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Kingeslond, for ever.” It appears from the records mother hospital, the house had a communication of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, that soon after the with the chapel, so contrived that the patients establishment of that charity in the reign of Henry might take part in the service without seeing or VIII., certain Lock, or Lazar, Hospitals were being seen by the congregation. It may be menopened in situations remote from the City, for the | tioned here that there was a similar arrangement reception of peculiar patients; and the ancient in the Lock Chapel, Grosvenor Place. In 1761 the house for lepers at Kingsland was converted into patients were removed from Kingsland, and the site one of these receptacles. It was afterwards rebuilt | of the establishment was let out on building leases, on a larger and more commodious plan. A sub- I though the chapel itself was suffered to stand, and

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stantial edifice of brick, formerly appropriated to to be used as a proprietary chapel. It was a small the use of the diseased, having over the door the edifice in the Early English style of Gothic archiarms of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, remained tecture, with pointed windows and a bell turret. standing here down to the commencement of the It was in the patronage of the Governors of St. present century.

Bartholomew's Hospital, and the endowment was This hospital was anciently called the “Loke," very insignificant. The chapel, it should be added, or “Lock.”* The greater part of the building was removed in the reign of William IV., in order was burnt down in the middle of the last century, to make room for building private residences. The but was subsequently rebuilt. The structure joined chapel adjoined the turnpike at the south-eastern a little old chapel, which escaped the fire.

corner of the road leading to Ball's Pond, and was, A writer in Notes and Queries states that “a sun- perhaps, coeval with the first establishment of the dial on the premises formerly bore this inscription, house for lepers on this spot. The lower part of significant of sin and sorrow : 'Post voluptatem the structure, in its latter years, was so much misericordia.'" Prior to its alienation from the hidden by the accumulation of earth on the out

side, that the floor of the area was full three feet • See ante, pp. 34 and 219.

I below the surface of the highway.

Dalston. )

REFUGE FOR DESTITUTE FEMALES.

529

Dalston, or Dorlston, as it was spelt formerly, is families, so that the place is now one of the most usually regarded as a hamlet of Hackney parish ; | populous districts in the suburbs of London. it properly designates the houses on either side of The old manor-house at Dalston is now used as the road leading from Kingsland and Ball's Pond the Refuge for Destitute Females, which was instito Hackney, called Dalston Lane; but has gradually tuted in 1805, with the view of reforming female come to be applied to the whole neighbouring criminals, and training them for domestic service. locality.

The Refuge was founded under the auspices of The district, which is there styled Dorlston, is Zachary Macaulay, William Wilberforce, Stephen curtly described in the “ Ambulator" (1774) as "a Lushington, Samuel Hoare, Thomas Fowell Buxton,

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small but pleasant village near Hackney, to which , and other leading philanthropists of that day. The parish it belongs ;” and it is spoken of by Lambert, sight of a poor destitute boy sitting on a door-step, in his “History and Survey of London and its just discharged from prison homeless and friendEnvirons,” published in 1806, as "a small hamlet less, first kindled the spark of compassion which adjoining Hackney, which has nothing remarkable resulted in the foundation of this time-honoured but its nursery grounds.” Some of these grounds charity, which was first opened in the month of were still cultivated as lately as 1860; but now the June, 1805, at Cupar's Bridge, Lambeth. In 1811 “demon of bricks and mortar” has fairly possessed the establishment was removed to the Hackney the neighbourhood, and a crowded railway junction, Road. The male branch, in 1815, was transferred with constant trains, covers the once rural spot; to Hoxton, although the females continued in the indeed, Dalston has lately become an important former locality. The institution for boys was dissuburb, on account of being the point of conflux continued altogether in 1849, ten years after the of two railways. Of late years, too, large numbers incorporation of the society (1 & 2 Vic., cap. 71), of streets and terraces have sprung up in this neigh on account of Government retrenchments, and bourhood, and the houses are now mainly inhabited about the same time the females were removed to by hundreds of City clerks and other industrious the present commodious and desirable premises at the Manor House, Dalston. Another charitable hamlet to the parish of Hackney lying on the east institution, in Dalston Lane, is the German Hos- side of the Stoke Newington Road, and covering pital, which was erected in 1845. It is a hand- a triangular plot of ground, the north-east side of some building of red brick, capable of affording which is bounded by Amhurst Road and Hackney relief to a considerable number of patients. It was Downs. The old manor-house originally belonged established for the benefit of Germans suffering to the family of Heron, and is worthy of mention, from disease, and also of English in cases of as having been the abode of Cecilia, the daughter accidents. The total number of persons annually of the great Sir Thomas More, who married George relieved is about 12,000. There are in London, Heron, “ of Shacklewell.” Her husband becoming principally at the East-end, about 30,000 Germans, involved in the ruin of his father-in-law, and her chiefly of the working classes, and occupied as only son dying in infancy, the family became exsugar-bakers, skin-dressers, and skin-dyers.

