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it accompanies; like the shades in paintings, a serious discourse, and would scarce be it raises and rounds every figure, and makes able to show his head, after having disthe colours more beautiful, though not so closed a religious thought. Decency of Beglaring as they would be without it. haviour, all outward show of virtue, and

Modesty is not only an ornament, but also abhorrence of vice, are carefully avoided a guard to virtue. It is a kind of quick and by this set of shamed-faced people, as what delicate feeling in the soul; which makes would disparage their gayety of temper, and her shrink and withdraw herself from every infallibly bring them to dishonour. This is thing that has danger in it. It is such an such a poorness of spirit, such a despicable exquisite sensibility, as warns her to shun cowardice, such a degenerate abject state the first appearance of every thing which of mind, as one would think human nature is hurtful.

incapable of, did we not meet with frequent I cannot at present recollect either the instances of it in ordinary conversation. place or time of what I am going to men- There is another kind of vicious modesty tion; but I have read somewhere in the which makes a man ashamed of his person, history of ancient Greece, that the women his birth, his profession, his poverty, or the of the country were seized with an un- like misfortunes, which it was not his choice accountable melancholy, which disposed to prevent, and is not in his power to rectify. several of them to make away with them- If a man appears ridiculous by any of the selves. The senate, after having tried afore-mentioned circumstances, he becomes many expedients to prevent this self-mur- much more so by being out of countenance der, which was so frequent among them, for them. They should rather give him published an edict, that if any woman occasion to exert a noble spirit, and to palwhatever should lay violent hands upon liate those imperfections which are not in herself, her corpse should be exposed his power, by those perfections which are; naked in the street, and dragged about the or to use a very witty allusion of an eminent city in the most public manner. This edict author, he should imitate Cæsar, who, beimmediately put a stop to the practice cause his head was bald, covered that dewhich was before so common. We may fect with laurels. see in this instance the strength of female modesty, which was able to overcome the violence even of madness and despair. The No. 232.] Monday, November 26, 1711. fear of shame in the fair sex, was in those days more prevalent than that of death. Nihil largiundo gloriam adeptus est.

If modesty has so great an influence over our actions, and is in many cases so impreg

By bestowing nothing he acquired glory. nable a fence to virtue; what can more un- My wise and good friend, Sir Andrew dermine morality than that politeness which Freeport, divides himself almost equally reigns among the unthinking part of man- between the town and the country. His time kind, and treats as unfashionable the most in town is given up to the public, and the ingenuous part of our behaviour; which re- management of his private fortune; and after commends impudence as good-breeding, every three or four days spent in this manand keeps a man always in countenance, ner, he retires for as many to his seat within not because he is innocent, but because he a few miles of the town, to the enjoyment is shameless?

of himself, his family, and his friend. Thus Seneca thought modesty so great a check business and pleasure, or rather, in Sir Anto vice, that he prescribes to us the prac- drew, labour and rest, recommend each tice of it in secret, and advises us to raise it other. They take their turns with so quick in ourselves upon imaginary occasions, when a vicissitude, that neither becomes a habit, such as are real do not offer themselves; for or takes possession of the whole man; nor this is the meaning of his precept, That is it possible he should be surfeited with when we are by ourselves, and in our great- either. I often see him at our club in good est solitudes, we should fancy that Cato humour, and yet sometimes too with an air stands before us and sees every thing we of care in his looks: but in his country redo. In short, if you banish Modesty out of treat he is always unbent, and such a comthe world, she carries away with her half panion as I could desire; and therefore I the virtue that is in it.

seldom fail to make one with him when he After these reflections on modesty, as it is pleased to invite me. is a virtue, I must observe, that there is a The other day, as soon as we were got vicious modesty which justly deserves to be into his chariot, two or three-beggars on ridiculed, and which those persons very each side hung upon the doors, and solioften discover who value themselves most cited our charity with the usual rhetoric of upon a well-bred confidence. This happens a sick wife or husband at home, three or when a man is ashamed to act up to his four helpless little children all starving with reason, and would not upon any considera- cold and hunger. We were forced to part tion be surprised at the practice of those with some money to get rid of their imporduties, for the performance of which he tunity; and then we proceeded on our jourwas sent into the world. Many an impu- ney with the blessings and acclamations of dent libertine would blush to be caught in these people

Sallust. Bell. Cat.

