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plause as it is depressed by neglect and and a sweet smile sits in the charming contempt. But it is only persons far above space which divides her lips. One would the common level who are thus affected swear that voice and speech were issuing with either of these extremes; as in a ther-out, and that one's ears felt the melodious mometer, it is only the purest and most sound. How often have I, deceived by a sublimated spirit that is either contracted lover's credulity, hearkened if she had not or dilated by the benignity or inclemency something to whisper me? and when frusof the season

trated of my hopes, how often have I taken

my revenge in kisses from her cheeks and MR. SPECTATOR,—The translations

eyes, and softly wooed her to my embrace, which you have lately given us from the whilst she (as to me it seemed,) only withGreek, 'in some of your last papers, have held her tongue the more to inflame me. been the occasion of my looking into some But, madman that I am, shall I be thus of those authors: among whom I chanced taken with the representation only of a on a collection of letters which pass under beauteous face, and flowing hair, and thus the name of Aristænetus. Of all the re- waste myself and melt to tears for a shamains of antiquity, I believe there can be dow? Ah, sure it is something more, it is nothing produced of an air so gallant and a reality; for see, her beauties shine out polite; each letter contains a little novel or with new lustre, and she seems to upbraid adventure, which is told with all the beau- me with unkind reproaches. Oh, may I ties of language, and heightened with a have a living mistress of this form, that luxuriance of wit. There are several of when I shall compare the work of nature them translated;* but with such wide devia- with that of art, I may be still at a loss tions from the original, and in a style so far which to choose, and be long perplexed differing from the author's, that the trans- with the pleasing uncertainty.

T. lator seems rather to have taken hints for the expressing his own sense and thoughts, than to have endeavoured to render those of Aristænetus. In the following transla- No. 239.] Tuesday, December 4, 1711. tion, I have kept as near the meaning of the

-Bella, horrida bella! Greek as I could, and have only added a few

Virg. Ær. vi. 86. words to make the sentences in English sit

-Wars, horrid wars! Dryden. together a little better than they would I HAVE sometimes amused myself with otherwise have done. The story seems to considering the several methods of managbe taken from that of Pygmalion and the ing a debate which have obtained in the statue in Ovid; some of the thoughts are world. of the same turn, and the whole is written The first races of mankind used to disin a kind of poetical prose.'

pute, as our ordinary people do now-a-days, Philopinax to Chromation.

in a kind of wild logic, uncultivated by rules

of art. "Never was a man more overcome with

Socrates introduced a catechetical method. so fantastical a passion as mine; I have of arguing. He would ask his adversary painted a beautiful woman, and am despair- question upon question, until he had coning, dying for the picture. My own skill vinced him out of his own mouth that his has undone me; it is not the dart of Venus, opinions were wrong. This way of debatbut my own pencil has thus wounded me. ing drives an enemy up into a corner, seizes Ah, me! with what anxiety am I necessi- all the passes through which he can make tated to adore my own idol? How misera- an escape, and forces him to surrender at ble am I, whilst every one must as much discretion. pity the painter as he praises the picture,

Aristotle changed this method of attack, and own my torment more than equal to and invented a great variety of little weamy art. But why do I thus complain? pons, called syllogisms. As in the Socratic Have there not been more unhappy and way of dispute you agree to every thing unnatural passions than mine? Yes, I have which your opponent advances, in the Arisseen the representation of Phædra, Nar-totelic you are still denying and contradictcissus, and Pasiphæ. Phædra was unhappy ing some part or other of what he says. in her love: that of Pasiphæ was monstrous; Socrates conquers you by stratagem, Arisand whilst the other caught at his beloved totle by force! The one takes the town by likeness, he destroyed the watery image, sap, the other sword in hand. which ever eluded his embraces. The

The universities of Europe for many fountain represented Narcissus to himself, years carried on their debates by syllogism, and the picture both that and him, thirst- | insomuch that we see the knowledge of ing after his adored image. But I am yet several centuries laid out into objections less unhappy... I enjoy her presence con- and answers, and all the good sense of the tinually, and if I touch her, I destroy not age cut and minced into almost an infinithe beauteous form, but she looks pleased, tude of distinctions.

