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not tell my reader, that I mean by this I sight, from whom no secrets are concealed. end, that happiness which is reserved for Again, there are many virtues which want us in another world, which every one has an opportunity of exerting and showing abilities to procure, and which will bring themselves in actions. Every virtue realong with it fulness of joy and pleasures quires time and place, a proper object and for evermore.'

a fit conjuncture of circumstances, for the How the pursuit after fame may hinder due exercise of it. A state of poverty obus in the attainment of this great end, I shall scures all the virtues of liberality and muleave the reader to collect from the three nificence. The patience and fortitude of a following considerations:

martyr or confessor lie concealed in the First, Because the strong desire of fame flourishing times of Christianity. Some breeds several vicious habits in the mind. virtues are only seen in affliction, and some

Secondly, Because many of those actions, in prosperity; some in a private, and others which are apt to procure fame, are not in in a public capacity. But the great Sotheir nature conducive to this our ultimate vereign of the world beholds every perfechappiness.

tion in its obscurity, and not only sees what Thirdly, Because if we should allow the we do, but what we would do.' He views same actions to be the proper instruments, our behaviour in every concurrence of afboth of acquiring fame, and of procuring fairs, and sees us engaged in all the possithis happiness, they would nevertheless fail bilities of action. He discovers the martyr in the attainment of this last end, if they and confessor without the trial of flames proceeded from a desire of the first. and tortures, and will hereafter entitle

These three propositions are self-evident many to the reward of actions, which they to those who are versed in speculations of had never the opportunity of performing, morality. For which reason I shall not Another reason why men cannot form a enlarge upon them, but proceed to a point right judgment of us is, because the same of the same nature, which may open to us actions may be aimed at different ends, and a more uncommon field of speculation. arise from quite contrary principles. Ac

From what has been already observed, I tions are of so mixed a nature, and so full think we may make a natural conclusion, of circumstances, that as men pry into that it is the greatest folly to seek the them more or less, or observe some parts praise or approbation of any being, besides more than others, they take different hints, the Supreme, and that for these two rea- and put contrary interpretations on them; sons, because no other being can make a so that the same actions may represent a right judgment of us, and esteem us accord- man as hypocritical and designing to one, ing to our merits; and because we can pro- which make him appear a saint or a hero cure no considerable benefit or advantage to another. He therefore who looks upon from the esteem and approbation of any the soul through its outward actions, often other being

sees it through a deceitful medium, which In the first place, no other being can is apt to discolour and pervert the object: make a right judgment of us, and esteem so that on this account also, he is the only us according to our merits. Created beings proper judge of our perfections, who does see nothing but our outside, and can there- not guess at the sincerity of our intenfore only frame a judgment of us from our tions, from the goodness of our actions, but exterior actions and behaviour; but how weighs the goodness of our actions by the unfit these are to give us a right notion of sincerity of cur intentions. each other's perfections, may appear from But further, it is impossible for outward several considerations. There are many actions to represent the perfections of the virtues which in their own nature are soul, because they can never show the incapable of any outward representation; strength of those principles from whence many silent perfections in the soul of a good they proceed. They are not adequate exman, which are great ornaments to human pressions of our virtues, and can only show nature, but not able to discover themselves us what habits are in the soul, without disto the knowledge of others; they are trans- covering the degree and perfection of such acted in private without noise or show, and habits. They are at best but weak resemare only visible to the great Searcher of blances of our intentions, faint and imperhearts. What actions can express the fect copies, that may acquaint us with the entire purity of thought which refines and general design, but can never express the sanctifies a virtuous man? That secret rest, beauty and life of the criginal. But the and contentedness of mind, which gives great Judge of all the earth knows every him a perfect enjoyment of his present con- different state and degree of human imdition. That inward pleasure and compla- provement, from those weak stirrings and cency which he feels in doing good? That tendencies of the will which have not yet delight and satisfaction, which he takes in formed themselves into regular purposes the prosperity and happiness of another? and designs, to the last entire finishing and These and the like virtues are the hidden consummation of a good habit. He beholds beauties of a soul, the secret graces which the first imperfect rudiments of a virtue in cannot be discovered by a mortal eye, but the soul, and keeps a watchful eye over it make the soul lovely and precious in his l in all its progress, until it has received

every grace it is capable of, and appears in / at present the reader shall have from my its full beauty and perfection. Thus we see correspondents. The first of the letters that none but the Supreme Being can esteem with which I acquit myself for this day, is us according to our proper merits, since all written by one who proposes to improve others must judge of us from our outward our entertainments of dramatic poetry, and actions; which can never give them a just the other comes from three persons, who, estimate of us, since there are many per- as soon as named, will be thought capable fections of a man which are not capable of of advancing the present state of music. appearing in actions; many which, allowing no natural incapacity of showing them

