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the English forces in Holland,* and was subsequently one of those gallant adventurers, who, in 1596, went to annoy the Spaniards in their West India settlements. With a brave, but small, band of two hundred and eighty men, he took the town of St. Jago, of which he kept possession two days and nights, against three thousand Portuguese, in which service eighty of his men were wounded. On his return to England, Sir Anthony received the honour of knighthood. As the model of his civil life, Sir Anthony selected his friend and patron, the famous Earl of Essex, who, in the true nobleness of his nature, gave him literally the best treasures of his mind in counselling him, and his care and fortune to help him forward.

Early in the year 1599, Sir Anthony Sherley left England with twenty-five followers, most of them gentlemen, for the purpose of joining the Duke of Ferrara in his wars with the Pope; but, learning on his arrival at Augusta, that the wars were terminated, he proceeded to Venice, and, from that place, communicated his disappointment to the Earl, by whose advice the enterprize had been undertaken. It seems, that some expectation had been formed of the exploits of this small band of gentlemen, and it suited neither the inclination of the Earl, nor Sir Anthony, that it should end in nothing. It was therefore concerted between them, that Sir Anthony should undertake a journey into Persia, the object of which was, in the first place, to endeavour to prevail upon the king to unite with the Christian princes against the Turks; or, if this should fail, to establish a commercial intercourse betwixt this country and the East; with these grand objects, Sir Anthony mixed some private designs of his own for the improvement of his fortune. Such were the inducements to this undertaking, as avowed by Sherley in the History of his Travels, penned by himself-a publication in which statesman-like views and acute reflexions are mingled with pompous argumentation, and tedious ethical declamationand in which he has purposely omitted what, though of less interest to him, is of most to posterity. Manwaring's discourse, on the contrary, possesses considerable interest—he describes not what he thought, but what he saw—and that in the most naïve and engaging manner. He relates many traits of the character of Sir Anthony, and the sovereign whom he visited, that are not to be found in Sherley's publication, which was, in all probabi

: * It may be worth while to mention, that Sir Anthony and Sir Nicholas Clifford were created, by the French king, knights of the order of St. Michael; but Queen Elizabeth took it so ill, that they should accept it without her leave, that she deprived them of it. Sandford's Geneal. Hist. of the Kings and Queens of England.

lity, to serve some particular purpose, independent of the mere narration of his journey. Sir Anthony, without disclosing his intentions to his followers, or to any one, except the Earl of Essex, set sail from Venice on the 20th May, 1599. We shall, without farther preface, proceed to give the relation of this adventure in the words of George Manwaring himself, premising that we have taken a few liberties with his orthography, which is very bad even for the time in which he lived: and the length of the manuscript has also compelled us to omit such parts of it as possess less interest than the rest.

“The first attempt of the voyage was this, Sir Anthony understandinge of warr like to have happened betweene the Duke of Ferrara and the Pope, and hearinge the Duke to be a gallant man, and further he had notice that the Duke had sent unto the French King for some good commanders, thought he could not spend his time better then to go and ayde the Duke with his service in the warr; and for this cause did take his leave of England for a time. * * * *

« On our coming to Augusta, we had newes that the Duke of Ferrara had submitted himselfe to the Pope, and the wars were ended, yet Sir Anthony did encourage us with comfortable words, ashuringe us, that if we would followe him, and arme ourselves to take the adventure which he did purpose, we should all gayne honour, and greatly enrich ourselves. From Augusta we tooke post horses to Venice, where we did solace vurselves allmost three monthes, in which time Sir Anthony did sende his brother, Mr. Robert Sherlye, of some bussinesse to the Duke of Florence, who used him very honourablye, givinge him a chayne of gould, valued to the worthe of 1600 French crownes; and in that time we lay in Venice, Sir Anthony did fall in some conversation with a Persian marchant, which did traffick in Venice for the Kinge of Persia, for such commodities as were wantynge in his owne contrey, which was English cloth, both woollen and linene. This marchant tould Sir Anthony of the Royalltie of the Sophie his King, which pleased Sir Anthony very well; yet not resolved to go thither, but to take his voyage another way; but in the same cittie of Venice, it was his fortune to hear of a great traveler, newly come to Venice from the Sophie's court, whose name was Angelo, born in Turkie, but a good Christian, who had travelled 16 years, and did speake 24 kinde of languages. This Angelo did likewise acquaint Sir Anthony of the worthynes of the King of Persia, that he was a gallant souldier, very bountifull to strangers, and what entertainement he had at his Court; ashuringe Sir Anthony, that if he would go thither, it would be greatly for his advancement; and more over, that he would be his guide, and attend on him thither, which Sir Anthony did consent unto, yet kept it very close, for fear it should be known in Turkie, becase we must passe through that countrey, and the greate Turke and the Kinge of Persia beinge not greate friends, but only for a league for three yeares, which was all expired. So we left Venice and went to Malemocko, some five miles from Venice, where we found divers shipes; amongst the rest there