When our universities found there was By Tom Brown and others. See his Works 4 vols. no end of wrangling this way, they invented

a kind of argument, which is not reducible


to any mood or figure in Aristotle. It was reasoning, which may be called arguing by
called the argumentum Basilinum, (others poll; and another which is of equal force,
write it Bacilínum or Baculinum,) which is in which wagers are made use of as argu-
pretty well expressed in our English word ments, according to the celebrated line in
club-law. When they were not able to Hudibras. Il
confute their antagonist, they knocked him But the most notable way of managing a
down. It was their method in these po controversy, is that which we may call
lemical debates, first to discharge their arguing by torture. This is a method of
syllogisms, and afterwards to betake them- reasoning which has been made use of with
selves to their clubs, until such time as they the poor refugees, and which was so fashion-
had one way or other confounded their able in our country during the reign of
gainsayers. There is in Oxford a narrow Queen Mary, that in a passage of an au-
defile, (to make use of a military term,) thor quoted by Monsieur Bayle, it is said
where the partisans used to encounter; for the price of wood was raised in England,
which reason it still retains the name of by reason of the executions that were made
Logic-lane. I have heard an old gentle- in Smithfield. These disputants convince *
man, a physician, make his boasts, that their adversaries with a sorites, ** commonly
when he was a young fellow he marched called a pile of faggots. The rack is also a
several times at the head of a troop of kind of syllogism which has been used with
Scotists,* and cudgelled a body of Smigle-good effect, and has made multitudes of
sianst half the length of High-street, until converts. Men were formerly disputed out
they had dispersed themselves for shelter of their doubts, reconciled to truth by force
into their respective garrisons.

of reason, and won over to opinions by the
This humour, I find, went very far in candour, sense, and ingenuity of those who
Erasmus's time. For that author tells us, had the right on their side; but this method
that upon the revival of Greek letters, most of conviction operated too slowly. Pain
of the universities in Europe were divided was found to be much more enlightening
into Greeks and Trojans. The latter were than reason. Every scruple was looked
those who bore a mortal enmity to the lan- upon as obstinacy, and not to be removed
guage of the Grecians, insomuch that if but by several engines invented for that
they met with any who understood it, they purpose. In a word, the application of
did not fail to treat him as a foe. Erasmus whips, racks, gibbets, galleys, dungeons,
himself had, it seems, the misfortune to fire and faggot, in a dispute, may be looked
fall into the hands of a party of Trojans, upon as popish refinements upon the old
who laid on him with so many blows and heathen logic.
buffets that he never forgot their hostilities There is another way of reasoning which
to his dying day.

seldom fails, though it be of a quite different There is a way of managing an argument nature to that I have last mentioned. I not much unlike the former, which is made mean convincing a man by ready money, kise of by states and communities, when they or as it is ordinarily called, bribing a man draw up a hundred thousand disputants, on to an opinion. This method has often each side, and convince one another by dint proved successful, when all the others have of sword. A certain grand monarchi was been made use of to no purpose. A man so sensible of his strength in this way of who is furnished with arguments from the reasoning, that he writ upon his great | mint, will convince his antagonist much guns—Ratio ultima regum, "The logic of sooner than one who draws them from reaKings;' but, God be thanked, he is now son and philosophy. Gold is a wonderful pretty well baffled at his own weapons. clearer of the understanding; it dissipates When one has to do with a philosopher of every doubt and scruple in an instant; acthis kind, one should remember the old commodates itself to the meanest capacigentleman's saying, who had been engaged ties; silences the loud and clamourous, and in an argument with one of the Roman brings over the most obstinate and inflexiemperors. Upon his friend's telling him ble. Philip of Macedon was a man of most that he wondered he would give up the invincible reason this way. He refuted by question, when he had visibly the better of it all the wisdom of Athens, confounded the dispute; *I am never ashamed,' says their statesmen, struck their orators dumb, he, "to be confuted by one who is master and at length argued them out of all their of fifty legions.'

liberties. I shall but just mention another kind of Having here touched upon the several

methods of disputing, as they have pre* The followers of Duns Scotus, a celebrated Fran. vailed in different ages of the world, I shall ciscan divine, born in Northumberland. From Oxford, very suddenly give my reader an account where he was educated, he went to Paris,

where his of the whole art of cavilling; which shall reputation was so high as a disputant, that he acquired the name of the 'subtile doctor. His opposition to the | Part 2, c. 1. v. 297. doctrine of Thomas Aquinas gave birth to two parties, T The author quoted is And. Ammonius. See his life the Scotists and Thomists. He died at Cologne, in 1308. in Bayle's Dict. The Spectator's memory deceived him

The followers of Martin Smiglucius, a famous logi. in applying the remark, which was made in the reign eian in the 16th century.

of Henry VIII. It was, however, much more applicable 1 Lewis XIV. of France.

to that of Queen Mary. $ The Emperor Adrian.

