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streets of buried cities and roam through the deserted houses, once instinct with life, piercing the lava-crust of careless centuries; we place our hearts and minds, richer by accumulated experience, close to the passions and intellects of an earlier age; and we listen to the heart beat of a race of mankind who reached forward, as our own race is reaching and as all races reach in turn, to catch the omens of a far-off destiny. The grand results and the grand lessons of human life are ours in the retrospect, and in the retrospect alone. And while retracing thus the foot-prints of the past, we shall do well if we deduce the right moral ; if we judge of human actions dispassionately and as befits scholars of riper times and a broader revelation; if we keep under due constraint that laudable but dangerous passion for new discovery, so as neither to revive buried calumnies nor to weigh evidence with a perverted bias to novelty. Let our judgment give full force to the presumption that the long-settled opinion is the true one, and let our spirit of research be imbued at all times with the fearless purpose to know and to promulgate the truth.

THE ORIGIN OF THE NationAL SCIENTIFIC AND EDUCATIONAL

INSTITUTIONS OF THE UNITED STATES.*

By G. BROWN GOODE, Ph.D., LL.D., Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian

Institution, in charge of the U. S. National Museum.

“Early in the seventeenth century," we are told, “the great Mr. Boyle, Bishop Wilkins, and several other learned men, proposed to leave England and establish a society for promoting knowledge in the new Colony (of Connecticut], of which Mr. Winthrop,t their intimate friend and associate, was appointed Governor.”

“Such men," wrote the historian, “ were too valuable to lose from Great Britain, and Charles the Second having taken them under his protection in 1661, the society was there established, and received the title of The Royal Society of London."

For more than a hundred years this society was for our country what it still is for the British colonies throughout the world—a central and national scientific organization. All Americans eminent in science were on its list of Fellows, among them Cotton Mather, the three Winthrops, Bowdoin, and Paul Dudley in New England; Franklin, Rittenhouse, and Morgan in Pennsylvania; Banister, Clayton, Mitchell, and Byrd in Virginia, and Garden and Williamson in the Carolinas, while in its “Philosophical Transactions” were published the only records of American research.

* Revised and corrected to July 15, 1890.

+ John Winthrop, F. R. S. [1606–76], elected Governor of Connecticut in 1657.

Eliot, Jobn, Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Characters in New England. Salem, 1809.

The first meetings of the body of men afterwards organized as the Royal Society appear to have taken place during the Revolution and in the time of Cromwell, and as early as 1645, we are told by Wallace, weekly meetings were beld of “diverse worthy persons inquisitive into natural philosophy and other parts of human learning, and particularly of what has been called the New Philosophy, or Experimental Philosophy," and it is more than It was not until long after the middle of the last century that any scientific society was permanently established in North America, although serious but fruitless efforts were made in this direction as early as 1743, when Benjamin Franklin issued his circular entitled “A proposal for promoting useful knowledge among the British plantations in America,” in which it was urged "that a society should be formed of virtuosi or ingenious men residing in the several colonies, to be called the American Philosophical Society."

There is still in existence, in the possession of the Philosophical Society in Philadelphia, a most interesting letter from Franklin to Governor Cadwallader Colden of New York, in which he tells of the steps which had already been taken for the formation of a scientific society in Philadelphia, and of the means by which he hoped to make it of great importance to the colonies.

Our forefathers were not yet prepared for the society, nor for the "American Philosophical Miscellany" which Franklin proposed to issue, either monthly or quarterly. There is no reason to believe that the society ever did anything of importance. Franklin's own attention was soon directed exclusively to his electrical researches, and his society languished and died.

Some twenty years later, in 1766, a new organization was attempted under the title of “The American Society held at Philadelphia for Promoting Useful Knowledge." * Franklin, although absent in England, was elected its President, and the association entered upon a very promising career.

In the meantime the few surviving members of the first “American Philosophical Society” formed, under the old name, an organization which in many particulars was so unlike that

probable that this assembly of philosophers was identical with the "Invisible College” of which Boyle spoke in sundry letters written in 1646 and 1647. These meetings continued to be held, sometimes at the Bull-Head Tavern, in Cheapside, but more frequently at Gresham College, until 1660, when the first record book of this society was opened. Among the first entries is a reference to a design then entertained “of founding a College for the promoting of Physico-Mathematicall Experimentall Learning." Dr. Wilkins was appointed chairman of the society, and shortly after, the king, Charles II, having become a momber, its regular meeting place was appointed to be in Gresham College.

This name was adopted in 1768 to replace that first adopted in 1766, which was The American Society for Promoting and Propagating Useful Knowledge, held in Philadelphia."

proposed in 1743 that it might almost be regarded as new rather than a revival. Its membership included many of the most influential and wealthy colonists, and the spirited manner in which it organized a plan for the observation of the transit of Venus in 1769 gave it at once a respectable standing at home and abroad.

In 1769, after negotiations which occupied nearly a year, the two societies were united* and “The American Philosophical Society held at Philadelphia for Promoting Useful Knowledge,” has from that time until now, maintained an honorable position among the scientific organizations of the world.

The society at once began the publication of a volume of memoirs, which appeared in 1771 under the name of “The American Philosophical Transactions.”+

From 1773 to 1779 its operations were often interrupted. In the minutes of the meeting for December, 1774, appears the following remarkable note in the handwriting of Dr. Benjamin Rash, one of the secretaries, soon after to be one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence:

The act of the British Parliament for shutting up the port of Boston, for altering the charters and for the more impartial administration of justice in the province of Massachusetts Bay, together with a bill for establishing popery and arbitrary power in Quebec, having alarmed the whole of the American colony, the members of the American Philosophical Society par

*Some insight into the scientific politics of the time may be gained by reading the following extract from a letter addressed to Franklin by Dr. Thomas Bond, June 7, 1769: “I long meditated a revival of our American Philosopbical Society, and at length thought I saw my way clear in doing it, but the old party leaven split us for a time. We are now united, and with your presence may make a figure; but till that happy event I fear much will not be done. The assembly have countenanced and encouraged us generously and kindly, and we are much obliged to you for your care in procuring the telescope, which was used in the late observations of the transit of Venus."

A copy of the finished volume of the Transactions was presented to each member of the Pennsylvania assembly, accompanied by an address as follows: “As the various societies which have of late years been instituted in Europe have confessedly contributed much to the more general propagation of knowledge and useful arts, it is hoped it will give satisfactivu to the members of the honorable House to find that the Province which they represent can boast of the first society and the first publication of a volume of Transactions for the advancement of the useful knowledge of this side of the Atlantic; a volume which is wholly American in composition, printing, and paper, and which, we flatter ourselves, may not be thought altogether unworthy of the attention of men of letters in the most improved parts of the world."

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