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Fear'st thou that, Antonio ? Boy,–[To Viola.]—thou hast said to me a thouAnt. How have you made division of yourself ?
sand times, An apple cleft in two is not more twin
Thou never should'st love woman like to me. Than these two creatures. Which is Sebastian ? Vio. And all those sayings will I over-swear, Oli. Most wonderful !
And all those swearings keep as true in soul,
That severs day from night.
Give me thy hand; Whom the blind waves and surges have devour'd. And let me see thee in thy woman's weeds. [To V10LA.]—Of charity, what kin are you to me? Vio. The captain, that did bring me first on shore, What countryman? what name? what parentage ? Hath my maid's garments : he, upon some action,
Vio. Of Messaline : Sebastian was my father; Is now in durance at Malvolio's suit, Such a Sebastian was my brother too,
A gentleman, and follower of my lady's. So went he suited to his watery tomb.
Oli. He shall enlarge him. — Fetch Malvolio If spirits can assume both form and suit,
hither :You come to fright us.
And yet, alas, now I remember me, Seb.
A spirit I am indeed; They say, poor gentleman, he's much distract. But am in that dimension grossly clad,
A most extracting frenzy of mine own Which from the womb I did participate.
From my remembrance clearly banish'd his.Were you a woman, as the rest goes even, I should my tears let fall upon your cheek,
Re-enter Clown, with a letter. And say—thrice welcome, drowned Viola!
How does he, sirrah? Vio. My father had a mole upon his brow.
Clo. Truly, madam, he holds Belzebub at the Seb. And so had mine.
stave's end, as well as a man in his case may do. Vio. And died that day, when Viola from her
He has here writ a letter to you: I should have birth Had number'd-thirteen years.
given it you to-day morning; but as a madman's Seb. O! that record is lively in my soul.
epistles are no gospels, so it skills not much when He finished, indeed, his mortal act
they are delivered. That day that made my sister thirteen years.
Oli. Open it, and read it.
Clo. Look then to be well edified, when the fool Vio. If nothing lets to make us happy both,
delivers the madman :-[Reads.]—“By the Lord, But this my masculine usurp'd attire,
madam,"Do not embrace me, till each circumstance
Oli. How now! art thou mad? Of place, time, fortune, do cohere, and jump,
Clo. No, madam, I do but read madness: an your That I am Viola : which to confirm,
ladyship will have it as it ought to be, you must I'll bring you to a captain in this town,
allow vor. Where lie my maiden weeds : by whose gentle help I was preserv'd to serve this noble count.
Oli. Pr'ythee, read i' thy right wits.
Clo. So I do, madonna; but to read his right wits, All the occurrence of my fortune since
is to read thus: therefore perpend, my princess, and Hath been between this lady, and this lord. Seb. So comes it, lady,–[To Olivia.]-you
Oli. Read it you, sirrah. [To Fabian have been mistook ; But nature to her bias drew in that.
Fab. (Reads.] “By the Lord, madam, you You would have been contracted to a maid,
wrong me, and the world shall know it: though you Nor are you therein, by my life, deceiv'd:
have put me into darkness, and given your drunken You are betroth'd both to a maid and man.
cousin rule over me, yet have I the benefit of my Duke. Be not amaz'd; right noble is his blood.- senses as well as your ladyship. I have your own If this be so, as yet the glass seems true,
letter that induced me to the semblance I put on: I shall have share in this most happy wreck. with the which I doubt not but to do myself much
right, or you much shame. Think of me as you Fab.
Good madam, hear me speak; please. I leave my duty a little unthought of, and And let no quarrel, nor po brawl to come, speak out of my injury.
Taint the condition of this present hour, “ The madly-used Malvolio."
Which I have wonder'd at. In hope it shall not,
Most freely I confess, myself, and Toby, Oli. Did he write this?
Set this device against Malvolio here, Clo. Ay, madam.
Upon some stubborn and uncourteous parts Duke. This savours not much of distraction. We had conceiv'd against him. Maria writ Oli. See him deliver’d, Fabian: bring him hither. The letter at Sir Toby's great importance;
[Exit Fabian. In recompense whereof, he hath married her. My lord, so please you, these things further thought How with a sportful malice it was follow'd, on,
May rather pluck on laughter than revenge,
If that the injuries be justly weigh’d,
Oli. Alas, poor fool, how have they baffled thee! Duke. Madam, I am most apt t’ embrace your Clo. Why, “ some are born great, some achieve offer.
greatness, and soine have greatness thrown upon [To V10LA.) Your master quits you; and, for your them.” I was one, sir, in this interlude ; one sir service done him,
Topas, sir; but that's all one.—"By the Lord, fool, So much against the mettle of your sex,
I am not mad;"—But do you remember? • Madam, So far beneath your soft and tender breeding, why laugh you at such a barren rascal ? an you And since you call’d me master for so long, smile not, he's gagg'd :" And thus the whirligig of Here is my hand: you shall from this time be time brings in his revenges. Your master's mistress.