** A sorites is a heap of propositions thrown together.

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be a full and satisfactory answer to all such | have by this admirable person been shown papers and pamphlets as have yet ap- to, and raised in, sir, your most humble peared against the Spectator.



• MR. SPECTATOR,-I am a country gen

tleman of a good plentiful estate, and live as No. 240.] Wednesday, December 5, 1711. the rest of my neighbours with great hos

pitality. I have been ever reckoned among -Aliter non fit, Avite, liber.

the ladies the best company in the world,

Mart. Ep. 17. Lib. 1. Of such materials, sir, are books composed.

and have access as a sort of favourite. Í

never came in public but I saluted them, "Mr. SPECTATOR-I am one of the though in great assemblies, all around; most genteel trades in the city, and under where it was seen how genteelly I avoided stand thus much of liberal education, as to hampering my spars in their petticoats, have an ardent ambition of being useful to whilst I moved amongst them; and on the mankind, and to think that the chief end other side how prettily they curtsied and of being, as to this life. I had these good received me standing in proper rows, and impressions given me from the handsome advancing as fast as they saw their elders, behaviour of a learned, generous, and or their betters, despatched by me. But so wealthy man towards me, when Í first it is, Mr. Spectator, that all our good breedbegan the world. Some dissatisfaction be- ing is of late lost, by the unhappy arrival of tween me and my parents made me enter a courtier, or town gentleman, who came into it with less relish of business than I lately among us. This person whenever he ought; and to turn off this uneasiness, I came into a room made a profound bow, gave myself to criminal pleasures, some and fell back, then recovered with a soft excesses, and a general loose conduct. I air, and made a bow to the next, and so to know not what the excellent man above- one or two more, and then took the gross of mentioned saw in me, but he descended the room, by passing them in a continual from the superiority of his wisdom and bow until he arrived at the person he merit, to throw himself frequently into my thought proper particularly to entertain. company. This made me soon hope that This he did with so good a grace and asI had something in me worth cultivating, surance, that it is taken for the present and his conversation made me sensible of fashion; and there is no young gentlewoman satisfactions in a regular way, which I had within several miles of this place has been never before imagined. When he was kissed ever since his first appearance among grown familiar with me, he opened himself us. We country gentlemen cannot begin like a good angel, and told me he had long again and learn these fine and reserved airs; laboured to ripen me into a preparation to and our conversation is at a stand, until we receive his friendship and advice, both have your judgment for or against kissing which I should daily command, and the by way of civility or salutation; which is use of any part of his fortune, to apply impatiently expected by your friends of the measures he should propose to me, for both sexes, but by none so much as your the improvement of my own. I assure you humble servant, I cannot recollect the goodness and confu

•RUSTIC SPRIGHTLY." sion of the good old man when he spoke to this purpose to me without melting into

•December 3, 1711. tears; but in a word, sir, I must hasten to •MR. SPECTATOR,- I was the other night tell you, that my heart burns with grati- at Philaster, where I expected to hear your tude towards him, and he is so happy a famous trunk-maker, but was unhappily man that it can never be in my power to disappointed of his company, and saw anreturn him his favours in kind, but I am other person who had the like ambition to sure I have made him the most agreeable distinguish himself in a noisy manner, partly satisfaction I could possibly, in being ready by vociferation or talking loud, and partly to serve others to my utmost ability, as far by his bodily agility. This was a very lusty as is consistent with the prudence he pre- fellow, but withal a sort of beau, who getscribes to me. Dear Mr. Spectator, I do not ting into one of the side-boxes on the stage owe to him only the good-will and esteem before the curtain drew, was disposed to of my own relations, (who are people of show the whole audience his activity by distinction,) the present ease and plenty of leaping over the spikes: he passed from my circumstances, but also the government thence to one of the entering doors, where of my passions, and regulation of my de- he took snuff with a tolerable good grace, sires. I doubt not, sir, but in your imagina- displayed his fine clothes, made two or tion such virtues as these of my worthy three feint passes at the curtain with his friend, bear as great a figure as actions cane, then faced about and appeared at the which are more glittering

in the common other door. Here he affected to survey the estimation. What I would ask of you, is whole house, bowed and smiled at random, to give us a whole Spectator upon heroic and then showed his teeth, which were virtue in common life, which may incite some of them indeed very white. After this men to the same generous inclinations, as he retired behind the curtain, and obliged

us with several views of his person from | am always in good-humour when an east every opening.