338

"Well, then,' says Sir Andrew, 'we go resumed the discourse. It may seem,' says off with the prayers and good wishes of the he, a paradox, that the price of labour beggars, and perhaps too our healths will should be reduced without an abatement of be drunk at the next ale-house: so all we wages, or that wages can be abated without shall be able to value ourselves upon, is, any inconvenience to the labourer, and yet that we have promoted the trade of the vic- nothing is more certain than that both these tualler and the excises of the government. things may happen. The wages of the laBut how few ounces of wool do we see upon bourers make the greatest part of the price the backs of these poor creatures? And of every thing that is useful; and if in prowhen they shall next fall in our way, they portion with the wages the price of all other will hardly be better dressed; they must things should be abated, every labourer always live in rags to look like objects of with less wages would still be able to purcompassion. If their families too are such chase as many necessaries of life; where as they are represented, it is certain they then would be the inconvenience? But the cannot be better clothed, and must be a price of labour may be reduced by the adgreat deal worse fed. One would think dition of more hands to a manufacture, and potatoes should be all their bread, and their yet the wages of persons remain as high as drink the pure element; and then whatever. The admirable Sir William Petty goodly customers are the farmers like to has given examples of this in some of his have for their wool, corn, and cattle? Such writings: one of them, as I remember, is customers, and such a consumption, cannot that of a watch, which I shall endeavour to choose but advance the landed interest, and explain so as shall suit my present purhold up the rents of the gentlemen. pose. It is certain that a single watch

• But of all men living, we merchants, could not be made so cheap in proportion who live by buying and selling, ought never by only one man, as a hundred watches by to encourage beggars. The goods which a hundred; for as there is a vast variety in we export are indeed the product of the the work, no one person could equally suit lands, but much the greater part of their himself to all the parts of it: the manufacvalue is the labour of the people: but how ture would be tedious, and at last but clummuch of these people's labour shall we ex- sily performed. But if a hundred watches port whilst we hire them to sit still? The were to be made by a hundred men, the very alms they receive from us are the cases may be assigned to one, the dials to wages of idleness. I have often thought another, the wheels to another, the springs that no man should be permitted to take to another, and every other part to a proper relief from the parish, or to ask it in the artist. As there would be no need of perstreet, until he has first purchased as much plexing any one person with too much vaas possible of his own livelihood by the la- riety, every one would be able to perform bour of his own hands; and then the public his single part with greater skill and expeought only to be taxed to make good the dition; and the hundred watches would be deficiency. If this rule was strictly ob- finished in one-fourth part of the time of served we should see every where such a the first one, and every one of them at onemultitude of new labourers, as would in all fourth part of the cost, though the wages probability, reduce the prices of all our of every man were equal. The reduction manufactures. It is the very life of mer- of the price of the manufacture would inchandise to buy cheap and sell dear. The crease the demand of it, all the same hands merchant ought to make his outset as would be still employed, and as well paid. cheap as possible, that he may find the The same rule will hold in the clothing, the greater profit upon his returns; and nothing shipping, and all other trades whatsoever. will enable him to do this like the reduction And thus an addition of hands to our manuof the price of labour upon all our manu- factures will only reduce the price of them; factures. This too would be the ready way the labourer will still have as much wages, to increase the number of our foreign mar- and will consequently be enabled to purchase kets. The abatement of the price of the more conveniences of life, so that every inmanufacture would pay for the carriage of terest in the nation would receive a benefit it to more distant countries; and this con- from the increase of our working people. sequence would be equally beneficial both • Besides I see no occasion for this chato the landed and trading interests. As so rity to common beggars, since every beggar great an addition of labouring hands would is an inhabitant of a parish, and every paproduce this happy consequence both to the rish is taxed to the maintenance of their merchant and the gentleman, our liberality own poor. For my own part I cannot be to common beggars, and every other ob- mightily pleased with the laws which have struction to the increase of labourers, must done this, which have provided better to be equally pernicious to both.'

feed than employ the poor. We have a Sir Andrew then went on to affirm, that tradition from our forefathers, that after the reduction of the prices of our manufac- the first of those laws was made, they were tures by the addition of so many new hands, insulted with that famous song: would be no inconvenience to any man; but Hang sorrow and cast away care, observing I was something startled at the The parish is bound to find us, &c. assertion, he made a short pause, and then • And if we will be so good-natured as to maintain them without work, they can do This account is very dry in many parts, no less in return than sing us “ The merry as only mentioning the name of the lover Beggars.”

