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Section 4.

The president, vice-president and all civil officers of the impeacnUnited States, shall be removed from office on impeachment menta" for and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Whart, S. T., 260, 316; Blount's Tr., 22; Peck'a Tr., 56; 3 Op., 409.

Section 1.

The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in Judiciary, one Supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish.

The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall Teunre and bold their offices during good behavior; and shall, at stated uonf6118** times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

9 Wh., 738; 1 Pet., 5H; 8 How., 448.

Section 2.

1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and Judicial equity, arising under this constitution, the laws of the United P°wer" States, and treaties made, or which shall be made under

their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other
public ministers, and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and
maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United
States shall be a party; to controversies between two or
more states; between a state and citizens of another state;
between citizens of different states; between citizens of the
same state, claiming lands under grants of different states;
and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign
states, citizens, or subjects.

2 Dal., 297; 4 Dal., 10, 321; 2 Cr., 408, 445; 4 Cr„ 306, 443; 5 Cr.,
303; 7 Cr., 506; 9 Cr., 292; 1 Wh., 9, 91; 2 Wh.. 377; 3 Wh.,
212, 336; 4 Wh., 1, 108, 438; 6 Wh., 264; 8 Wh., 464; 9 Wh.,
409, 738; 11 Wh., 467; 2 Pet., 136; 3 Pet., 433; 5 Pet., 1; 6 Pet,
761; 7 Pet., 324; 12 Pet., 616, 657; 15 Pet., 392; 2 How., 497; 3
How., 245; 5 How., 343, 441; 6 How., 1G3, 344; 8 How., 441; 12
How., 443; 13 How., 518; 16 How., 314; 19 How.. 393; 3 Wash.,
546; 4 Wash., 101, 371, 453, 531; 1 Pet. Ad., 227; 2 Sum., 401; 2
Curt., 322. 465; 1 Pa., 620; 2 Pa., 103; 2 Gall., 398; Gilp., 473; 2
McL., 570: 4 McL., 18, 122; 6 McL., 590: 4 J. Ca., 430; 17 J. R.,
4; 2 H., 159.

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public minis- Jurisaicters and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, Bnpnrema the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the coartother cases, before mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations, as the congress shall make.

2 Dal, 297; 4 Dal, 321; 1 Cr., 137; 1 Wh., 304; 6 Wh., 264; 9 Wh.,
738; 11 Wh., 467; 6 Pet., 41; 5 How., 176; 14 How., 103; 4
Wash., 199, 344, 531; 6 W., 327; 10 W., 50; 1 B., 449; 5 B., 115;
7 N. Y., 576.

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, Sml".'

shall be by jury; and such trials shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; bnt when not committed within any state the trial shall be at such place or places as the congress may by law have directed.

1 Curt., 23, 49; Bald., 510; 2 Sum., 240.

Section 3.

Treason. i. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

4 Cr., 75; Burr's Tr.; Wha St. T., 480; 1 Dal., 33, 35, 39; 2 Dal., 8G, 88, 335. 346, 348; 4 Cr., 16; Pa., 2G5; 3 Wash., 234; 11 J. K., 549.

Parian- 2. The congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.

Section 1.

state iFull faith .and credit shall be given in each state to the

record*. pUU]ic acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved and the effect thereof.

3 Wli., 234; 6 Wh., 129; 9 How., 628; 7 Cr.. 484; Crabbe, 185; 10 S.

6 R, 242; 3 Wash., 17; 2 Pa., 502; 7 W. & St 447; 3 J. C. R., 595; 12 N. Y., 156; 18 N. Y., 86.

Section 2.

privilege of 1. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privicitizens. leges and immunities of citizens in the several states.

19 How., 393; 18 How., 591; 2 Pa., 502; 4 Wash., 380; 4 Am. L. R, 1!); 5 Law R., 486; 2 Mnnf., 393; 20 B., 68; 4 J. C. It, 115; 1 Pai., 183; 19 W., 11.

Fugitives 2. A person charged, in any state, with treason, felony or fromjnuttce 0tiier crime, who shall flee from justice and be found in another state, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.

3 Ztt, 311; 13 Geo, 97; 9 W.. 221; 6 Perm. L. J., 428; 1 Am. L. J., 231; 10 S. & R, 125; 6 Har., 39; 3 McL., 133; 14 Pet., 540; 7 Verm., 121; 5 Binn., 617; 2 Miss., 26; 2 Brock., 493; 5 Met,, 536; 12 Verm., 631; 5 How, 176; 3 McL, 121; 1 B, 248; 5 Cal, 237;

7 Ind, 611; 4 Za, 634; 9 Tex, 635: 1 Pa, 429; 14 How, 103; 2 Cart, 396; 4 Har, 572, 577.

3. No person 1k>m to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up, on claim of the party, to whom such service or labor may be due.