“MR. SPECTATOR,—I am considerably selves, want an opportunity of doing it; or obliged to you for your speedy publication should they all meet with an opportunity of my last in yours of the 18th instant, and of appearing by actions, yet those actions am in no small hopes of being settled in the may be misinterpreted, and applied to post of Comptroller of the Cries. Of all the wrong principles: or though they plainly objections I have hearkened after in public discovered the principles from whence they coffee-houses, there is but one that seems to proceeded, they could never show the de- carry any weight with it, viz. That such a gree, strength, and perfection of those post would come too near the nature of a principles.

monopoly. Now, sir, because I would have And as the Supreme Being is the only all sorts of people made easy, and being proper judge of our perfections, so is he the willing to have more strings than one to my only fit rewarder of them. This is a con-bow: in case that of comptroller should fail sideration that comes home to our interest, me, I have since formed another project, as the other adapts itself to our ambition which being grounded on the dividing of a And what could the most aspiring, or the present monopoly, I hope will give the most selfish man desire more, were he to public an equivalent to their full content. form the notion of a Being to whom he You know, sir, it is allowed, that the busiwould recommend himself, than such a ness of the stage is, as the Latin has it, knowledge as can discover the least ap- jucunda et idonea dicere vitæ. Now there pearance of perfection in him, and such a being but one dramatic theatre licensed for goodness as will proportion a reward to it? the delight and profit of this extensive me

Let the ambitious man therefore turn all tropolis, I do humbly propose, for the conhis desire of fame this way; and that he venience of such of its inhabitants as are too may propose to himself a fame worthy of distant from Covent-garden, that another his ambition, let him consider, that if he theatre of ease may be erected in some employs his abilities to the best advantage, spacious part of the city; and that the directhe time will come when the Supreme Go- tion thereof may be made a franchise in fee vernor of the world, the great Judge of to me and my heirs for ever. And that the mankind, who sees every degree of perfec- town may have no jealousy of my ever comtion in others, and possesses all possible ing into a union with the set of 'actors now perfection in himself, shall proclaim his in being, I do further propose to constitute worth before men and angels, and pro- for my deputy my near kinsman and adnounce to him in the presence of the whole venturer, Kit Crotchet, * whose long excreation that best and most significant of perience and improvements in those affairs applauses, 'Well done, thou good and faith- need no recommendation. It was obvious to ful servant, enter thou into thy master's every spectator, what a quite different foot joy.'

the stage was upon during his government; and had he not been bolted out of his trap

doors, his garrison might have held out for No. 258.) Wednesday, December 26, 1711. ever; he having by long pains and persever

ance arrived at the art of making his army Divide et impera.

fight without pay or provisions. I must

confess it is with a melancholy amazement, PLEASURE and recreation of one kind or I see so wonderful a genius laid aside, and other are absolutely necessary to relieve the late slaves of the stage now become its our minds and bodies from too constant at- masters, dunces that will be sure to suptention and labour: where therefore public press all theatrical entertainments and acdiversions are tolerated, it behoves persons tivities that they are not able themselves to of distinction, with their power and exam- shine in! ple, to preside over them in such a manner Every man that goes to a play is not as to check any thing that tends to the cor- obliged to have either wit or understanding; ruption of manners, or which is too mean and I insist upon it, that all who go there or trivial for the entertainment of reason- should see something which may improve able creatures. As to the diversions of this them in a way of which they are capable. kind in this town, we owe them to the arts In short, sir, I would have something done, of poetry and music. My own private opi- as well as said, on the stage.

A man may nion, with relation to such recreations, I have an active body, though he has not a have heretofore given with all the frankness imaginable; what concerns those arts

* Christopber Rich


Divide and rule.