Mal. I'll be revenged
on the whole pack of you. Oli. A sister :—you are she.
Oli. He hath been most notoriously abus'd. Re-enter FABIAN, with MalvoLIO.
Duke. Pursue him, and entreat him to a peace. Duke. Is this the madman?
He hath not told us of the captain yet; Oli.
Ay, my lord, this same. When that is known and golden time convents, How now, Malvolio?
A solemn combination shall be made
We will not part from hence.—Cesario, come;
For so you shall be, while you are a man, Mal. Lady, you have. Pray you, peruse that But when in other habits you are seen, letter:
Orsino's mistress, and his fancy's queen. [Exeunt. You must not now deny it is your hand, Write from it, if you can, in hand, or phrase;
CLOWN SINGS. Or say, 'tis not your seal, nor your invention :
When that I was and a little tiny boy, You can say none of this. Well, grant it then,
With hey, ho, the wind and the rain, And tell me, in the modesty of honour,
A foolish thing was but a toy,
For the rain it raineth every day.
But when I came to man's estate,
With hey, ho, the wind and the rain, And, acting this in an obedient hope,
'Gainst knaves and thieves men shut their gale, Why have you suffer'd me to be imprison'd,
For the rain it raineth every day.
But when I came, alas! to wive,
With hey, ho, the wind and the rain, Oli. Alas! Malvolio, this is not my writing,
By swaggering could I never thrive, Though, I confess, much like the character;
For the rain it raineth every day. But, out of question, 'tis Maria's hand :
But when I came unto my bed, And now I do bethink me, it was she
With hey, ho, the wind and the rain,
With loss-pots still had drunken head,
But that's all one, our play is done,
And we'll strive to please you every day.
ACT I.-SCENE I.
and startling. But let us consider whether Shakespeare
was most likely to have written sound or south, which “ – it had a DYING FALL"-By fall' is meant ca- involves the question of which is the better word. dence, (from cado,) a musical term, signifying the close
Stevens tells us that the thought might have been bor. of a passage or phrase, and which commonly includes
rowed from Sidney's “ Arcadia,' (book i.,) and he quotes the transition from a dissonant to a consonant sound; or,
a part of the passage. We must look, however, at the in the language of Lord Bacon, (Sylva Sylvarum,) context. Sidney writes, . Her breath is more sweet the falling from a discord to a concord, which maketh
than a gentle south-west wind, which comes creeping great sweetnesse in musicke.' Milton, in “Comus,'
over flowery fields and shadowed waters in the extreme uses the word in the same sense as Shakespeare ; and
heat of summer.' The comparison is here direct. The Pope, in his Ode to St. Cecilia's Day,' has dying
sweet breath of Urania is more sweet than the gentle fall. Dying' probably means a diminution of sound, south-west wind. Sidney adds, and yet is nothing, technically expressed diminuendo."-Knight.
