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them. While men are in this temper live. The station I am in furnishes me with (which happens very frequently) how in- daily opportunities of this kind; and the consistent are they with themselves? They noble principle with which you have inare wearied with the toil they bear, but spired me, of benevolence to all I have to cannot find in their hearts to relinquish it; deal with, quickens my application in every retirement is what they want, but they thing I undertake. When I relieve merít eannot betake themselves to it. While they from discountenance, when I assist a friendpant after shade and covert, they still affect less person, when I produce concealed worth, to appear in the most glittering scenes of I am displeased with myself, for having delife. Sure this is but just as reasonable as signed to leave the world in order to be virif a man should call for more lights, when tuous. I am sorry you decline the occasions he has a mind to go to sleep.

which the condition I am in might afford Since then it is certain that our own me of enlarging your fortunes; but I know hearts deceive us in the love of the world, I contribute more to your satisfaction, when and that we cannot command ourselves I acknowledge I am the better man, from enough to resign it, though we every day the influence and authority you have over, wish ourselves disengaged from its allure- sir, your most obliged and most_humble ments, let us not stand upon a formal taking servant,

R. O.' of leave, but wean ourselves from them while we are in the midst of them.

'Sir, I am entirely convinced of the

to It is certainly the general intention of the truth of what you were pleased to greater part of mankind to accomplish this me; when I was last with you alone. You work, and live according to their own ap

told me then of the silly way I was in; but probation, as soon as they possibly can. But you told me so, as I saw you loved me, since the duration of life is so uncertain, and in letting you know my thoughts so sin

otherwise I could not obey your commands that has been a common topic of discourse ever since there was such a thing as life it- cerely as I do at present. I know " the self, how is it possible that we should defer creature, for whom I resign so much of my a moment the beginning to live according then the trifler has something in her so un

” is all that you said of her; but to the rules of reason? The man of business has ever some one

designing and harmless, that her guilt in point to carry, and then he tells himself he one kind disappears by the comparison of will bid adieu to all the vanity of ambition. her innocence in another. Will ycu, virThe man of pleasure resolves to take his Must dear Chloe be called by the hard

tuous man, allow no alteration of offences? leave at least, and part civilly with his mistress; but the ambitious man is entangled men? I keep the solemn promise I made

name you pious people give to common woevery moment in a fresh pursuit, and the lover sees new charms in the object he fan- you in writing to you the state of my mind, cied he could abandon. It is therefore a fan- deavour to get the better of this fondness,

your kind admonition; and will entastical way of thinking, when we promise which makes me so much her humble serourselves an alteration in our conduct from change of place, and difference of circum- vant, that I am almost ashamed to sub

scribe myself yours, stances; the same passions will attend us

T. D.' wherever we are, till they are conquered, “SIR,-There is no state of life so anxious and we can never live to our satisfaction in as that of a man who does not live accordthe deepest retirement, unless we are capa-ing to the dictates of his own reason. It ble of living so, in some measure, amidst will seem odd to you, when I assure you the noise and business of the world. that my love of retirement first of all brought

I have ever thought men were better me to court; but this will be no riddle, when known by what could be observed of them I acquaint you that I placed myself here from a perusal of their private letters, than with a design of getting so much money as any other way. My friend the clergyman, might enable me to purchase a handsome the other day, upon serious discourse with retreat in the country. At present my cirhim concerning the danger of procrastina-cumstances enable me, and my duty prompts tion, gave me the following letters from me to pass away the remaining part of my persons with whom he lives in great friend- life in such a retirement as I at first proship and intimacy, according to the good posed to myself; but to my great misfortune breeding and good sense of his character. I have entirely lost the relish of it, and The first is from a man of business, who is should now return to the country with his convert: the second from one of whom greater reluctance than I at first came to he conceives good hopes: the third from court. I am so unhappy, as to know that one who is in no state at all, but carried one what I am fond of are trifles, and that what way and another by starts.

I neglect is of the greatest importance; in

short, I find a contest in my own mind be- , “SIR,-I know not with what words to tween reason and fashion. I remember you express to you the sense I have of the high once told me, that I might live in the world obligation you have laid upon me, in the and out of it, at the same time. Let me penance you enjoined me of doing some good beg of you to explain this paradox more at or other to a person of worth every day I large to me, that I may conform my life, if

possible, both to my duty and iny inclina- | nuns and a hare, which we see so frequently tion. I am yours, &c.