wind blows, because it seldom fails of bring• During the time of acting, he appeared ing me a letter from him. Let me entreat frequently in the prince's apartment, made you, sir, to give me your advice upon this one at the hunting-match, and was very for- occasion, and to let me know how I may ward in the rebellion. If there were no relieve myself in this my widowhood. I injunctions to the contrary, yet this practice am, sir, your most humble servant, must be confessed to diminish the pleasure

* ASTERIA.' of the audience, and for that reason presumptuous and unwarrantable; but since

Absence is what the poets call death in her majesty's late command has made it love, and has given occasion to abundance criminal, t you have authority to take no- of beautiful complaints in those authors who tice of it. Sir, your humble servant,

have treated of this passion in verse. Ovid's T. •CHARLES EASY.' Epistles are full of them. Otway's Moni

mia talks very tenderly upon this subject:

-It was not kind

To leave me like a turtle, here alone, No. 241.] Thursday, December 6, 1711.

To droop and mourn the absence of my mate.

When thou art from me, every place is desert; Semperqne relinqui

And I, methinks, am savage and forlorn. Sola sibi, semper longam incomitata videtur

Thy presence only 'tis can make me blest, Ire viam

Virg. Æn. iv. 466.

Heal my unquiel mind, and tune my soul. All sad she seems, forsaken, and alone;

Orphan, Act ii. And left to wander wide through paths unknown.-P.

The consolations of lovers on these occaMR. SPECTATOR,—Though you have sions are very extraordinary. Besides those considered virtuous love in most of its dis- mentioned by Asteria, there are many other tresses, I do not remember that you have motives of comfort which are made use of given us any dissertation upon the absence by absent lovers. of lovers, or laid down any methods how I remember in one of Scudery's Romances they should support themselves under those a couple of honourable lovers agreed at long separations which they are sometimes their parting to set aside one half hour in forced to undergo. I am at present in this the day to think of each other during a unhappy circumstance, having parted with tedious absence. The romance tells us, that the best of husbands, who is abroad in the they both of them punctually observed the service of his country, and may not possibly time thus agreed upon; and that whatever return for some years. His warm and gener company or business they were engaged in, ous affection while we were together, with they left it abruptly as soon as the clock the tenderness which he expressed to me warned them to retire. The romance furat parting, make his absence almost insup- ther adds, that the lovers expected the portable. I think of him every moment of return of this stated hour with as much imthe day, and meet him every night in my patience as if it had been a real assignation, dreams. Every thing I see puts me in mind and enjoyed an imaginary happiness, that of him. I apply myself with more than was almost as pleasing to them as what they ordinary diligence to the care of his family would have found from a real meeting. It and his estale; but this instead of relieving was an inexpressible satisfaction to these me, gives me but so many occasions of wish- divided lovers to be assured that each was ing for his return. I frequent the rooms at the same time employed in the same where I used to converse with him, and not kind of contemplation, and making equal meeting him there, sit down in his chair returns of tenderness and affection. and fall a weeping. I love to read the books If I may be allowed to mention a more he delighted in, and to converse with the serious expedient for the alleviating of abpersons whom he esteemed. I visit his pic- sence, I shall take notice of one which I ture a hundred times a day, and place my: have known two persons practise, who self over against it whole hours together. I joined religion to that elegance of sentipass a great part of my time in the walks ments with which the passion of love genewhere I used to lean upon his arm, and rally inspires its votaries. This was, at the recollect in my mind the discourses which return of such an hour, to offer up a certain have there passed between us: I look over prayer for each other, which they had the several prospects and points of view agreed upon before their parting. The huswhich we used to survey together, fix my band, who is a man that makes a figure in eye upon the objects which he has made the polite world, as well as in his own me take notice of; and call to mind a thou- family, has often told me, that he could not sand agreeable remarks which he has made have supported an absence of three years on those occasions. I write to him by every without this expedient. conveyance, and contrary to other people, Strada, in one of his Prolusions, t gives an

account of a chimerical correspondence be* Different scenes in Beaumont and Fletcher's tragedy tween two friends by the help of a certain

In the play-bills of that time, these words were in loadstone, which had such virtue in it, that serted: “By her majesty's command, no person is to be admitted behind the scenes.'