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quick conception; for the imitation there- | Arsinoe, and did it to the best advantage so fore of such as are, as I may so speak, cor- great a novelty would allow. It is not proporeal wits, or nimble fellows, I would fain per to trouble you with particulars of the ask any of the present mismanagers, why just complaints we all of us have to make; should not rope-dancers, vaulters, tumblers, but so it is, that without regard to our obligladder-walkers, and posture-masters ap- ing pains, we are all equally set aside in the pear again on our stage? After such a re- present opera. Our application therefore presentation a five-bar gate would be leaped to you is only to insert this letter in your with a better grace next time any of the paper, that the town may know we have all audience went a hunting. Sir, these things three joined together to make entertaincry aloud for reformation, and fall properly ments of music for the future at Mr. Clayunder the province of Spectator-General; ton's house in York-buildings. What we but how indeed should it be otherwise, promise ourselves is, to make a subscription while fellows (that for twenty years toge- of two guineas, for eight times; and that the ther were never paid but as their master entertainment, with the names of the auwas in the humour) now presume to pay thors of the poetry, may be printed, to be others more than ever they had in their sold in the house, with an account of the lives: and in contempt of the practice of several authors of the vocal as well as the persons of condition, have the insolence to instrumental music for each night; the owe no tradesman a farthing at the end of money to be paid at the receipt of the the week. Sir, all I propose is the public tickets, at Mr. Charles Lillie's. It will, good; for no one can imagine I shall ever we hope, sir, be easily allowed, that we are get a private shilling by it: therefore I hope capable of undertaking to exhibit, by our you will recommend this matter in one of joint force and different qualifications, all your this week's papers, and desire when that can be done in music; but lest you my house opens you will accept the liberty should think so dry a thing as an account of of it for the trouble you have received from, our proposal should be a matter unworthy sir, your humble servant,

of your paper, which generally contains RALPH CROTCHET. something of public use; give us leave to •P. S. I have assurances that the trunk- say, that favouring our design is no less maker will declare for us.

than reviving an art, which runs to ruin by

the utmost barbarism under an affectation MR. SPECTATOR,-We whose names of knowledge. We aim at establishing some are subscribed, think you the properest per- settled notion of what is music, at recoverson to signify what we have to offer the town ing from neglect and want very many famiin behalf of ourselves, and the art which we lies who depend upon it, at making all profess, music. We conceive hopes of your foreigners who pretend to succeed in Engfavour from the speculations on the mis- land to learn the language of it as we ourtakes which the town runs into with regard selves have done, and not to be so insolent to their pleasure of this kind; and believing as to expect a whole nation, a refined and your method of judging is, that you consider learned nation, should submit to learn theirs. music only valuable, as it is agreeable to, In a word, Mr. Spectator, with all deferand heightens the purpose of poetry, we ence and humility, we hope to behave ourconsent that it is not only the true way of selves in this undertaking in such a manner, relishing that pleasure, but also that with that all Englishmen who have any skill in out it a composure of music is the same musịc may be furthered in it for their profit thing as a poem, where all the rules nf or diversion by what new things we shall poetical numbers are observed, though the produce; never pretending to surpass others, words have no sense or meaning; to say it or asserting that any thing which is a scishorter, mere musical sounds in our art are ence, is not attainable by all men of all nano other than nonsense verses are in poetry. tions who have proper genius for it. We Music therefore is to aggravate what is in- say, sir, what we hope for, it is not expected tended by poetry; it must always have son.e will arrive to us by contemning others, but passion or sentiment to express, or else vio- through the utmost diligence recommendlins, voices, or any other organs of sound, ing ourselves. We are, sir, your most afford an entertainment very little above humble servants, the rattles of children. It was from this

• THOMAS CLAYTON, opinion of the matter, that when Mr. Clay

•NICOLINO HAYM, ton had finished his studies in Italy, and T.

"CHARLES DIEUPART.' brought over the opera of Arsinoe, that Mr. Haym and Mr. Dieupart, who had the honour to be well known and received No. 259.] Thursday, December 27, 1711. among the nobility and gentry, were zeal

Quod decet honestum est, et quod honestum est decet. ously inclined to assist by their solicitations, in introducing so elegant an entertainment What is becoming is honourable, and what is honour. as the Italian music grafted upon English able is becoming. poetry. For this end Mr. Dieupart and THERE are some things which cannot Mr. Haym, according to their several op- come under certain rules, but which one portunities, promoted the introduction of would think could not need them. Of this