R. B.' joined together. I would therefore establish
C. certain rules, for the determining how far

one tradesman may give the sign of another, No. 28.] Monday, April 2, 1711.9

and in what cases he may be allowed to

quarter it with his own. -Neque semper arcum

• In the third place, I would enjoin every Tendit Apollo.

Hor. Lib. 2. Od. x. 19.

shop to make use of a sign which bears Nor does Apollo always bend his bow.

some affinity to the wares in which it deals. I shall here present my reader with a What can be more inconsistent, than to see letter from a projector, concerning a new a bawd at the sign of the angel, or a tailor office, which he thinks may very much con- at the lion? A cook should not live at the tribute to the embellishment of the city, boot, nor a shoemaker at the roasted pig; and to the driving barbarity out of our and yet, for want of this regulation, I have streets. I consider it as a satire upon pro- seen a goat set up before the door of a perjectors in general, and a lively picture of fumer, and the French king's head at a the whole art of modern criticism.


*An ingenious foreigner observes, that se“SIR,–Observing that you have thoughts veral of those gentlemen who value themof creating certain officers under you, for the inspection of several petty enormities such as are bred to trade, bear the tools of

selves upon thieir families, and overlook which you yourself cannot attend to; and their forefathers in their coats of arms. I finding daily absurdities hung out upon the will not examine how true this is in fact. But sign-posts of this city, to the great scandal though it may not be necessary for posterity of foreigners, as well as those of our own thus to set up the sign of their forefathers, country, who are curious spectators of the I think it highly proper for those who acsame; I do humbly propose that you will tually profess the trade to show some such be pleased to make me your superintendant marks of it before their doors. of all such figures and devices, as are or

•When the name givesan occasion for an shall be made use of on this occasion; with ingenious sign-post, I would likewise advise full powers to rectify or expunge whatever the owner to take that opportunity of letI shall find irregular or defective. For ting the world know who he is. It would want of such an officer, there is nothing have been ridiculous for the ingenious Mrs. like sound literature and good sense to be Salmon to have lived at the sign of the met with in those objects that are every trout; for which reason she has erected bewhere thrusting themselves out to the eye, fore her house the figure of the fish that is and endeavouring to become visible. Our her namesake. Mr. Bell has likewise disstreets are filled with blue boars, black tinguished himself by a device of the same swans, and red lions; not to mention flying nature: and here, sír, I must beg leave to pigs, and hogs in armour, with many other observe to you, that this particular figure creatures more extraordinary than any in of a bell has given occasion to several pieces the deserts of Africa. Strange! that one of wit in this kind. A man of your reading who has all the birds and beasts in nature must know, that Abel Drugger gained great to choose out of, should live at the sign of applause by it in the time of Ben Jonson. an Ens Rationis!

Our apocryphal heathen god* is also reMy first task therefore should be, like presented by this figure; which, in conjuncthat of Hercules, to clear the city from tion with the dragon, makes a very handmonsters. In the second place, I would some picture in several of our streets. As forbid that creatures of jarring and incon- for the bell-savage, which is the sign of a gruous natures should be joined together in savage man standing by a bell, I was forthe same sign; such as the bell and the merly very much puzzled upon the conceit neat's tongue, the dog and the gridiron. (of it, till l'accidentally fell into the reading The fox and the goose may be supposed to of an old romance translated out of the have met, but what has the fox and the se, French; which gives an account of a very ven stars to do together? And when did beautiful woman who was found in a wilthe lamb and dolphin ever meet, except derness, and is called in the French La upon a sign post? As for the cat and fiddle, belle Sauvage; and is every where transthere is a conceit in it; and therefore I do lated by our countrymen the bell-savage. not intend that any thing I have here said This piece of philosophy will, I hope, conshould affect it. I must however observe vince you that I have made sign-posts my to you upon this subject, that it is usual for study, and consequently qualified myself for a young tradesman, at his first setting up, the employment which I solicit at your to add to his own sign that of the master hands. But before I conclude my letter, I whom he served; as the husband, after must communicate to you another remark, marriage, gives a place to his mistress's which I have made upon the subject with arms in his own coat. This I take to have which I am now entertaining you, namely, given rise to many of those absurdities that I can give a shrewd guess at the hu, which are committed over our heads; and, as I am informed, first occasioned the three

St. George.