compared to the honey-flowing speech that breath doth “ – like the sweet south"-I have, not without hesi
carry.' The music of the speech is not here compared tation, retained in the text Pope's beautiful and inge
with the music of the wind--the notion of fragrance is nious conjectural reading. The original has, “the sweet
alone conveyed. If in the passage of the text we read sound that breathes," etc. ; which cannot well be denied
south instead of sound, the conclusion of the sentence, to be possibly the word used by one so bold in the ap- the comparison becomes an indirect one between the
* Stealing, and giving odour,' rests upon the mind; and plication of poetical language as Shakespeare. Rowe, startled at the boldness of it, suggested wind for sound;
harmony of the dying fall and the odour of the breeze but Pope, presuming a very natural typographical error,
that had passed over a bank of violets. This, we think, (sound for south,) offered a new and beautiful thought,
is not what the Poet meant. He desired to compare which has been approved by the commentators, except
one sound with another sound. Milton bad probably Douce and Knight. The latter retains the old reading,
this passage in view when he wrote, and thus maintains it :
Now gentle gales, "— like the sweet SOUND—To those who are familiar
Fanning their odoriferous wings, dispense
Native perfumes, and whisper whence they stole with the well-known text
Those balmy spoils. 0! it came o'er my ear like the sweet south
The image in Milton, as well as in Shakespeare, the restoration of the word sound will appear strange || bines the notion of sound as well as fragrance. In
Shakespeare, “the sound that breathes'—the soft mur
They say she bath abjur'd the sight, mur of the breeze playing amid beds of flowers—is put
And company of men. first, because of the dying fall' of the exquisite harmo- The alteration, making “sight” and “company” change ny; but in Milton the perfumes of the gentle gales' places, was by Hanmer; and it is for the better, both in are more prominent than the whisper'--because the metre and sense. Olivia has abjured not only the “comimage is complete in itself, unconnected with what pre- pany,” but even the “sight" of men. Knight adheres cedes. Further, Shakespeare has nowhere else made to the older reading. the sonth an odour breathing wind; his other representations are directly contrary. In As You Like It, Rosa
SCENE III. You foolish shepherd, wherefore do you follow her,
-- as TALL a man"-i, e. As valiant a man. Like foggy south, puffing with wind and rain?
tall a man" is used here by Sir Toby with more than In ROMEO AND JULIET, we have the dew-dropping
the usual license of the word. He was pleased with soalh.' In CYMBELINE, the south-fog rot him.' We
the equivoque, and banters upon the diminutive stature prefer, therefore, on all accounts, to hold to the original
of poor Sir Andrew, and his utter want of courage. text.'
" — the viol-DE-GAMBOYS”—Meaning, of course, the * — what validity"_i, e. Value.
viol-di-gambo-an instrument then much in use. * — my desires, like fell and cruel hounds"-" This
"a coystril"_"Coystril" was a term applied to image evidently alludes to the story of Actæon, by
certain menial servants, formerly the usual attendants which Shakespeare seems to think men cautioned
upon the body-guard of the monarch. Hollingshed against too great familiarity with forbidden beanty.
thus designates the unwarlike followers of an army. Actæon, who saw Diana naked, and was torn in pieces coystril.' or kestrel, in falconry, (says Nares,) is someby his hounds, represents a man, who, indulging his
times wrongly used for the name of a worthless, mon. eyes, or his imagination, with the view of a woman he
grel kind of hawk. cannot gain, has his heart torn with incessant longing. – like a Parish-Top"— The “parish-top" was a An interpretation far more elegant and natural than that large top, formerly kept in each village, for the peasants of Sir Francis Bacon, who, in his “Wisdom of the An- to whip, by way of exercise and amusement. cients,' supposes this story to warn us against inquiring into the secrets of princes, by showing that those who
Castiliano vulgo"-Warburton supposed that know that which for reasons of state should be con
“ vulgo” should be printed collo, and that Maria was to cealed, will be detected and destroyed by their own
put on a Castilian, or grave countenance, on the approach servants.”—Johnson.
of Sir Andrew. Hall, in his “Satires," describes his
man of forms as making “a Spanish face." This is “— kill'd the FloCK"—Sir P. Sidney, in his “Arca- doubtless the allusion; but Sir Toby blunders in his dia," (1590,) as Stevens observes, has a similar expres- Spanish, as he has just done in his “viol-de-gamboys." sion—" the flock of unspeakable virtues;” meaning, of “ The old copy reads, Castiliano vulgo. Warburton course, the assemblage of them. Collier adds that this proposed reading, Castiliano volto. In English, “Put passage occurs in the “ Arcadia" just below one already on your Castilian countenance'-i. e. grave serious quoted, respecting “the sweet south”- --a confirmation looks. I have no doubt that Warburton was right, for of that reading
that reading is required by the context, and Castiliano *(Her sweet perfections,)”—“Stevens thus explains oulgo has no meaning. But I have met with a passage in this passage :- Liver, brain, and heart are admitted, in
Hall's “Satires' which, I think, places it beyond a poetry, as the residence of passions, judgment, and sen
doubt:timents. These are what Shakespeare calls her sweet
he can kiss his hand in gree,
And with good grace bow below the knee, perfections. This is doubtless a mistaken interpreta
Or make a Spanish face with fawning cheer, tion. The phrase ought probably to be, “Her sweet With th' Nand conge like a cavalier, perfection. The filling of the sovereign throne' with And shake his head, and cringe his neck and side, etc. * one self king is the perfection of Olivia's merits—ac
The Spaniards were in high estimation for courtesy cording to the ancient doctrine that a woman was not
though the natural gravity of the national countenance complete till her union with a . self king.' In Lord
was thought to be a cloak for villany. The Castiliano Berners's translation of “Froissart,' there is a sentence
volto was in direct opposition to the diso sciolto, which which glances at the same opinion. The rich Berthoult
the noble Roman told Sir Henry Wootton would go of Malines is desirous to marry his daughter to the noble
safe over the world. Castiliano oulgo, besides its want Earl of Guerles; and he thus communes with himself:
of connection or meaning in this place, could hardly • Howbeit, I will answer these messengers that their have been a proverbial phrase, when we remember that coming pleaseth me greatly, and that my daughter should
Castile is the noblest part of Spain."-SINGER. be happy if she might come to so great a perfection as
This is probably enough the meaning, intended; to be conjoined in marriage with the Earl of Guerles.'"