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kind are outward civilities and salutations. sions thought it a very great absurdity in These one would imagine might be regu- the company (during the royal presence lated by every man's common sense, with- to exchange salutations from all parts of out the help of an instructor; but that which the room, when certainly common sense we call common sense suffers under that should suggest, that all regards at that time word; for it sometimes implies no more should be engaged, and cannot be diverted than that faculty which is common to all to any other object, without disrespect to men, but sometimes signifies right reason, the sovereign. But as to the complaint of and what all men should consent to. In my correspondents, it is not to be imagined this latter acceptation of the phrase, it is no what offence some of them take at the cusgreat wonder people err so much against tom of saluting in places of worship. I have it, since it is not every one who is possessed a very angry letter from a lady, who tells of it, and there are fewer who, against me of one of her acquaintance, who, out common rules and fashions, dare obey its of mere pride and a pretence to be rude, dictates. As to salutations, which I was takes upon her to return no civilities done about to talk of, I observe, as I stroll about to her in time of divine service, and is the town, there are great enormities committed most religious woman, for no other reason with regard to this particular. You shall but to appear a woman of the best quality sometimes see a man begin the offer of a in the church. This absurd custom had salutation, and observe a forbidding air, or better be abolished than retained; if it were escaping eye, in the person he is going to but to prevent evils of no higher a nature salute, and stop short in the poll of his than this is; but I am informed of objecneck. This, in the person who believed he tions much more considerable. A dissenter could do it with a good grace, and was re- of rank and distinction was lately prevailed fused the opportunity, is justly resented upon by a friend of his to come to one of the with a coldness the whole ensuing season. greatest congregations of the church of Your great beauties, people in much favour, England about town. After the service was or by any means or for any purpose over- over, he declared he was very well satisfied flattered, are apt to practise this, which with the little ceremony which was used one may call the preventing aspect, and towards God Almighty; but at the same throw their attention another way, lest time he feared that he should not be able to they should confer a bow or a courtesy go through those required towards one anupon a person who might not appear to other; as to this point he was in a state of deserve that dignity. Others you shall find despair, and feared he was not well-bred so obsequious, and so very courteous as enough to be a convert. There have been there is no escaping their favours of this many scandals of this kind given to our kind. Of this sort may be a man who is in protestant dissenters from the outward the fifth or sixth degree of favour with a pomp and respect we take to ourselves in minister. This good creature is resolved our religious assemblies. A quaker who to show the world, that great honours can- came one day into a church, fixed his eye not at all change his manners; he is the upon an old lady with a carpet larger than same civil person he ever was; he will ven- that from the pulpit before her, expecting ture his neck to bow out of a coach in full when she would hold forth. An anabaptist speed, at once to show he is full of business, who designs to come over himself, and all and yet not so taken up as to forget his old his family, within a few months, is sensible friend. With a man who is not so well they want breeding enough for our congreformed for courtship and elegant behaviour, gations, and has sent his two eldest daughsuch a gentleman as this seldom finds his ters to learn to dance, that they may not account in the return of his compliments; misbehave themselves at church. It is but he will still go on, for he is in his own worth considering whether, in regard to way, and must not omit; let the neglect fall awkward people with scrupulous conon your side, or where it will, his business sciences, a good Christian of the best air in is still to be well-bred to the end. I think the world ought not rather to deny herself I have read, in one of our English comedies, the opportunity of showing so many graces, a description of a fellow that affected know-than keep a bashful proselyte without the ing every body, and for want of judgment pale of the church.

T. in time and place, would bow and smile in the face of a judge sitting in the court, would sit in an opposite gallery and smile in the No. 260.] Friday, December 28, 1711. minister's face as he came up into the pul

Singula de nobis anni prædantur euntes. pit, and nod as if he alluded to some fami

Hor. Lib. 2. Ep. ii. 55. liarities between them in another place. Years following years steal something every day, But now I happen to speak of salutation at At last they steal us from ourselves away.- Pope. church, I must take notice that several of *MR. SPECTATOR,--I am now in the my correspondents have importuned me to sixty-fifth year of my age, and having been consider that subject, and settle the point the greater part of my days a man of pleaof decorum in that particular.