mour of the inhabitant by the sign that surdity, when it was impossible for a hero hangs before his door. A surly choleric in a desert, or a princess in her closet, to fellow generally makes choice of a bear; as speak any thing unaccompanied with mumen of milder dispositions frequently live sical instruments. at the lamb. Seeing a punch-bowl painted But however this Italian method of acting upon a sign near Charing-cross, and very in recitativo might appear at first hearing, curiously garnished, with a couple of angels, I cannot but think it much more just than hovering over it, and squeezing a lemon into that which prevailed in our English opera it, I had the curiosity to ask after the mas- before this innovation: the transition from ter of the house, and found, upon inquiry, an air to recitative music being more natuas I had guessed by the little agremens ral, than the passing from a song to plain upon his sign, that he was a Frenchman. and ordinary speaking, which was the comI know, sir, it is not requisite for me to en- mon method in Purcell's operas. large upon these hints to a gentleman of The only fault I find in our present pracyour great abilities; so humbly recommend tice, is the making use of the Italian reciing myself to your favour and patronage, tativo with English words.

I remain, &c. To go to the bottom of this matter, I must I shall add to the foregoing letter another, observe, that the tone, or (as the French which came to me by the same penny-post. call it) the accent of every nation in their

ordinary speech, is altogether different from From my own.apartment that of any other people; as we may see HONOURED SIR, near Charing-cross.

even in the Welch and Scotch, who border • Having heard that this nation is a great so near upon us. By the tone or accent, I encourager of ingenuity, I have brought do not mean the pronunciation of each parwith me a rope-dancer that was caught in ticular word, but the sound of the whole one of the woods belonging to the great sentence. Thus it is very common for an Mogul. He is by birth a monkey; but English gentleman, when he hears a French swings upon a rope, takes a pipe of to-tragedy, to complain that the actors all of bacco, and drinks a glass of ale, like any them speak in a tone: and therefore he very reasonable creature. He gives great satisfaction to the quality; and if they will make wisely prefers his own countrymen, not con

sidering that a foreigner complains of the a subscription for him, I will send for a

same tone in an English actor. brother of his out of Holland, that is a very

For this reason, the recitative music, in good tumbler; and also for another of the same family whom I design for my merry; the tone or accent of each language; for

every language, should be as different as Andrew, as being an excellent mimic, and otherwise, what may properly express a the greatest droll in the country where he passion in one language will not do it in now is. I hope to have this entertainment another. Every one who has been long in in readiness for the next winter; and doubt Italy knows very well, that the cadences not but it will please more than the opera, in the recitativo bear a remote affinity to or puppet-show. I will not say that a the tone of their voices in ordinary convermonkey is a better man than some of the sation, or, to speak more properly, are only opera heroes; but certainly he is a better the accents of their language made more representative of a man, than the most ar musical and tuneful. tificial composition of wood and wire. If

Thus the notes of interrogation, or admiyou will be pleased to give me a good word ration, in the Italian music (if one may so in your paper, you shall be every night a call them) which resemble their accents in spectator at my show for nothing. C.

discourse on such occasions, are not unlike I am, &c.'

the ordinary tones of an English voice when we are angry; insomuch that I have often

seen our audiences extremely mistaken, as No. 29.] Tuesday, April 3, 1711. to what has been doing upon the stage, and Sermo lingua concinnus utraque

expecting to see the hero knock down his messenger, when he has been asking him a

question; or fancying that he quarrels with Both tongues united sweeter sounds produce, his friend, when he only bids him goodLike Chian mix'd with the Falernian juice. morrow. THERE is nothing that has more startled For this reason the Italian artists cannot our English audience, than the Italian reci- agree with our English musicians in admirtativo at its first entrance upon the stage. ing Purcell's compositions, and thinking his People were wonderfully surprised to hear tunes so wonderfully adapted to his words; generals singing the word of command, and because both nations do not always express ladies delivering messages in music. Our the same passions by the same sounds. countrymen could not forbear laughing I am therefore humbly of opinion, that when they heard a lover chanting out a an English composer should not follow the billet-doux, and even the superscription of Italian recitative too servilely, but make a letter set to a tune. The famous blunder use of many gentle deviations from it, in in an old play of “Enter a king and two compliance with his own native language. fiddlers solus,' was now no longer an ab- He may copy out of it all the lulling soft

Suavior: ut Chio nota si commista Falerni est.

Hor. Lib. 1. Sat. x. 23.