was an Argosie, bound for Scanderoune, where we did imbarke ourselves, paying a large price for our passage; but the winde was contrarye, that we were 24 days in sayling to Zant, which was not half the waye, where, if the winde had served us, we might have been at Scanderoune in that time; but in the waye before we came to Zant, there was a passinger in the ship which used some disgracefull wordes against our late Queene, whereupone Sir Anthony caused one of his meanest sort of men to give him the bastinadoe, which he did very soundly. Whereupone he made such a terrible crye, that the captaine of the shipe, with the passingers and the seafaring men, rose up in armes against us, they beinge to the number of 250, and all our companie not above 26, yet we did withstande, neither was there any hurt done, by reason of three Armenian marchants, which did stande betweene us, and entreated a peace, which the Italians did first consent unto; in the end we arrived at Zant, where Sir Anthony and all we of his companie went ashore for vittailes, in regard all our provision was spent. When we were departed forth of the ship, they sent after us those thinges we had left behind, and mounted their ordnance against us, swearinge, if we did offer to come abord the ship any more, they would sink us. Whereupon Sir Anthony complained to the Governore of the place, but could have no remedie; so we lost our passage, and were constrained to stay in Zant ten dayes for shipping, with great hinderance to our voyage and expenses; but that the English marchants did use us somewhat kindlye. After we had passed awaye the time for ten days space, we imbarked in a small ship, and we tooke our leaves of Zant, where the next day after, we being not well stored with fresh water, we did put into an island to fill our vesselles with water; because in the iland of Zant water was very scarce. I will show you a reason why. One day, beinge in Zant, I was extreme drye, and beinge in a marchant's house, I desired a cup of water to drinke of one of his servants; the marchant hearing me, tould me I should drink wine so much as I would, for his water was dearer unto him than his wine. I thought it a verie strange thinge. Well, nowe to the ilande where we went for fresh water, a place worthe the notinge: it is a small thinge, but a verye pleasant littill village for corne, yet verye frutefull of alle thinges else, as apricockes, oranges, lemonds, pomgranates, grapes of all sorts, with manye other frutes; there is but an only castele in the iland, which is inhabited with no other kind of men but priestes and friers, all Greekes; they did entertaine us lovingly, givinge us of their frutes, for the which wee did proffer them money, but they would not take anie; in all our traveles I did not see a more plesanter place, for I could have found in my harte to have lived there allwayes : it is calde by the name of the Iland of Preestes. From thence we departed, and sayled towards the Isle of Candie, where within three dayes we were in the harbore, havinge no bussines there but only to see the place; we went all a-shore, not thinkinge to stay any longer than one night, but our shipe had a mischance; for we had not been out of her two houres but one of the gallies of Candie cominge from the sea, in a rough wind, did run herselfe against the rudder of our shipe, and tooke it cleane away; besides that, she was bulged in two places, which caused us to stay there nine dayes, before she could be made ready; there we were royally used, but espetially by one of the governores, which was a Greeke, for there are two governors; the one à Greeke, the other an Italian. The cittie of Candie is a towne of garri. son, which had to the number of 1500 souldiers continually there : this governor, beinge a Greeke, caused four proclamations to be made, which was, that we should have free libertie, both day and night, to passe quietly by their court of guard and sentinelles, without anie lett, which was a verie great favour; we were kindly used amongst the citizens, but espetially by the gentlewomen, who offtentimes did make us banquetts in their gardens, with musicke and dauncinge; they may well be called merie Greekes, for in the eveninges, commonly after they leave worke, they will daunce up and downe the streets, both men and women. There doth stand to this houre, about halfe a mile from the cittie, the chappell which Sainte Paule did preach in, and it is called to this houre Sainte Paule's Chappell, being helde in great reverence amonge the Greekes. From Candie we sayled to Cyprus, a most ruinated place, now under the Turkes' government; there we staide not past two houres, in which time the governor of that place, being a Turke, came abord our shipp, and brought us wine and other frutes; he used us very kindly, which made us thinke all Turkes were of his condicion; but we found it to the contrarie. From Cyprus we sailed to Tripoli, where we landed, and left our shipe, for we hired it no further. Being in the harbore, we found the Argosie, which brought

taine and master went presently to the governor, and tould him that we were bandittie or thieves at sea, and did counselle the governor to hange us all, which he consented unto.”

