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Sect. 1. Confirmation anciently given immediately after Baptism, if the
Bishop were present.-2. And this as well
to Infants as Adult Persons.
Which is evidenced first from some plain Testimonies.-3. And, Second-
ly, from the Custom of giving the Eucharist to Infants for many Ages.
-4. Whence it appears, that Confirmation was not esteemed a proper
Sacrament distinct from Baptism.-5. No, not when it was separate
from Baptism, as in the case of Heretics, who were baptised out of the
Church.-6. No Necessity of giving Confirmation to Infants now, any
more than the Eucharist, from the example of the Primitive Church.
of the Minister of Confirmation.
Sect. l. The Consecration of Chrism reserved only to the Office of
Bishops by the Canons.--2. The Use of the Chrism divided between the
Office of Bishops and Presbyters.-3. The other Ceremony of Imposi-
tion of hands reserved more strictly to the Office of Bishops.-4. Yet
in some special Cases, Presbyters by Commission allowed to minister it
also. As first, when Bishops particularly required their Presbyters
to do it to such as were baptised in the Church.-5. Secondly, Pres-
byters might administer it to the Energumens, who were baptised at
a distance from the Bishop's Church.-6. And, Thirdly, to such as were
baptised in Heresy or Schism, in case they were in danger of Death.
Sect. 1. Persons newly baptised, clothed in White Garments.--2.
These sometimes delivered to them with a solemn Form of Words.
-3.Worn eight Days and then laid up in the Church.-4. The cere-
mony of Lights and Tapers. What intended by it. And at whose
Charge both these were provided.-5. The Kiss of Peace given to
Persons newly baptised.-6. And a Taste of Honey and Milk in token
of their New Birth.-7. Then they were required to repeat the Lord's
Prayer.-8. And received into the Church with Psalmody.-9. And ad-
mitted immediately to the Communion of the Altar.-10. Of the Cere-
mony of Washing the Feet, retained in some Churches.-11. A general
reflection upon the whole preceding Discourse, with Relation to the
Practice of the Present Church.
Of the Laws against Rebaptisation both in Church and State.
Sect. 1. But one Baptism, properly so called, allowed by the Church.
-2. Only the Marcionites allowed Baptism to be thrice repeated.
-3. What the Church did in doubtful Cases, not reckoned a Rebapti-
sation.-4. Nor when she baptised those, who had been unduly baptised
before in Heresy or Schism.--5. Apostates never rebaptised in the
Catholic Church.-6. What Heretics rebaptised the Catholics.--7.
What Punishments were inflicted on Rebaptisers by the Laws of
Church and State.
OF THE INSTITUTION OF THE CATECHUMENS,
AND THE FIRST USE OF THE CREEDS OF THE
Of the several Names of Catechumens, and the Solemnity
that was used in admitting them to that State in the Church. Also of Catechizing, and the Time of their Continuance in that Exercise.
Sect. I.-The Reason of the Names, Karnxéjevo., Novitioli, Tyrones, &c.
HAVING hitherto discoursed of the several orders of men which made up the great body of the Christian Church, and of churches themselves, or places of Worship, and of the several districts into which the body diffusive was divided, I come now to consider the service of the Church, or its public offices and exercises, by which men were disciplined and trained up to the kingdom of Heaven. And to speak of these in their most natural order, it will be necessary to begin with the institution of the catechumens, who were the lowest order of men that had any title to the common name of Christians, and their instruction was the first part of the Church's service. Some things relating to these, have been already touched upon in speaking of the difference between them and the lisoi, or perfect Chris
tians, in the first Book. The office of the catechist has also been considered in speaking of the inferior orders of the clergy: and the places of instruction, or catechetic schools, have been treated of in the account that has been given of the ancient churches. So that, omitting these things, I shall only speak in this place of such rites and customs as were observed in the practice of the Church in training up the catechumens, and preparing them for baptism; premising something concerning the several names that were given them. They were called catechumens from the Greek words, karnyéw and kathxnols, which signify in general the instruction that is given in the first elements or rudiments of any art or science; but in a more restrained ecclesiastical sense, the instruction of men in the first principles of the Christian religion. Hence they had also the names of Novitioli, and Tyrones Dei, new soldiers of God, as we find in Tertulliano and St. Austin, because they were just entering upon that state, which made them soldiers of God and candidates of eternal life. They are sometimes also called Audientes, hearers, from their instruction; though that name more commonly denotes one particular sort of them, such as were allowed to hear sermons only, but not to partake in any of the prayers of the Church: of which more hereafter in the following Chapter.
Secr. 2.-Imposition of Hands used in the first Admission of Catechumens.
I have already observed in another place, that the catechumens, by virtue of their admission into that state, had some title to the common name of Christians also; being a degree higher than either heathens or heretics, though not yet consummated by the waters of baptism. And upon this account, they were admitted to this state not without some ceremony and solemnity of imposition of hands and prayer. Which appears evidently from what
Book i. chap. iv. sect. 5. . Book iii. chap. X.
8 Book viii. chap. vii, sect. 12. 4 Tertul. de Pænitent. c. vi.
6 August. de Fide ad Catechumen. lib. ii. c. i.
6 Book i. chap. iii. sect. 3.
Sulpicius Severus! says of St. Martin,-" that passing through a town where they were all Gentiles, and preaching Christ unto them, and working some miracles, the whole multitude professed to believe in Christ, and desired him to make them Christians : upon which he immediately, as he was in the field, laid his hands upon them, and made them catechumens; saying to those that were about him, that it was not unreasonable to make catechumens in the open field, where martyrs were used to be consecrated unto God." Where we may observe, that to make Christians, and to make catechumens, is the same thing; and that this was done by imposition of hands and prayer. Which observation will help us to the right understanding of some obscure canons and difficult passages in ancient writers, which many learned men have mistaken. In the first council of Arles? there is a canon, which orders imposition of hands to be given to such Gentiles as in time of siekness express an inclination to receive the Christian faith. And in the council of Eliberis 8 there is another canon to the same purpose, which says, “ that if any Gentiles, who have led a tolerable moral life, desire imposition of hands, they should have it allowed them, and be made Christians.” Now the question is, what is here meant by imposition of hands, and being made Christians ?-Mendoza * and Vossius, take it for imposition of hands in baptism ; and Albaspinye for imposition of hands in confirmation. But the true sense is no more than this imposition of hands used in making catechumens, which in some sort gave Gentile converts an immediate title to be called Christians. And so I find
"Sulpic. Vit. Martin. Dialog. ii. c. 3. p. 294. Cuncti catervatim ad genua B. Viri ruere cæperunt, fideliter postulantes, ut eos faceret Christianos. Nec cunctatus, in medio ut erat campo, cunctos, impositâ universis manu, catechumenos fecit; cùm quidem ad nos conversus diceret, non irrationabiliter in campo catechumenos fieri, ubi solerent martyres consecrari.'
% Con. Arelat. i. c.5. De his qui in infirmitate credere volunt, placuit debere eis manum imponi. 8 Corr. Eliber. c. 39. Gentiles si in infirinitate desideraverint sibi manum imponi, si fuerit eorum ex aliquâ parte vita honesta, placụit eis manum imponi et fieri Christianos. * * Mendoza, Not. in Con. Eliber.
5 Voss. de Baptismo, Disp. 12. Thes. v. p. 164. 6 Albaspin. Not, in Con. Eliber. c. 39.