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ness and dying falls' (as Shakspeare calls and Alpheus, instead of having his head
them,) but should still remember that he covered with sedge and bull-rushes, making
ought to accommodate himself to an Eng- love in a full-bottomed periwig and a plume
lish audience: and by humouring the tone of feathers; but with a voice so full of shakes
of our voices in ordinary conversation, have and quavers, that I should have thought the
the same regard to the accent of his own murmurs of a country brook the much more
language, as those persons had to theirs agreeable music.
whom he professes to imitate. It is ob 'I remember the last opera I saw in that
served, that several of the singing birds of merry nation was the Rape of Proserpine,
our own country learn to sweeten their where Pluto, to make the more tempting
voices, and mellow the harshness of their figure, puts himself in a French equipage,
natural notes, by practising under those that and brings Ascalaphus along with him as
come from warmer climates. In the same his valet de chambre. This is what we
manner, I would allow the Italian opera to call folly and impertinence: but what the
lend our English music as much as may French look upon as gay and polite.
grace and soften it, but never entirely to I shall add no more to what I have here
annihilate and destroy it. Let the infusion offered, than that music, architecture, and
be as strong as you please, but still let the painting, as well as poetry and oratory, are
subject-matter of it be English.

to deduce their laws and rules from the A composer should fit his music to the general sense and taste of mankind, and genius of the people, and consider that the not from the principles of those arts themdelicacy of hearing, and taste of harmony, selves; or, in other words, the taste is not has been formed upon those sounds which to conform to the art, but the art to the every country abounds with. In short, that taste. Music is not designed to please only music is of a relative nature, and what is chromatic ears, but all that is capable of disharmony to one ear, may be dissonance to tinguishing harsh from disagreeable notes. another.

A man of an ordinary ear is a judge whether The same observation which I have made a passion is expressed in proper sounds, and upon the recitative part of music may be whether the melody of those sounds be more applied to all our songs and airs in general. or less pleasing.

C. Signior Baptist Lully acted like a man of sense in this particular. He found the French music extremely defective, and No. 30.] Wednesday, April 4, 1711. very often barbarous. However, knowing the genius of the people, the humour of

Si Mimnermus uti censet, sine amore jocisque their language, and the prejudiced ears he

Nil est jucundum; vivas in amore jocisque.

Hor. Lib. 1. Ep. vi. 65. had to deal with, he did not pretend to ex

If nothing, as Mimnermus strives to prove, tirpate the French music, and plant the Can e'er be pleasant without mirth and love, Italian in its stead; but only to cultivate Then live in mirth and love, thy sports pursue. and civilize it with innumerable graces and modulations which he borrowed from the ONE common calamity makes men exItalians. By this means the French music tremely affect each other, though they difis now perfect in its kind; and when you fer in every other particular. The passion say it is not so good as the Italian, you only of love is the most general concern among mean that it does not please you so well; men; and I am glad to hear by my last adfor there is scarce a Frenchman who would vices from Oxford, that there are a set of not wonder to hear you give the Italian such sighers in that university, who have erecta preference, The music of the French is ed themselves into a society in honour of indeed very properly adapted to their pro- that tender passion. These gentlemen are nunciation and accent, as their whole opera of that sort of inamoratos, who are not so wonderfully favours the genius of such a very much lost to common sense, but that gay airy people. The chorus in which that they understand the folly they are guilty opera abounds, gives the parterre frequent of; and for that reason separate themselves opportunities of joining in concert with the from all other company, because they will stage. This inclination of the audience to enjoy the pleasure of talking incoherently, sing along with the actors, so prevails with without being ridiculous to any but each them, that I have sometimes known the other. When a man comes into the club, performer on the stage to do no more in a he is not obliged to make any introduction celebrated song, than the clerk of a parish to his discourse, but at once, as he is seatchurch, who serves only to raise the psalm, ing himself in his chair, speaks in the and is afterwards drowned in the music of thread of his own thoughts, "She gave me the congregation. Every actor that comes a very obliging glance, she never looked so on the stage is a beau. The queens and well in her life as this evening;' or the like heroines are so painted, that they appear as reflection without regard to any other ruddy and cherry-cheeked as milk-maids. member of the society; for in this assembly The shepherds are all embroidered, and they do not meet to talk to each other, but acquit themselves in a ball better than our every man claims the full liberty of talking English dancing-masters. I have seen a to himself. Instead of snuff-boxes and couple of rivers appear in red stockings; canes, which are the usual helps to dis


