was left naked, and those parts were usually painted blue. Their hair, which was long, flowed down upon their backs and shoulders, while their beards were kept close Thaven, except upon the upper lip, where it was suffered to grow. The dress of savage nations is every where pretty much the fame, being calculated rather to inspire terror than to excite love or respect. - As to their government, it consisted of several

small principalities, each under its respective leader; and this seems to be the earliest mode of dominion with which mankind are acquainted, and deduced from the natural privileges of paternal authority. Upon great, or uncommon dangers, a commander in chief was chosen by common confent, in a general assembly; and to him was committed the conduct of the general intereft, the power of making peace, or leading to war.

Their furces consisted chiefly of foot, and yet they could bring a considerable number of horfe into the field upon great occasions. They likewise used chariots in battle, which, with short fcythes fastened to the ends of the axle-trees, inflicted terrible wounds, spreading terror and devastation where oever they drove. Nor while the chariots were thus destroying, were the warriors who conducted them unemployed. These darted their javelirs against the enemy, ran along the beam, leapt on the ground, resumed their leat, stopt, or turned their horses at full speed, and

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sometimes cunningly retreated, to draw the enemy". into confusion.

The religion of the Britons was one of the most considerable parts of their government, and the Druids, who were the guardians of it, possessed great authority among them. No species of superstition was ever more terrible than theirs; besides the severe penalties which they were permitted to inflict in this world, they inculcated the eternal transmigration of souls, and thus extended their authority as far as the fears of their votaries. They sacrificed human victims, which they burned in large wicker idols, made so capacious as to contain a multitude of persons at once, who were thus consumed together. To these rites, tending to impress ignorance with awe, they added the austerity of their manners, and the fimplicity of their lives. They lived in woods, caves, and hollow trees; their food was acorns and berries, and their drink water ; by these arts, they were not only respected, but almost adored by the people.

It may be easily supposed, that the manners of the people took a tincture from the discipline of their teach

ers. Their lives were fimple, but they were mark.ed with cruelty and fierceness; their courage was great, but neither dignified by mercy nor perfeverance.

The Britons had long remained in this rude but independent state, when Cæsar having over-run Gaul with his victories, and willing still farther to extend his fame, determined upon the conquest of a country that seemed to promise an easy triumph. When the troops destined for the expedition were embarked, he set fail for Britain about midnight, and the next morning arrived on the coast near Dover, where he saw the rocks and cliffs covered with armed men to oppose his landing.

The Britons had chosen Caffibelaunus for their commander in chief, but the petty · princes under B 2

his

correspondence with the new comers, whom they considered as intruders upon their property.

The inland inhabitants are represented as extremely numerous, living in cottages thatched with straw, and feeding large herds of cattle. They lived mostly up- . on milk or flesh procured by the chace. What cloaths, they wore to cover any part of their bodies, were usually the skins of beasts; but much of their bodies, as the arms, legs, and thighs, was left naked, and those parts were usually painted blue. Their hair, which was long, flowed down upon their backs and shoulders, while their beards were kept close Ihaven, except upon the upper lip, where it was suffered to grow. The dress of savage nations is every where pretty much the fame, being calculated rather

to inspire terror than to excite love or respect. na As to their government, it consisted of several

small principalities, each under its respective leader; and this seems to be the earliest mode of dominion with which mankind are acquainted, and deduced from the natural privileges of paternal authority. Upon great, cr uncommon dangers, a commander in chief was chosen by common consent, in a general assembly ; and to him was committed the conduct of the general interest, the power of making peace, or leading to war.

Their forces consisted chiefly of foot, and yet they could bring a considerable number of horfe into the field upon great occasions. They likewise used chariots in battle, which,, with short fcythes fastened to the ends of the axle-trees, inflicted terrible wounds, spreading terror and devastation wheresoever they drove. Nor while the chariots were thus destroying, were the warriors who conducted them unemployed.

These darted their javelirs against the enemy, ran along the beam, leapt on the ground, resumed their feat, stopt, or turned their horses at full speed, and

fomen

sometimes cunningly retreated, to draw the enemy . into confusion.

The religion of the Britons was one of the most considerable parts of their government; and the Druids, who were the guardians of it, possessed great authority among them. No species of fuperftition was ever more terrible than theirs; besides the severe penalties which they were permitted to inflict in this world, they inculcated the eternal transmigration of fouls, and thus extended their authority as far as the fears of their votaries. They sacrificed human victims, which they burned in large wicker idols, made so capacious as to contain a multitude of persons at once, who were thus consumed together. To these rites, tending to impress ignorance with awe, they added the austerity of their manners, and the fimplicity of their lives. They lived in woods, caves, and hollow trees; their food was acorns and berries, and their drink water ; by these arts, they were not only respected, but almost adored by the people.

It may be easily supposed, that the manners of the people took a tincture from the discipline of their teachers. Their lives were fimple, but they were marked with cruelty and fierceness; their courage was great, but neither dignified by mercy nor perfeverance.

The Britons had long remained in this rude but independent state, when Cæfar having over-run Gaul with his victories, and willing still farther to extend his fame, determined upon the conquest of a country that seemed to promise an easy triumph. When the troops destined for the expedition were embarked, he set sail for Britain about midnight, and the next morning arrived on the coast near Dover, where he saw the rocks and cliffs covered with armed men to pole his landing .chiis covered witch

The Britons had chosen Caffibelaunus for their commander in chief, but the petty princes under

his

B 2

his command, either defiring his station, or suspecte ing his fidelitry, threw off their allegiance. Some of them fled with their forces into the internal parts of the kingdom, others submitted to Cæsar, till at length Caffibelaunus himself, weakened by so many desertions, resolved upon making what terms he was able while he yet had power to keep the field. The conditions offered by Cæsar, and accepted by him were,

that he should send to the continent double the num· ber of hoftages at first demanded, and that he should acknowledge subjection to the Romans. Cæsar, however, was obliged to return once more to compel the Britons to compleat their stipulated treaty.

Upon the accession of Augustus, that emperor had formed a design of visiting Britain, but was divertedfrom it by an unexpected revolt of the Pannonians. · Tiberius, wisely judging the empire already too ex-. tensive, made no attempt upon Britain. From that time the natives began to improve in all the arts which contribute to the advancement of human nature.

The wild extravagancies of Caligula, by which he threatened Britain with an invasion, served rather to expose him to ridicule than the island to danger. At length the Romans, in the reign of Claudius, began to think seriously of reducing them under their domi-nion. The expedition for this purpose was conducted in the beginning by Plautius and other commanders, with that succe's which ysually attended the Roman arms.

Caractacus was the first who seemed willing, by a vigorous effort, to rescue his country and repel its insulting and rapacious conquerors. This rude soldier, though with inferior forces, continued, for above nine years, to oppose and harrass the Romans; till at length he was totally routed, and taken prisoner by Oftorius Scapula, who sent him in triumph to Rome. While Caractacus was leading thro' Rome,

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