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before; then the Kinge caused the gentleman that did stand by and would not reskewe the weoman to have his two little fingers cutt off, and soe he kissed the Kinge's foote and departed, but the other be put to cruele torments; for first he caused his tongue to be cut off, then his eyelides, the crowne of his heade, his lips, his nose, and after all this they did cutt his hamestringes; this being finished, the Kinge lookinge upon him used these words : Villaine, be thou an example to all other men; with that the man's father came to entreat the Kinge he might carrie away his sonne: he sayde noe, here shall he lye and starve in this place, and he that cometh neere him to give him anie ayde shall be served in the like manner. Well, after we had passed away three dayes with all varieties of sports, as namely these, wreslinge with men naked, fightinge of cameles, and rames of antelopes, beare baytinge, bull baytinge, and such other sports; we held on our journey to that famouse cittie of Ispahanne, ridinge through manie townes, but none worth the notinge, save onely one which was called Coome, where we were kindly received by the townsmen; there we rested one day and a night, but did hould on our journey haucking and huntinge by the way, where within three dayes we came within three miles of Ispahanne, where we lodged all night both the Kinge's and all the rest of his lords. The next morning by nine of the clocke we made ourselves readie to attend the Kinge, whereafter we had ridden but one quarter of a mile, we saw in a vally the Kinge's souldiers to the number of thirty thousand men, attendinge the Kinge's cominge; who when they perceived the Kinge was att hand, the drumes and trumpetts made such a noyse as if heaven and earth had mett together, there was alsoe the heads of men carried uppon lances. Soe after the Kinge had spoken to them they fell all intoe a halfe moone, and marched after the Kinge's traine. Soe when we came within two miles of the cittie the citizens did meet him verie gallantly apparelled, to the number of some ten thousand: they made a waye of taffetie and satten, lyinge upone the ground for the Kinge's horse to ride upon; the Kinge when he sawe it gave them great thankes, which pleased the cittizens verie much; then the Kinge did take Sir Anthony by the hand, and willed him to ride his horse upon it, but Sir Anthony would not by anie meanes; soe when the Kinge saw ehe would not, he called his guards to him and gave all the silkes and sattens to them, and they shared it among them : there we made a stand, and the Kinge caused his lieutenant generall to see his souldiers skirmish, and some of his gentlemen beinge amongst them, did not behave themselves to the Kinge's mind, and moreover his souldiers were not so perfect as the Kinge did expect they should; whereupon he presently ran in amongst them with his sword drawne, like to an Hercules, and uppon a sudden he gave four of them their deathes wound; then did he grow more into blood and not sparinge anie, but cuttinge of the armes from divers of them; one gentleman, which did but onlye smile, the Kinge never lefte, and cominge for succore into our companie the Kinge gave him such a blowe on the middell, that the one halfe of his bodie fell from the
other. There we spent that daye, and in the evening about sixe of the clocke we marched towards the cittie, where the governor leadinge the way, the young prince came ridinge fast by him, and jesting with him somewhat grosly about his wife, in regard she was a faire woman, the governor did use some unkind word to the prince, which made him angry, soe he came presently and tould the Kinge, who charged him to take his bowe and arrowes and shoot him throwe, which he did immediately, and did shoot him throwe one of the thies, the governor presently did alight of from his horse, and came and kissed the prince's feete, when the Kinge sawe it he came to the governor and kissed him, and made him vizroy of that province and ever after did impose greate trust into him ; soe we entred the cittie and marched about in everie streete. Then the Kinge brought Sir Anthony to his house, which was prepared redie for his coming and willed him to have patience and he would see him againe in the morninge, then the Kinge went to his palace, and that night we rested. There were slain that daye to the number of seven score, in regard of the extremitie of the heate and those which the Kinge himselfe did kill. Amonge the rest it was the Kinge's fortune to kill one of Sir Anthony's footmen being a Persian, who when the Kinge was tould of it he was exceedinge sorie, thinkinge he had bine a Christiane, and he came the next morninge in private to Sir Anthony and tould him he was exceedinge sorie, wishing it had bine his fortune to have slaine a dozen Persianes for him; Sir Anthony made answere that he was a Persiane; when the Kinge heard it he was exceedinge glad, and willed Sir Anthony to make choyce of any footman that he had ; and thus much for our entertainement in Persia.