who leaped, the person he leaped for, and What then? Am I against all acts of relating in short, that he was either cured, charity? God forbid! I know of no virtue or killed, or maimed by the fall. It indeed in the gospel that is in more pathetic ex- gives the names of so many who died by it, pressions recommended to our practice. “I that it would have looked like a bill of morwas hungry and ye gave me no meat, tality, had I translated it at full length; I thirsty and ye gave me no drink, naked and have therefore made an abridgment of it, ye clothed me not, a stranger and ye took and only extracted such particular pasme not in, sick and in prison and ye visited sages as have something extraordinary, me not.” Our blessed Saviour treats the either in the case or in the cure, or in the exercise or neglect of charity towards a fate of the person who is mentioned in it. poor man, as the performance or breach of After this short preface take the account this duty towards himself. I shall endea- as follows: vour to obey the will of my lord and master: Battus, the son of Menalcas the Sicilian, and therefore if an industrious man shall leaped for Bombyca the musician: got rid submit to the hardest labour and coarsest of his passion with the loss of his right leg fare, rather than endure the shame of and arm, which were broken in the fall. taking relief from the parish, or asking it Melissa, in love with Daphnis, very in the street, that is the hungry, the thirsty, much bruised, but escaped with life. the naked; and I ought to believe, if any Cynisca, the wife of Æschines, being in man is come hither for shelter against per- love with Lycus; and Æschines her hussecution or oppression, this is the stranger, band being in love with Eurilla; (which had and I ought to take him in. If any country- made this married couple very uneasy to man of our own is fallen into the hands of one another for several years) both the infidels, and lives in a state of miserable husband and the wife took the leap by concaptivity, this is the man in prison, and I sent; they both of them escaped, and have should contribute to his ransom. I ought lived very happily together ever since. to give to an hospital of invalids, to recover Larissa, a virgin of Thessaly, deserted as many useful subjects as I can: but I shall by Plexippus, after a courtship of three bestow none of my bounties upon an alms- years; she stood upon the brow of the prohouse of idle people; and for the same rea- montory for some time, and after having son I should not think it a reproach to me thrown down a ring, a bracelet, and a little if I had withheld my charity from those picture, with other presents which she had common beggars. But we prescribe better received from Plexippus, she threw herrules than we are able to practise; we are self into the sea, and was taken up alive. ashamed not to give into the mistaken man- N. B. Larissa before she leaped made ners of our country: but at the same time, an offering of a silver Cupid in the temple I cannot but think it a reproach worse than of Apollo. that of common swearing, that the idle and Simætha, in love with Daphnis the Mynthe abandoned are suffered in the name of dian; perished in the fall. heaven and all that is sacred to extort from Charixus, the brother of Sappho, in love christian and tender minds a supply to a with Rhodope the courtesan, having spent profligate way of life, that is always to be his whole estate upon her, was advised by supported, but never relieved.'

Z. his sister to leap in the beginning of his

amour, but would not hearken to her until

he was reduced to his last talent; being forNo. 233.] Tuesday, November 27, 1711. saken by Rhodope, at length resolved to -Tanquam hæc sint nostri medicina furoris take the leap. Perished in it.

Aridæus, a beautiful youth of Epirus, in Virg. Ecl. x. v. 60.

love with Praxinoe, the wife of Thespis; As if by these, my sufferings I could ease;

escaped without damage, saving only that Or by my pains the god of love appease.--Dryden.

two of his fore-teeth were struck out and I shall in this paper discharge myself his nose a little flatted. of the promise I have made to the public, Cleora, a widow of Ephesus, being inby obliging them with a translation of the consolable for the death of her husband, little Greek manuscript, which is said to was resolved to take this leap in order to have been a piece of those records that get rid of her passion for his memory; but were preserved in the temple of Apollo, being arrived at the promontory, she there upon the promontory of Leucate. It is a met with Dimachus the Milesian, and after short history of the Lover's Leap, and is a short conversation with him, laid aside inscribed, "An account of persons, male the thoughts of her leap, and married him and female, who offered up their vows in in the temple of Apollo. the temple of the Pythian Apollo in the N. B. Her widow's weeds are still seen forty-sixth Olympiad, and leaped from the hanging up in the western corner of the promontory of Leucate into the Ionian Sea, temple. in order to cure themselves of the passion Olphis, the fisherman, having received a of love.'

box on the ear from Thestylis the day be

Aut deus ille malis hominum mitescere discat.

