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per, wherin were conteigned the actes and sentences notable of the most noble Emperour Alexander, for his wisedome and gravitee called Severus, which boke was fyrste written in the Greke tongue by his secretairie named Encolpius, and by good chaunce was lente unto me by a gentill man of Naples called Pudericus. Wherefore with all diligence I endeavoured myselfe whiles I had leysour to translate it into Englyshe; all be it, I could not exactly performe mine enterprise as I inought have done if the owner had not importunately called for his boke."
It is unnecessary to tell the scholar that no such author as Encolpius ever existed, or to acquaint the reader that the tenour of all our worthy knight's writings was insidiously directed against the glaring vices of his own court, Such bold and ODen execration of the vices of Heliogabalus, and the continued contrast between him and Severus, would have been too obviously meant against Henry the Eighth and his companions if the story had not assumed the character of reality as to other times.
His 3rd Chapter is "of the monstruous lyvynge of the Emperoare Varius Heliogabalus, whereby the citie of Rome was corrupted."
"Macrinus the Emperoure for his avarice and tyrannie beinge abandoned, (or rather betrayed) of his owne people, and slayne with his sonne Diadumenus, (who in beautie and goodly stature excelled all men of his tyme,)" Varius Heliogabalus was advaunced unto the empire by the whole consente of the senate and people of Rome, who gave hasty credence to all reportes that were made to the honour and praise of their newe princes, (such is the appetites of men which bee meeved anone with credulitee; for suche thynges as they desyre, they couvette to here of, and doe delite in newe thynges, though falsely reported.) But as soone as Heliogabalus was come to Rome, he immediately declared his beastly nature, by insuynge vices moste abominable and advancynge the favourers and haunters of the same vices, and inforcynge with all his studie and puissance to exterminate out of the citie of Rome all vertue and honestie, from whence a littell before all the worlde received doctrine and examples of honour, concernyng as well vertuous maners as martiall prowess. Firste, in lecherie this Heliogabalus was so insatiable, that not onely he exercised that vice openly in common baines and bordell houses with sundry women of divers degrees and countries, but also he had ordained a senate of common harlottes.—He also promoted to the greattest dignities of the pubiicke weale common bawdes, notable ribauldes, solicitours, and furtherers of dishonest appetites, often tymes cokes and devisers of lecherous confections and sawces. Semblablie by suche persones he solde dignitees, auctoritees, and offices. He also elected into the senate most vile personages not havyng regarde to any age, gentillnesse of bloud, merite, possessions, or substaunce."—His glutonie was almoste equall to his lechery. Whan Heliogabalus sojourned nygh to the sea, he wolde never be served with sea fyshe, but being in place far distant from the sea, he caused all his householde to be served with most delicate sea fishe. It abhorreth me to expresse his beastly lyvying, all be it I doe not tel every thyng that I have redde of hym, as well for that it shall bee to good men odiouse to here, as also it moughte happen to incende the wanton.
'' The greattest roumes and affaires of the Empyre, he committed to minstrels, plaiers of enterludes and disardes. His bondemen and most vile servauntes, as they excelled in abomination, so preferred he theim to the governaunce of realms and provinces. Also of his rabeU of brothelles to some he gave the rule and gouvernance of the youth of the citie, some he made rulers of the senate, to other he gave soveraintee over all theim that were gentilmen."—But " this monstruous Emperour desiring the distraction of Alexander, procured his owne deathe, agreable with his abominable luxury; for his owne servauntes and souldiours, whiche were prepared for the garde of his persone, dreadyng lest the people makynge insurrection that they shoulde bee parteners of his mischeevous ende, beyng tediouse of his abominations, conspired to delyver the common weyle of hym."
"This was the worthy and convenient ende of this most beastly and uncleane monster, who with the emperours Nero, Caligula, Domitian, and Commo;lus, his predecessours, was a notable and commodious example to all princes succeeding, to declare, that notwithstanding their majestie and puissance, they for their vices abbominable were first hated, and afterwarde slaine and dishonoured by their propre subjectes.
"Immediately after the deathe of Heliogabalus, the senate and people of Rome beying surprised with incredible joye, used all diligence and spede that Aurelius Alexander mought foorthwith as verie Emperoure receive all auctoritee and honour.
"After that, Alexander by the consente of the senate and people was stablished in the imperiall auctoritee, and for his excellente goodnesse was moste ardently beloved of the multitude, also the remembraunce of Heliogabalus and his adherentes for their destestable vices beyinge every where hated, and with detestacion abhorred. This noble yonge emperour takynge then oportunitee to restore the publyke weall to her pristinall fourme, with the majestie imperiall, late violated, and wel nighe perished, through the negligence of the saide monster; fyrste purged his own palace, excludynge out of his owne courte and all offices, dishonest and infamed personages, and by no meanes woulde suffer to bee in his householde anye other than by all menne shoulde be thought necessarie. Moreover he openly protested, makyng an other, that he woulde never have a superfluouse noumbre of servauntes, to theentent that he woulde not greeve the publiyke weall with his provision; saying, " that Emperour is a shrewde pupiee that feedeth, with the bowels of his commons, men whiche be not necessarie, nor yet profitable to the weall publyke."