Nowe will I treate of the maner, condition, and fashion of the
" You shall understand that the countrey of Persia is far more pleasant for a stranger to live in than the Turke's countrey, for this Kinge, since his coming to the crowne, hath brought this countrey into such subjection, that a man may travell throwe it with a rod in his hand, havinge no other weapon, without anye hurt. The people are verie curteouse and friendly to strangers, their aparell verie neat and comly; the men weare longe cotes to the small of their legge with greate roles on their heades of divers colours, caled turbans; they weare gownes furred with rich fur, for allthowe the countrey be exceedinge hott they alwaies weare furred gownes, the women are verie beautifull, for the better sort, in regard they weare vales over their heads, soe that the sune never shines on their faces; the women doe weare breeches as well as the men, and red velvett stockinges; the men have only one wife, but as manie concubines as they can keepe. A woman that is maried and is proved to commit adulterie, she is presently burnt. Moreover, as the Turkes doe hould the kindred of Mahomett in greate reverence amongst them, soe the Persianes doe contrarie unto them, for you shall see in everie towne thorough the kingdom of Persia once a day one walk along the streetes with an ax on his shoulder, and speaking these words with a loud voyce, that if any man doe hould Mahomet's kindred to be better than anie other man, or if any one doe say that he is of his kindred, he shall presently lose his head; for I myselfe sawe a Turke that was in Ispahane come to the fellowe and say that he was of Mahomet's kindred, and in that opinion he would dye, and so kneeled down, layinge his head upon a blocke, and the fellowe immediately cut off his head. Their beleef is in God the father and Mortus Aleey, and they hould Mahomet to be a greate prophett, they have churches, and verie fayre church yards, which they keepe verie cleane, with a pulpitt in the middell of the church yard, and likewise a fountaine which they likewise use to wash them in before they goe to prayer; they have also, as they terme the holy men, which they call Saintones, whom they putt much trust unto, that they can tell them what shall happen to them, if they take a journey in hand, These men go naked without shirts, onely they have a felt gowne of blewe; and every yeare, on that daye that Mortus Aleey dyed, they will slash themselves all over their armes and brests with knives, in most piteous maner, that sometimes they dye with it; their priests goe aparelled in white, and preach everie Fryday, for that day is their saboth; they pray with greate devotion, for I myselfe have seen them at their prayers with such zeal that they have fallen into a sound; they keepe their lent much about the time that we doe here in England, and they call it their Bairum; it lasteth twenty-eight dayes, and all the daye they eat not meat untill the south starr doe apeare and then they goe to their victuales, and then will they sport themselves all night; the better sort of them doe never at this or anie other time drinke wine except they have a license from the Kinge, and sometime the Kinge in his humer will cause a proclamation to be made that for three dayes anie man may drinke wine att his pleasure; then sometimes you shall see them drinke and then will the Kinge take greate delight to walk up and downe the cittie to see them; but he that is found drunke when those three dayes are expired shall presently lose his head. All Christianes are allowed to drinke wine, and all the Kinge's servants; the countrey is verie well furnished with all kinds of fruit; they have great store of wheat, soe that bread is verye cheap, and victuales at a verye good rate; the most of their feedinge is rice, dressed divers kind of ways; the Kinge will goe in private to their markets to see what order they keepe, For two yeares before our cominge into the countrey, the Kinge had bene in the market at Ispahane, and fallinge in talke with a fellowe that sold milke, he asked him how the governor of that place where he dwelt did behave himselfe; why, sayed the fellowe, beinge of a bould spiritte, if I was in his place I would bringe the Kinge a dozen heads a weeke of villaines that rob up and downe the countrey, soe that we can scarce goe a stone's cast from our houses but we shall be robbed, and the governor doth beare with them, and takes money of them to lett them live in that fashion; the Kinge hearinge this, liked the fellowe well, desiringe him to come to the court next morninge, and he would shew him the Kinge's house, bidinge him when he came to aske some of the Kinge's gard for one Abbas, the fellow sayed he would ; soe when the Kinge came to the court he gave order with his guard when such a fellow came to speake with one Abbas the next morninge they should bringe him to him; well, the next morninge the man came accordinge to his promise, who demanded of some of the gard for one Abbas, soe they brought him presently to the Kinge's bed-chamber; when the Kinge heard that he was come, he caused him to be brought in unto him; when the man did perceave that it was the Kinge, he fell downe on his knees, asking him forgivenes; the Kinge comanded him to stand up, and sent for aperele for him, and gave him the comand of fifty men, charginge him first to bring the governor to him, which he did within three dayes after, who presantly lost his head; then the Kinge charged him to bringe him twelve heads of those villaines which robbed in the countrey the next weeke followinge, or else he should lose his owne. Soe he tooke his leave of the Kinge for that time, and within foure days after he brought the Kinge twenty heads; when the Kinge sawe that, he gave him the comand of fifty men more, and made him governor of that place, and he behaved himselfe soe well that he brought the countrey in one monthe's space to such quietnesse, that a man might walke with a rod in his hand without hurt; the Kinge, after a small time, did take such a likinge of him, that he made him captaine of his guard, and gave him the comand of a thousand men to keepe the borders of his countrey.