sure, the decay of my faculties is a stagnaI do not pretend to be the best courtier in tion of my life. But how is it, sir, that my the world, but I have often on public occa- appetites are increased upon me with the

loss of power to gratify them? I write this ponder, the vagaries of a child are not more like a criminal, to warn people to enter ridiculous than the circumstances which upon what reformation they please to make are heaped up in my memory; fine gowns, in themselves in their youth, and not expect country dances, ends of tunes, interrupted they shall be capable of it from a fond opinion conversations, and midnight quarrels, are some have often in their mouths, that if what must necessarily compose my soliwe do not leave our desires, they will leave loquy. I beg of you to print this, that some us. It is far otherwise; I am now as vain in ladies of my acquaintance and my years, my dress, and as flippant, if I see a pretty may be persuaded to wear warm nightwoman, as when in my youth I stood upon caps this cold season: and that my old a bench in the pit to survey the whole cir- friend Jack Tawdry may buy him a cane, cle of beauties. The folly is so extravagant and not creep with the air of a strut. I with me, and I went on with so little check must add to all this, that if it were not for of my desires, or resignation of them, that one pleasure, which I thought a very mean I can assure you, I very often, merely to one until of very late years, I should have entertain my own thoughts, sit with my no one great satisfaction left; but if I live to spectacles on, writing love-letters to the the tenth of March, 1714, and all my sebeauties that have been long since in their curities are good, I shall be worth fifty graves. This is to warm my heart with thousand pounds. I am, sir, your most humthe faint memory of delights which were ble servant, JACK AFTERDAY.' once agreeable to me; but how much happier would my life have been now, if I could

MR. SPECTATOR,—You will infinitely have looked back on any worthy action oblige a distressed lover, if you will insert done for my country? if I had laid out that in your very next paper, the following letwhich I profused in luxury and wantonness, ter to my mistress. You must know I am in acts of generosity or charity? I have not a person apt to despair, but she has got lived a bachelor to this day; and instead of an odd humour of stopping short unaca numerous offspring, with which in the countably, and as she herself told a confiregular ways of life I might possibly have dant of hers, she has cold fits. These fits delighted myself, I have only to amuse shall last her a month or six weeks tomyself with the repetition of old stories and gether; and as she falls into them without intrigues which no one will believe I ever provocation, so it is to be hoped she will was concerned in. I do not know whether return from them without the merit of new you have ever treated of it or not; but you services. But life and love will not admit cannot fall on a better subject than that of of such intervals, therefore pray let her be the art of growing old. In such a lecture admonished as follows: you must propose, that no one set his heart upon what is transient; the beauty grows therefore, pray do not tell me of waiting

• Madam, I love you, and honour you: wrinkled while we are yet gazing at her. until decencies, until forms, until humours The witty man sinks into a humourist im

are consulted and gratified. If you have perceptibly, for want of reflecting that all that happy constitution as to be indolent things around him are in a flux, and con- for ten weeks together, you should consider tinually changing: thus he is in the space that all that while I burn in impatiences and of ten or fifteen years surrounded by a new fevers: but still you say it will be time set of people, whose manners are as natural enough, though I'and you too grow older to them as his delights, method of think- while we are yet talking. Which do you ing, and mode of living, were formerly to think the most reasonable, that you should him and his friends. But the mischief is, alter a state of indifference for happiness, he looks upon the same kind of errors and that to oblige me; or I live in torment, which he himself was guilty of with an eye and that to lay no manner of obligation on of scorn, and with that sort of ill-will which you? While I indulge your insensibility I men entertain against each other for different opinions. Thus a crazy constitution, sion, you are bestowing bright desires, gay

am doing nothing; if you favour my pasand an uneasy mind is fretted with vexatious hopes, generous cares, noble resolutions, passions for young men's doing foolishly, and transporting raptures upon, madam, what it is folly to do at all. Dear sir, this is my present state of mind; I hate those I your most devoted humble servant.' should laugh at, and envy those I contemn. MR. SPECTATOR, -Here is a gentleThe time of youth and vigorous manhood, woman lodges in the same house with me, passed the way in which I have disposed that I never did any injury to in my whole of it, is attended with these consequences; life ; and she is always railing at me to but to those who live and pass away life those that she knows will tell me of it. Do as they ought, all parts of it are equally not you think she is in love with me? or pleasant; only the memory of good and would you have me break my mind yet, worthy actions is a feast which must give or not?' Your servant,

T. B.' a quicker relish to the soul than ever it could possibly taste in the highest enjoy •Mr. SPECTATOR, I am a footman in ments or jollities of youth. As for me, if I a great family, and am in love with the sit down in my great chair and begin to house-maid. We were all at hot-cockles

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