Fugitives from labor.

5 How., 215; 10 How., 82; 14 How., 13; 19 How., 396; IS Pet., 539;
1 Wash., 499; 4 Wash., 327; 3 McL., 530, 631; 4 McL., 402- 5
McL.. 64, 92, 469; 6 McL., 259, 273; 2 Pa., 348; 12 W., 311; 16
B., 268; 26 B., 270; 1 Pal, 67, 169; 1 Am. L. It., 654; 3 Op., 370;
G Op., 302; 3 & A R., 4; 10 B. Mon., 438; 16 B. Mon., 193; 11II,
332; 1 Curt, 23; 2 Curt., 153; 23 Ai, 155; 10 Barr, 514; 1 Mor.,
1; 1 Sn., 91; 3 Wis., 1, 157; 7 Cush., 285; 1 Cart., 368; 9 Hum.,
689, 739; 1 Smith, 258.

Section 3.

1. New states maybe admitted by the congress into tins Now states. Union: but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state, nor any state be formed by

the junction of two or more states or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned as well as of the congress.

2. The congress shall have power to dispose of and make Territories, all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or

other property belonging to the United States; and nothing
in this constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any
claims of the United States, or of any particular state.

1 Pet, 542; 14 Pet., 526; 16 How., 194; 19 How., 395; 1 McL., 454;
1 Pa., 646; 4 Op., 487.

Section 4.

The United States shall guarantee to every state in this R^Mican. Union, a republican form of government, and shall protect B°oTMnieach of them against invasion; and, on application of the mentl legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.


The congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall *TMet°f deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this constitution; or on the application of the legislatures of. two-thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall, in any manner, affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the senate.


1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before JJ^J^ the adoption of this constitution shall be as valid against the eracy°n United States, under this constitution, as under the confederation.

2. This constitution and the laws of the United States, which f.nPremo

shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.

5 Cr., 348; 2 Pet., 253; 16 How., 635; 4 Am. L. B., 604; 6 Op., 291; 1 Blatch., 635; 2 Curt., 454; 1 Wash., 322; 1 B., 248.

oath of 3. The senators and representatives before mentioned, and ul,Uv' the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this No re- constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a ligioustest. qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.


Ratinca- The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall be tion- sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the same.

Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of the states present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names.

GEO. WASHINGTON, President, and Deputy from Virginia.


John Langdon, Geo. Read.

Nicholas Oilman. Gunning Bedford, Jr.,

Massachusetts. John Dickinson,

Nathaniel Gorham, Richard Bassett,

Rufus King. Jaco. Broom.


Win. Saml. Johnson, James McHenry,

Roger Sherman. Dan. of St. Thos. Jenifer,

New York. Danl. Carroll. Alexander Hamilton. • Virginia.

New Jersey. John Blair,

Wil. Livingston, James Madison, Jun.
David Brearly, North Carolina.

Wm. Patterson, Wm. Blount,

Jona. Dayton. Rich'd Dobbs Spaight,

Pennsylvania. Hu. Williamson.
B. Franklin, South Carolina.

Thomas Mifflin, J. Rutledge,

Robt. Morris, Charles Cotcsworth Pinckney,

Geo. Clymer, Charles Pinckney,

Tho. Fitzsimons, Pierce Butler.
Jared Ingersoll, Georgia.

James Wilson, William Few,

Gouv. Morris. Abr. Baldwin.

Attest: WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.

The constitution was ratified by the conventions of the several states, as follows:

By Delaware on the 7th December, 1787.

"Pennsylvania on the 12th December, 1787.

"New Jersey on the 18th December, 1787.

*' Georgia on the 2d January, 1788.

"Connecticut on the 9th January, 1788.

"Massachusetts on the 6th February, 1788.

"Maryland on the 28th April, 1788.

"South Carolina on the 23d May, 1788.

"New Hampshire on the 21st June, 1788.

"Virginia on the 26th June, 1788.

"New York on the 26th July, 1788.

"North Carolina on the 21st'November, 1789.

"Rhode Island on the 29th May, 1790.

In Congress,
Saturday, September 13, 1788;

The foregoing constitution was declared to have been ratified, and the first election under it was appointed for the first Wednesday of January, 1789. •






Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of Freedom of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging Spc«'hnoff the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the i„d?l^t'of people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government p«titionfor a redress of grievances.


A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a night to free state, the right of the people to keep and bear amis shall bcsr arm"" not be infringed.


No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house $l*°Jl*e without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a ° r°°p"' manner to be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE IV. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrants shall issue but upon Warrant»

Searches and seiznres.

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