but this edition has not deviated from the old reading, KNIGHT.
because it looks as if the author meant that Sir Toby " — with one SELF KING”—Many editors adopt a read- shonld make an accidental or intentional blunder-just ing of the second folio, self-same, as improving the as he does as to the viol-de-gamboys, using of choice the metre. But all dramatic metre is modified by empha- vulgar corruption. sis. Here the sense leads to a strong emphasis on one, * Accost, Sir Andrer"-Sir Andrew did not underand the line thus read does not halt in its metre. " Self”
stand the word “accost;" and since the time of Dry. seems used for self-same, as in LEAR—" I am made of
den, who employs it, the use of it in this sense is rare. that self metal as my sister,” etc.; and elsewhere.
Sir Toby afterwards explains it," front her, board her,"
« Accost" is from the French accosler, and means, SCENE II.
strictly, to come side by side, and more generally to " — THOSE poor number"-Shakespeare uses “ num- approach. ber” as the plural: this was a peculiarity of antique bring your hand to the BUTTERY-BAR"-The phraseology, which, unless we choose to modernize him
" buttery" was the place from which meat and drink throughout, we have no right to alter (with Malone and
were formerly delivered. To have a dry hand was for. others) to that.
merly considered a symptom of debility, as Stevens " — she hath abjur'd the COMPANY,
shows, by various quotations. And sight of men."
"- mistress Mall's picture”—The name of this In all the old copies the passage stands as follows:- woman was Mary Frith. She was in the habit of wear
ing men's clothes, and obtained extraordinary celebrity in connection with many low characters of the time. Her picture might be curtained, either because it was considered indecent, or simply, as sir Toby says, to preserve it from the dust. Her death occurred in 1659, and in 1662 her“ Life and Death” was published. John Day, the dramatist, wrote a tract upon her “mad pranks," which was entered at Stationers' Hall in August, 1610; but it is not known to have been printed. Possibly, her “ Life and Death" (1662) was only Day's tract with additions. All the known particulars regarding her have been collected by the Rev. Mr. Dyce, in his introduction to Decker's and Middleton's comedy, the ** Roaring Girl," (1611,) which has a wood-cut of the heroine upon the title-page.
" – a GalliaRD"-A lively dance. “A lighter and more stirring kind of dancing than the pavan," says Morley, a contemporary of Shakespeare ; who adds“ The Italians make their galliards plain, and frame ditties to them, which, in their mascaradoes, they sing and dance, and manie times without any instruments.
“- a CORANTO" (courante)-A quick dance, as the word indicates, and for two persons, according to Mersenne, (“ Harmonie Universelle," 1686.) Morley describes it as “traversing and running, as our countrydance, but hath twice as much in a strain."
“ – a SINK-A-PACE"—i. e. Cinque pace" the name of a dance, (says Sir John Hawkins,) the measures whereof are regulated by the number five." In an old Italian work, " Il Ballerino," (1581,) this dance is described as consisting of four steps and a cadence; and, ccording to Sir John Davis, in his poem on “Dancing”—
Five was the number of the music's feet,
Which still the dance did with five paces meet. “- DAMASK-COLOURED STOCK"-" Dam'd coloured stock," or stocking, is the reading of the original edi. tions. Pope altered it to "flame-coloured," which is the common reading. We have preferred Knight's reading, both because it is nearer to the old copy, and therefore more likely to have been misprinted, and because “damask-coloured” is a phrase used by Dray. ton, in the same age; and in this play we have damask cheek.