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fore, and being determined to have no more | Sappho, arrived at the promontory of Leuto do with her, leaped, and escaped with cate that very evening, in order to take the life.

leap upon her account: but hearing that Atalanta, an old maid, whose cruelty had Sappho had been there before him, and several years before driven two or three that her body could be no where found, he despairing lovers to this leap; being now in very generously lamented her fall, and is the fifty-fifth year of her age, and in love said to have written his hundred and twenwith an officer of Sparta, broke her neck in ty-fifth ode upon that occasion. the fall.

Leaped in this Olympiad. Hipparchus, being passionately fond of his own wife, who was enamoured of Ba

Males

124 thyllus, leaped, and died of his fall; upon

Females

126 which his wife married her gallant.

250 Tettyx, the dancing-master, in love with Olympia, an Athenian matron, threw him

Cured, self from the rock with great agility, but Males

51 was crippled in the fall.

Females

69 Diagoras, the usurer, in love with his cook-maid; he peeped several times over C.

120 the precipice: but his heart misgiving him, he went back and married her that evening.

Cinædus, after having entered his own No. 234.] Wednesday, November 28, 1711, name in the Pythian records, being asked Vellem in amicitia sic erraremus. the name of the person whom he leaped

Hor. Lib. 1. Sat. iii. 41. for, and being ashamed to discover it, he was I wish this error in your friendship reign d. set aside, and not suffered to leap.

Eunicia, a maid of Paphos, aged nine- You very often hear people, after a story teen, in love with Eurybates. Hurt in the has been told with some entertaining cirfall but recovered.

cumstances, tell it over again with parN. B. This was the second time of her ticulars that destroy the jest, but give light leaping:

into the truth of the narration. This sort Hesperus, a young man of Tarentum, in of veracity, though it is impertinent, has love with his master's daughter. Drowned, something amiable in it, because it prothe boats not coming in soon enough to his ceeds from the love of truth even in frivorelief.

lous occasions. If such honest amendments Sappho the Lesbian, in love with Phaon, do not promise an agreeable companion, arrived at the temple of Apollo habited like they do a sincere friend; for which reason a bride in garments as white as snow. She one should allow them so much of our time, wore a garland of myrtle on her head, and if we fall into their company, as to set us carried in her hand the little musical in- right in matters that can do us no manner strument of her own invention. After hav- of harm, whether the facts be one way or ing sung an hymn to Apollo, she hung up the other. Lies which are told out of arroher garland on one side of his altar, and her gance and ostentation, a man should deharp on the other. She then tucked up her tect in his own defence, because he should vestments like a Spartan virgin, and amidst not be triumphed over. Lies which are thousands of spectators, who were anxious told out of malice he should expose, both for her safety, and offered up vows for her for his own sake and that of the rest of deliverance, marched directly forwards to mankind, because every man should rise the utmost summit of the promontory, against a common enemy: but the officious where after having repeated a stanza of liar, many have argued, is to be excused, her own verses, which we could not hear, because it does some man good, and no man she threw herself off the rock with such an hurt. The man who made more than orintrepidity as was never before observed in dinary speed from a fight in which the any who had attempted that dangerous Athenians were beaten, and told them they leap. Many who were present related, that had obtained a complete victory, and put they saw her fall into the sea, from whence the whole city into the utmost joy and exshe never rose again; though there were ultation, was checked by the magistrates others who affirmed that she never came to for this falsehood; but excused himself by the bottom of her leap, but that she was saying, 'O Athenians! am I your enemy changed into a swan as she fell, and that because I gave you two happy days?' This they saw her hovering in the air under that fellow did to a whole people what an acshape. But whether or no the whiteness quaintance of mine does every day he lives, and fluttering of her garments might not in some eminent degree, to particular perdeceive those who looked upon her, or sons. He is ever lying people into good whether she might not really be metamor- humour, and as Plato said it was allowable phosed into that musical and melancholy in physicians to lie to their patients to keep bird, is still a doubt among the Lesbians. up their spirits, I am half doubtful whether

Alcæus, the famous lyric poet, who had my friend's behaviour is not as excusable. for some time been passionately in love with | His manner is to express himself surprised No. 234. ]