1 Lib. ii. prol. 6

of Philaster.


of it touched two several needles, when one | yours concerning the misbehaviour of peoof the needles so touched began to move, the ple, who are necessarily in each other's other, though at never so great a distance, company in travelling, ought to have been moved at the same time, and in the same a lasting admonition against transgressions

He tells us, that the two friends of that kind. But I had the fate of your being each of them possessed of one of these quaker, in meeting with a rude fellow in a needles, made a kind of dial-plate, inscrib- stage-coach, who entertained two or three ing it with the four-and-twenty letters, in women of us (for there was no man besides the same manner as the hours of the day himself) with language as indecent as ever are marked upon the ordinary dial-plate. was heard upon the water. The imperti They then fixed one of the needles on each nent observations which the coxcomb made of these plates in such a manner that it upon our shame and confusion were such, could move round without impediment, so that it is an unspeakable grief to reflect as to touch any of the four-and-twenty let- upon them. As much as you have declaimters. Upon their separating from one an- ed against duelling, I hope you will do us other into distant countries, they agreed to the justice to declare, that if the brute has withdraw themselves punctually into their courage enough to send to the place where closets at a certain hour of the day, and to he saw us all alight together to get rid of converse with one another by means of this him, there is not one of us but has a lover their invention. Accordingly when they who shall avenge the insult. It would cerwere some hundred miles asunder, each of tainly be worth your consideration, to look them shut himself up in his closet at the into the frequent misfortunes of this kind, time appointed, and immediately cast his to which the modest and innocent are exeye upon his dial-plate. If he had a mind posed, by the licentious behaviour of such to write any thing to his friend, he directed as are as much strangers to good-breeding his needle to every letter that formed the as to virtue. Could we avoid hearing what words which he had occasion for, making a we do not approve, as easily as we can seelittle pause at the end of every word oring what is disagreeable, there were some sentence, to avoid confusion. The friend in consolation; but since in a box at a play, the meanwhile saw his own sympathetic in an assembly of ladies, or even in a pew needle moving of itself to every letter which at church, it is in the power of a gross coxthat of his correspondent pointed at. By this comb to utter what a woman cannot avoid means they talked together across a whole hearing, how miserable is her condition continent, and conveyed their thoughts to who comes within the power of such imone another in an instant over cities or pertinents? and how necessary is it to remountains, seas or deserts.

peat invectives against such a behaviour? If Monsieur Scudery, or any other writer If the licentious had not utterly forgot what on romance, had introduced a necromancer, it is to be modest, they would know that who is generally in the train of a knight-offended modesty labours under one of the errant, making a present to two lovers of a greatest sufferings to which human life can couple of these above-mentioned needles, be exposed. If these brutes could reflect the reader would not have been a little thus much, though they want shame, they pleased to have seen them corresponding would be moved by their pity, to abhor an with one another when they were guarded impudent behaviour in the presence of the by spies and watches, or separated by cas- chaste and innocent. If you will oblige us tles and adventures.

with a Spectator on this subject, and proIn the meanwhile, if ever this invention cure it to be pasted against every stageshould be revived or put in practice, I would coach in Great Britain as the law of the propose that upon the lover's dial-plate journey, you will highly oblige the whole there should be written not only the four- sex, for which yon have professed so great and-twenty letters, but several entire words an esteem; and in particular the two ladies which have always a place in passionate my late fellow-sufferers, and, sir, your most epistles; as flames, darts, die, "languish, humble servant, absence, Cupid, heart, eyes, hang, drown,

REBECCA RIDINGHOOD.' and the like. This would very much abridge the lover's pains in this way of writing a • Mr. Spectator,-The matter which letter, as it would enable him to express I am now going to send you, is an unhappy the most useful and significant words with story in low life, and will recommend itself, a single touch of the needle.

C. so that you must excuse the manner of ex

pressing it. A poor idle drunken weaver in

Spitalfields has a faithful laborious wife, No. 242.] Friday, December 7, 1711.

who by her frugality and industry had laid

by her as much money as purchased her a Creditur, ex medio quia res arcessit, habere

ticket in the present lottery. She had hid

Hor. Lib. 2, Ep. i. 168. To write on vulgar themes, is thought an easy task.

this very privately in the bottom of a trunk

and had given her number to a friend and • MR, SPECTATOR-Your speculations confidant, who had promised to keep the do not so generally prevail over men's man- secret, and bring her news of the success. ners as I could wish. A former paper of The poor adventurer was one day gone

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