“ TAURUS ? that's sides and heart"-"Al ing to the medical astrology still preserved in almanacks, which refers the affections of particular parts of the body to the predominance of particular constellations.”—John
Warburton would read pleasing, and Hanmer substitutes learning; but Johnson's interpretation seems to be the
The Clown means to say, that unless Olivia lied she could not “ speak well of fools ;" consequently, he prays Mercury to endue her with “ leasing," or lying.
"— like a SHERIFF'S POST"-The posts at the doors of sheriffs, on which originally proclamations and pla. cards were exhibited, are very often mentioned in writers of the time.
- as a SQUASH is before 'tis a PEASCOD"- The vegetable, familiarly known to us under the name of “squash," was not known in England in James the First's reign; and the term meant only an unripe pod of peas. It is thus used again in the Winter's Tale.
-a cooling when 'tis almost an APPLE"-A"cod. ling" (according to Mr. Gifford) means an involucrum, or kell, and was used by our old writers for that early state of vegetation, when the fruit, after shaking off the blossom, began to assume a globular and determinate shape. Mr. Nares says, a “codling" was a young rat apple, fit for nothing without dressing: and that it is so named because it was chiefly eaten when coddled, or scalded-codlings being particularly so used when unripe. Florio interprets—" Mele cotte ; quodlings, boiled apples.”
very COMPTIBLE"-" Comptible" is accountable; and here seems to mean subject to, or sensitive of, "the least sinister usage."
“- I am to hull here"-Viola follows up Maria's sea-phrase, and tells her that she is to lie there a little longer. To “hull" is to remain "driven to and fro by the waves," as it is expressed in a passage in Philemon Holland's “ Translation of Pliny," (1601.)
" — beauty truly BLENT”-i. e. Blended. So, in the MERCHANT OF VENICE, we have
Where every something, being blent together,
Turns to a wild of nothing. “ – leave the world no copy"—Shakespeare has expressed the same thought in his Ninth, Eleventh, and Thirteenth “Sonnets."
" – loyal cantons"_“Cantons" was the old English word for canto. Heywood, in his “Great Britain's Troy,” (1609,) calls the seventeen divisions of his poem "cantons.'
“I am no fee'd Post”-I am no paid messenger.
" — that same prevish messenger"- Another instance, out of many, to prove that in the time of Shakespeare, and earlier, “peevish" did not mean petulant, or testy, but silly, or foolish. In this place Olivia may wish Malvolio not to perceive that she takes any interest about so insignificant a person as “the county's man."
" — ourselves we do not owe"-i.e. Own, as in many other places. The meaning, as Malone remarks, is"we are not our own masters,
SCENE IV. " – a BARFUL strife”-i. e. A struggle on my part full of bars, or impediments.
“ Enter Maria, and Clown”—The Clown in this play, as well as in All's Well That Ends Well, is the domestic fool, or jester. In As You LIKE IT, he is the court-fool. All three wore “ motley."
"- fear no colours"-Maria explains the saying in one way—it was born in the wars; referring to the colours of an enemy. It probably meant-I fear no deceptions. Holofernes says, “I do fear colourable colours." (Love's Labour's Lost, act iv, scene 2.)
your GASKINS fall"-"Gaskins” were large breeches, or hose. Maria puns upon the word “. points," which were the tags at the ends of strings, used to fasten or sustain the dress, before the common use of buttons.
“ – CUCULLUS NON FACIT MONACHUM"-" The cowl does not constitute the monk."
“ – Mercury endue thee with LEASING"— The sense is not very clear. Johnson says that it is, “May Mercury teach thee to lie, since thou liest in favour of fools."
ACT II.-SCENE I. ESTIMABLE wonder"-"Shakespeare often confounds the active and passive adjectives. • Estimable wonder' is esteeming wonder, or wonder and esteem. The meaning is, that he could not venture to think so highly as others of his sister."-Johnson.
Thus Milton uses "unexpressive" notes, for unexpress. ible, in his “ Hymn on the Nativity."
“ If you will not murder me for my love, let me be your servant"" These words are uttered by Antonio to Sebastian, whom he has saved from drowning. The commentators offer no explanation of them; but we think that they have a latent meaning, and that they allude to a superstition of which Sir Walter Scott has made such admirable use in the Pirate.' Our readers will remember that, when Mordaunt has rescued Cleveland from the breach of the sea,' and is endeavouring to restore