THE SPECTATOR. at the cheerful countenance of a man whom hood two days ago one of your gay gentlemen he observes diffident of himself; and gene- of the town, who being attended at his entry rally by that means make his lie a truth. with a servant of his own, besides a counHe will, as if he did not know any thing of tryman he had taken up for a guide, exthe circumstance, ask one whom he knows cited the curiosity of the village to learn at variance with another, what is the mean- whence and what he might be. The couning that Mr. Such-a-one, naming his ad- tryman (to whom they applied as most versary, does not applaud him with that easy of access) knew little more than that heartiness which formerly he has heard the gentleman came from London to travel him? 'He said, indeed,' continues he, 'I and see fashions, and was, as he heard say, would rather have that man for my friend a free-thinker. What religion that might than any man in England; but for an ene- be, he could not tell: and for his own part, my! This melts the person he talks if they had not told him the man was a to, who expected nothing but downwright free-thinker, he should have guessed, by raillery from that side. According as he his way of talking, he was little better sees his practice succeed, he goes to the than a heathen; excepting only that he had opposite party, and tells him, he cannot been a good gentleman to him, and made imagine how it happens that some people him drunk twice in one day, over and above know one another so little; “You spoke what they had bargained for. with so much coldness of a gentleman who I do not look upon the simplicity of this, said more good of you, than, let me tell and several odd inquiries with which I shali you, any man living deserves.' The suc- not trouble you, to be wondered at, much cess of one of these incidents was, that the less can I think that our youths of fine next time one of the adversaries spied the wit, and enlarged understandings, have any other, he hems after him in the public reason to laugh. There is no necessity street, and they must crack a bottle at the that every 'squire in Great Britain should next tavern, that used to turn out of the know what the word free-thinker stands for; other's way to avoid one another's eye- but it were much to be wished, that they shot. He will tell one beauty she was com- who value themselves upon that conceited mended by another, nay, he will say she title, were a little better instructed in what gave the woman he speaks to, the prefer- it ought to stand for; and that they would rence in a particular for which she herself not persuade themselves a man is really is admired. The pleasantest confusion ima- and truly a free-thinker, in any tolerable ginable is made through the whole town by sense, merely by virtue of his being an my friend's indirect offices. You shall have atheist, or an infidel of any other distinca visit returned after half a year's absence, tion. It may be doubted with good reason, and mutual railing at each other every whether there ever was in nature a more abday of that time. They meet with a thou-ject, slavish, and bigoted generation than sand lamentations for so long a separation, the tribe of beaux-esprits, at present so each party naming herself for the greatest prevailing in this island. Their pretension delinquent, if the other can possibly be so to be free-thinkers, is no other than rakes good as to forgive her, which she has no have to be free-livers, and savages to be reason in the world, but from the know- free-men; that is, they can think whatever ledge of her goodness, to hope for. Very they have a mind to, and give themselves often a whole train of railers of each side up to whatever conceit the extravagancy tire their horses in setting matters right of their inclination, or their fancy, shall which they have said during the war be- suggest; they can think as wildly as they tween the parties; and a whole circle of talk and act, and will not endure that their acquaintances are put into a thousand wit should be controlled by such formal pleasing passions and sentiments, instead of things as decency and common sense. Dethe pangs of anger, envy, detraction, and duction, coherence, consistency, and all the malice,

rules of reason they accordingly disdain, as The worst evil I ever observed this man's too precise and mechanical for men of a falsehood occasion, has been, that he turned liberal education. detraction into flattery. He is well skilled • This as far as I could ever learn from in the manners of the world, and by over-their writings, or my own observation, is a looking what men really are, he grounds true account of the British free-thinker. his artifices upon what they have a mind Our visitant here, who gave occasion to to be. Upon this foundation, if two distant this paper, has brought with him a new friends are brought together and the cement system of common sense, the particulars seems to be weak, he never rests until of which I am not yet acquainted with, but he finds new appearances to take off all will lose no opportunity of informing myremains of ill-will, and that by new mis- self whether it contains any thing worth understandings they are thoroughly recon- Mr. Spectator's notice. In the mean time, ciled.

sir, I cannot but think it would be for the "To the Spectator.

good of mankind, if you would take this

subject into your consideration, and con'Devonshire, Nov, 14, 1711.

vince the hopeful youth of our nation, that “SIR,—There arrived in this neighbour-licentiousness is not freedom; or, if such a

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