"All his lyfe was a perfecte exaumple of temperaunce, his apparayle was wonderfull cleane, but not to sumptuouse; semblable moderacion the empresse his wife observed: finally, duryng his time he used deligente correction of his own maners, wherefore all noble men assaied to folowe hym. No daie passed wherein he dyd not some thynge charitably, gentilly, or honorable, but those thynges he did in suche wise aske therein, nether consumed ne wasted the common treasure."
"He procured seldome any condemnations, but those that were doen he never pardoned." He woulde not suffre any of his courte to weare any garmente mixte with golde, or otherwise preciouse or costly, nor he himselfe delited in riche apparaile," saying, " Gouvernaunce was in vertue, and not in beautie or costlie apparayle; preciouse stones that were geven to hym, he caused to be solde, estemyng it to be a womanly appetite to have such jewelles."
The present specimen of Sir Thomas Elyote's writings may induce some persons to look further, and I therefore transmit a list of all his works and their several editions, from which it will be apparent that our author's labours have been much regarded.
Sie Thomas Elyote's Works And Their Editions.
1. Boke named thi Governor.—Printed by Berthelet, 1531,1534, 1537,
1546, and 1553, 12mo.—No Printer named, 1557,12mo.—by T. Marsh, 1565, 12mo.—by T. East, 1580, 12mo.
2. Image of Gouvernance.—Printed by Berthelet, 1541, 1544, 4to.—
by W. Seres, 1556, 12mo.
3. Castle of Health.—Printed by Berthelet, 1534, 1541, 1547, 1561,
12mo. 1539, 4to.—by T. Marsh, 1576,1580,12mo.
4. Of the Knowledge which maketh a wise man.—Printed by Berthelet,
5. St. Cyprian's Sermon on Mortality, with Picus Mirandola's Rules of a
Christian Life.—Printed by Berthelet, 1534, 1539, 12mo.
6. Pasquil the Playne.—Printed by Berthelet, 1533, 1539,12mo.
7. Defence of good Women.—Printed by Berthelet, 1540, 1545, 12mo.
8. Banquet of Sapience.—Printed by Berthelet, 1542, 1545, 12mo.—
by I. Day, 1557, 12mo.
9. His Dictionary (Bibliotheca Eliote.)—Printed by Berthelet, 1538,
1542, 1545, 1552, 1559, in folio.
10. Plutarch's Education of Children.—Printed by Berthelet, no date, 4to.
11. Doctrinal of Princes, (translated from Isocrates.)—Printed by Berthelet, without date, 1534, 12mo.—by T. Petit, without date, 12mo.
The End Of Vol. II.
Vol. II. Part Ii. 2 c
INDEx to vol. II.
Abbas, Schah, 353. account of 362-378.
Bacon, Friar, 86.
Baillie, Miss, 205.
Bedwell, A. 56.
Betham, Miss, 206.
Birkenhead, Sir John, 259. 269.
Blanc, Vincent Le, 257.
Boetie, De, 218.222.
Booker, John, 59.61. 62.63. 257.
Bothwell, Lord, 55. 56.
Bouhier, President, 221.
Bowles, Rev. W. L. 204.
Brissac, Marechal de, 214.
Brook, Fulke Greville, Lord, 32.
Brooke, Sir Robert, 66.67.
BRowNE, WILLIAM, his Pastorals review-
Buchanan, George, 214.
Buckhurst, to his Ferrer and Porrex,
Burgess, Dr. 257.
But LER, SAMUEL, 69.70, his Genuine
Byron, Lord, 34. 149.200.
Carisbrook Castle, 63.
Cellini, Benvenuto, 238.
Chalmers, Mr. 105. 184.
Chapman, George, 228.
Charles the First, 21. 52.63. 66.227. 238.
Charles the Second, 2.250.254.
Charles the Tenth, of Sweden, 65.
Cibber, Colley, 238.
Clarendon, Lord, 68.
Clifford, Sir Nicholas, 352.
Coke, Sir Edward, 254.255.
Coleridge, Mr. S. T. 196. 197. 198. 199.
Collier, Mr. Payne, 273.
Collins, 107, 197.
Corbet, Miles, 62.
Cornwall, Barry, 149. 199.200.
Cotton, Charles, 209. 227.
Cowley, 228. 304.
Cowper, 111. 184. 197.
Crabbe, Rev. G. 203.
Cromwell, Oliver, 63.65. 66.68. 275.276.
Earl, Serjeant, 242.