From this danger, Sir Anthony and his retinue were extricated through the means of some Armenian merchants, who were in the Argosy; but, as Manwaring says, at great cost. Our travellers next proceeded to Antioch, and thence to Aleppo; in the journey they met with various adventures, which are recounted at length, but which we are under the necessity of omitting.

Of our Journey from Aleppo throughe the Arabian desart, and so into

Persia. “ After wee had spent our time in Aleppo with the English marchants, for the space of five weekes, Sir Anthony did furnish himself with some kind of marchandise, as peeces of cloth of gould, and twelve cups of emeraldes, and jewels of great worth, which cups and jewels he thought to have presented to the Sophie of Persia, but that ill fortune did crosse him by the way. Well, from Aleppo we hired camels, asses, moyles, and horses, to bring us to a place, called by the Turks, Beere, or other wise Bersada, accompanied with a Turke caled a cadie, who went of an embassaye from the Great Turke to the Bashawe or

Viceroy of Bagdat, otherwise caled Babilone, and four of the English marchants did goe with us from Aleppo to Beere, which was four dayes journey. When wee came to Beere, there, after five or six dayes, with some trouble unto us, we were imbarked in a bote upon the famouse river Euphrates, with eleven botes more of Turkes, who went with marchandises to Babilone; after wee had gone down the river two dayes sail, we came by a place where there was a greate heape of stones, and that place the Jewes which were in our companie did tell us was the place where Abraham did pitch his tents, and there did they doe reverence unto it. We did commonly see every morninge greate lions come downe to the river side to drinke; and the wild Arabians would follow to the number sometimes of one hundred, and sometimes two hundred, with slings, slinging stones att us, but they did small hurte unto us, in regard of our shott, although it was some trouble to us. So passinge along the river, we came to a towne caled Anna, which was governed by the Turkes, but inhabited by manie Arabianes; and about two miles from the towne, by the river side, the Kinge of Arabya had pitched his tentes; for, as we were tould, he had made a vowe never to come into house till he could conquer all his contrye from the Turke. So coming close to the towne with our botes, as it was our order in all our botes, when we came by a place of note to give a vollie of shott, and doinge the like at that place, one of the Turkes had charged his peece with a bullet, which bullet did kill one of the Kinge's guard, beinge walkinge alonge the side of the river, accompanied with some fifty more of his fellowes; whoe, seinge their fellowe slaine, suddenly did drawe their swords in a rage, not knowinge who to take revenge upon; but the Turke that killed him, standing up, cryed with a loud voyce, sayinge it was one of the Christianes killed him, where upon they came all towards our bote, swearinge they would kill us every man ; but God provided for us; for there was a Turke of Mahomet's kindred in the bote with him that killed the man, who presently leapt into the water, sainge to the guard, there is the man that killed your fellowe, for I sawe him put the bullet into his peece; which caused them to make a stande, and did us no harme; but on a sudden they all rane feircely upon him, and cutt him in a hundred peeces, takinge the peeces, and throwinge them up and downe; this newes camè presently to the Kinge, who sent a straite command for all the botes to come downe to the place where all his tents were pitched, which we did immediately, and at our' arrival there, the Kinge sent a companie of his unto us, which did take away our ores of the botes, commanding the cheefe of the company to come before him, which they did. Sir Anthony went first, attended with three other gentlemen that were with him, and myselfe; this I may boldly speake of: at the first entrye into his tent it was full a quarter of an English mille, before wee came to the Kinge's presence, which was guarded on either side with shott and pikes ; soe when we came before him, he did stande up, takinge Sir Anthony by the hand, Sir Anthony offeringe to kisse his hande, but he would not suffer him; but we did : then he demanded of Sir Anthony what he was; he tould him the truth of all our voyage, which the Kinge did greatly commend, and caused a banquet to be brought

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