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No complete History of the Reigns of Charles the Second, and

James the Second.-How far arbitrary Power their Object. The divine Right of Kings introduced by Henry the Eighth, and made the Creed of the Church.- The Right of the People asserted by Protestants abroad, and then in England.-Charles and James, when Exiles, attached to Catholics, and hated Sectaries.-Europe divided into Catholic, and Protestant States. --The Catholics refused to assist Charles, unless he changed his Religion.-Whether converted before he left Paris.His Application to the Pope. Example of the Duke of Newburgh. Whether Charles was converted at Fontarabia. His general Character. ---Clarendon's Ministry. -Change upon his Fall.-Character of the Duke of York.---While in Exile, a steady Protestant. First Secret Treaty with France.Charles's Conversion proposed.-Louis out-witted.-Traité Simulé. -Charles delayed, and then gave up his Conversion.-Conversion of the Duchess, and Duke of York.--Contrast between the two Brothers.-First Declaration of Indulgence.-A general 'Toleration proposed.—Second Declaration of Indulgence.-Cancelled.—Money first given to Members.-Charles broke with France.-The Duke refused to conform.—A Treaty broken off, and the Duke displeased. -He proposed to rebel.-Verbal Treaty with France. The Duke in full Power.-Charles alarmed at his Conduct.-Charles's Conversion and Death.-Conduct of James, as King.--He, and Louis nego. ciated more as Politicians than Bigots.-Louis would not advance Money.-Excited James to Zeal for Religion.-Declared it to be bis sole Object.-James quarrelled with Louis.--Shewed little an. xiety about Religion.--General Policy of Louis.-James alarmed the Church, and was ruined—Mr. Fox's Opinion of his Conduct accurate.-James treated by Louis with more respect than Charles. -General Observation.



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The reigns of Charles the Second and James the Second SECTION form a period of the greatest importance to our history, and a competent kno

f the transactions included in it is necessary, not merely for the proper understanding Charles the of subsequent events, but also for the regular develope- James the ment of the principles, on which our present happy constitution is founded. The materials for such a history are numerous, and probably nearly complete, and for them we are indebted, chiefly, to the industry of Sir John Dalrymple, Mr. Macpherson, and Mr. Fox. There is scarcely an intrigue, which they have not brought to light, or a difficulty which baffled the penetration of former writers, which is not now removed. But, as yet, the public has to regret that the full advantage has not been made of these materials, and that the secret transactions of these reigns have not been fully examined

of these Princes:

SECTION or satisfactorily explained. Hume could not do it,

because these papers were not discovered till after he wrote; Dalrymple, and Macpherson's attempts certainly do not preclude the efforts of others; and Mr. Fox, who had undertaken to write the history of James the Second, was unfortunately cut off before he had completed his plan. The conduct of the royal brothers was generally

governed by one of two principles, a love of arbitrary How far arbi- power, or a zeat for the catholic religion. The latter cerwas the object tainly had greater influence over the mind of James,

than of Charles, but it may be doubted whether the attachment of both to that religion did not originate in the hope of making it useful in their struggle for power. But that James afterwards became truly zealous in its..cause : does not admit of dispute. In the two foregoing sections we have proved that Mr. Rose's opinion, however generally sanctioned by bistorians, that the primary object of James, immediately after his accession to the throne, was the establishment of the eatholic church is altogether unfounded. It is our intention here, in addition to the arguments already produced, to give a short sketch of the previous principles, conduct, and designs of these princes, from which it will appear highly improbable that James at that early period could have formed so desperate a project.

· That the love of arbitrary power, a desire to become absolute, was a predominating passion in the bosoms of

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