course with other young fellows, these have runs counter to that of the place wherein each some piece of riband, a broken fan, we live: for in love there are no doctors, or an old girdle, which they play with and we all profess so high a passion, that while they talk of the fair person remem- we admit of no graduates in it. Our prebered by each respective token. Accord- sidentship is bestowed according to the ing to the representation of the matter dignity of the passion; our number is unfrom my letters, the company appear like limited; and our statutes are like those of so many players rehearsing behind the the Druids, recorded in our own breasts scenes; one is sighing and lamenting his only, and explained by the majority of the destiny in beseeching terms, another de company. A mistress, and a poem in her claiming he will break his chain, and an- praise, will introduce any candidate. Withother, in dumb-show, striving to express out the latter no one can be admitted; for his passion by his gesture. It is very ordi- he that is not in love enough to rhyme, is nary in the assembly for one of a sudden to unqualified for our society. To speak disrise and make a discourse concerning his respectfully of any woman is expulsion passion in general, and describe the tem- from our gentle society. 'As we are at preper of his mind in such a manner, as that sent all of us gown-men, instead of duelthe whole company shall join in the de- ling when we are rivals, we drink together ocription, and feel the force of it. In this the health of our mistress. The manner case, if any man has declared the violence of doing this sometimes indeed creates deof his flame in more pathetic terms, he is bates; on such occasions we have recourse made president for that night, out of re- to the rules of love among the ancients. spect to his superior passion.

“Nævia sex cyathis, septem Justina bibatur." We had some years ago in this town a

Mart. Epig. i. 72 set of people who met and dressed like

"Six cups to Nævia, to Justina seven." lovers, and were distinguished by the name of the Fringe-glove club; but they were her name, occasioned the other night a dis

This method of a glass to every letter of persons of such moderate intellects, even before they were impaired by their pas- who is in love with Mrs. Elizabeth Dim

pute of some warmth. A young student sion, that their irregularities could not furnish sufficient variety of folly to afford ple, was so unreasonable as to begin her daily new impertinences; by which means which so exasperated the club, that by

health under the name of Elizabetha ; that institution dropped. These fellows could express their passion in nothing but We look upon a man as no company that

common consent wo retrenched it to Betty. their dress; but the Oxonians are fantastical now they are lovers, in proportion to does not sigh five times in a quarter of an their learning and understanding before hour; and look upon a member as very abthey became such. The thoughts of the surd, that is so much himself as to make a ancient poets on this agreeable frenzy are whole assembly is made up of absent men,

direct answer to a question. In fine, the translated in honour of some modern beauty; and Chloris is won to-day by the same

that is, of such persons as have lost their compliment that was made to Lesbia a

locality, and whose minds and bodies never thousand years ago. But as far as I can

keep company with one another. As I am learn, the patron of the club is the renown

an unfortunate member of this distracted ed Don Quixote. The adventures of that society, you cannot expect a very regular gentle knight are frequently mentioned in account of it; for which reason I hope you the society under the colour of laughing at will pardon me that I so abruptly subscribe the passion and themselves: but at the myself, Sir, your most obedient humble

T, L. same time, though they are sensible of the servant, extravagancies of that unhappy warrior, 'I forgot to tell you, that Albina, who they do not observe, that to turn all the has six votaries in this club, is one of your reading of the best and wisest writings into readers.'

R. rhapsodies of love, is a frenzy no less diverting than that of the aforesaid accomplished Spaniard. A gentleman who, I No. 31.] Thursday, April 5, 1711. hope, will continue his correspondence, is lately admitted into the fraternity, and sent

Sit mihi fas audita loqui Virg. Æn. vi. 266. me the following letter:

What I have heard, permit me to relate.

Last night, upon my going into a coffee“SIR---Since I find you take notice of house not far from the Haymarket theatre, clubs, I beg leave to give you an account I diverted myself for above half an hour of one in Oxford, which you have no where with overhearing the discourse of one, who, mentioned, and perhaps never heard of. by the shabbiness of his dress, the extraWe distinguish ourselves by the title of the vagance of his conceptions, and the hurry Amorous Club, are all votaries of Cupid, of his speech, I discovered to be of that and admirers of the fair sex. The reason species who are generally distinguished by that we are so little known in the world, is the title of Projectors. This gentleman, the secrecy which we are obliged to live for I found he was treated as such by his under in the university. Our constitution audience, was entertaining a whole table

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