“ It happened upon a time, that the Kinge being in progresse, for this is his custome, he doth never trouble his countrey with carrages, but hath carrages of his owne for that purpose, and all his nobilitie; the Kinge in the waye did overtake some carrages of this newe made governor, whereof were six moyles laden; the middle moyle havinge his carrage covered with a carpitt wrought with silke and gould; he demandinge of the men whose carrage it was ; one made answere that it was the Lord Mustriffa's captaine of his gard, for soe the Kinge had created him ; the Kinge that night did lodge in his tents; this new made lord came to the court somewhat late, but when the Kinge did heare of his cominge be presantly did calle for him, and tould him that he did overtake his carrages, whereof there was one moyle that was covered with a gould carpitt, which ladinge, sayde the Kinge, I must have; he presantly did fale on his knees, and intreated the Kinge to take all the reste ; for that was all the wealth he had, the Kinge presently was in greatt rage against him, and caused him to be laden with irones, and went presantly where his carrage was ; there findinge it to be a chest, he caused it to be broken open, and there he found nothinge but his ould cloeths and his milke-payles, which he used to sell his milke with ; when the Kinge sawe it he presantly wept, because he had done him soe much wronge; then he asked him why he did keepe those soe safe; he answered, that the favors of princes sometimes are lost for a small falt, and his fortune may in time proove soe bad, in regard there weare manie in the court which did envie his honor and fortunes he had receaved, which made me reserve those if such a chance should happen to gett me my livinge; the Kinge presantly caused them to be burnt, and created him a duke, addinge four thou
sand tomannes a year to his livinge, which is eight thousand pounds English, and at oure beinge there he was most in favoure with the kinge; was absolutely a man of the bravest courage in the court, and did use Sir Anthony verie kindly and all his company, but espetially myselfe, for I did receive manie kindneses from him, and in this fashion hath this Kinge exalted manie poore men to honoure since his cominge to the crowne; the Kinge's disposition is noted by his aparell which he wears that day, for that daye which he weareth blacke he is comonly melancoly and civell; if he weare white or greene, yellowe, or any other light color, he is comonly merrie; but when he weareth red, then all the court is afrayed of him, for he will be shure to kill some bodie that day, I have offtimes noted it; they have marshall lawe in the countrey, for if a man be found to steele the worthe of sixpence, he is presantly hanged at the next tree, by order of the governor of that place wherein he is taken; for everie little town or village hath his governor, or as they call them, cadees, and comonly where the Kinge is he will give justice himselfe; the Kinge doth ever ride with a greate trayne, to the number of five or six hundred men in his companie; they are verie expert in there peeces or musketts; for allthough there are some who have writtan now of latte, that they had not the use of peeces untill our cominge into the countrey, thus much I must wright to their prayse; that I did never see better barralles of musketts than I did see there; and the Kinge hath hard by his court at Ispahane about two hundred men att worke only makinge of peeces, bowes and arrowes, swords and targetts; and thus concerninge the fashion, maner, and custome of the Pertians.
“ Now to the former matter; I shewed you before howe the Kinge sent us fourteen horses att Casbeene, with other provision to attend him from thence to Ispahane, leavinge the rest of our companie behind us under the conduct of Mr. Abell Pinson, who was then steward to Sir Anthony, which were to the number of twenty-four persones, English, French, Greekes, and Pertians, who were gallantly furnished by the viceroy of the whole kingdome, everie man his horse and furniture accordinge to his yocation, and were conducted by one of his owne gentlemen from Casbene to Ispahane, where after their cominge to us we stayed there six months, without anie remove, spendinge our time in hauckinge, huntinge, and other sports; in the which time the Kinge was resolved to send Mr. Robert Sherley to the Queene of England with a verie rich presant, only to shew how much he honored her, but Sir Anthony altered the Kinge's mind, perswadinge him to send all the the princes in Christendome, which he was assured the Queene would like well of, and to be in league with them all, and he would undertake to accomplish the embassage, and moreover that he would maintaine wars against the Turke, on that side of him, and he would worke soe with the Christian princes, that they should maintainc warrs on the other side, and soe by that meanes overthrowe him; to which matter the Kinge was exceedinge glad of, givinge Sir Anthony manie thankes for his good invention, and presently he sent away the Turke's ambassador, who was come thither to renewe the league betweene the greate Turke and the Kinge of Persia, commandinge him to tell his master