tinct. The estate then passed into other hands, Shacklewell, on the north side of Dalston Lane, and in 1700 was sold to Mr. Francis Tyssen, by its is said to have been named after some springs or then owner, a gentleman named Rowe, who, it is wells which were of high repute in former days, but said, late in life was forced to apply for relief to the the very site of which is now forgotten. It is a parish in which he had once owned a manor.

CHAPTER XLIII.
STOKE NEWINGTON.
"I like the neighbourhood, too, the ancient places

That bring back the past ages to the eye,
Filling the gap of centuries-the traces
Mouldering beneath your head that lie!”

Adam and Eve, a Margate Story.
Stoke Newington in the Last Century-The Old Roman Road, called Ermine Street-Beaumont and Fletcher's Reference to May-day Doings at

Newington In' the Olden Times-Mildmay Park— The Village Green-Mildmay House-Remains of the King's House-King Henry's Walk-St. Jude's Church and the Conference Hall-Bishop's Place--The Residence of Samuel Rogers, the Poet-James Rurgh's Academy -Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin-St. Matthias' Church, The New and Old Parish Churches-Sir John Hartopp and his Family-Queen Elizabeth's Walk-The Old Rectory HouseThe Green Lanes-Church Street--The House of Isaac D'Israeli— The School of Edgar Allan Poe-John Howard, the Prison Reformer-Sandford House-Defoe Street -Defoe's House-The Mansion of the Old Earls of Essex-The Manor House-Fleetwood Road-The Old “Rose and Crown”—The Residence of Dr. John Aikin and Mrs. Barbauld-The “Three Crowns"— The Reservoirs of the New River Company-Remarks on the Gradual Extension of London.

We are now about to traverse another of the whom this part of the northern suburbs of London northern suburbs of London, but one which it will always be a welcome subject; we mean the would not be possible to include among the Nonconformist portion of the religious world, in “northern heights” of the great metropolis. We whose eyes the cemetery of Abney Park is scarcely shall find ourselves in far less romantic scenery | less sacred than that of Bunhill Fields. than that which we have so lately seen at Highgate Stoke Newington is described in the " Ambuand Hampstead, but still the neighbourhood now lator" (1774) as “a pleasant village near Islington, before us is not deficient in interest; at all events, where a great number of the citizens of London to those who in their youth have strolled along the have built houses, and rendered it extremely banks of the Lea, rod in hand, or mused in its | populous, more like a large flourishing town than a meadows over the pleasant pages of Izaak Walton ; village. The church," adds the writer, “is a small or to those who remember the legend of Johnny low Gothic building, belonging to the Dean and Gilpin and his ride to Edmonton, as told by Chapter of St. Paul's. . . . . Behind the church is Cowper; or who rejoice in the “ Essays of Elia" a pleasant grove of tall trees, where the inhabitants and the other desultory writings of Charles Lamb. resort for the benefit of shade and a wholesome To such persons, and doubtless they may be air.” counted by millions, even the full straight level “Our village," writes the Rev. Thomas Jackson, road which leads from Dalston and Kingsland, the rector, “was once called Neweton Canonicorum, through Stoke Newington, and Stamford Hill, and in order to distinguish it from all other Stokes, Tottenham, to Edmonton, can scarcely be wholly Newtowns, and Newingtowns in the world, and devoid of interest, and of pleasant reminiscences. especially from its rival on the south of the There is also another section of the community to Thames, Newington Butts; and it was so called

Stoke Newington.]

MILDMAY PARK.

531

We res, and there pally

doubtless because the manor was given by Athel- the testimony of some historians, to have become stan or by Edward the Confessor to the canons of conspicuous for its Puritanism, through the influence, St. Paul's."

probably, of the Pophams and the Fleetwoods, and The name of the village carries us back to the afterwards through the worthy family of Abney, Saxon times, denoting the new village or town who had purchased the manor. built on the borders of a wood. We may remind | The parish is described in Lewis's “Topothe reader that our land is full of Stokes, and that graphical Dictionary” (1835), as consisting princiwherever there is a Stoke we may be sure that there pally of one long street, extending from Kingsland was once a wood. Newington, indeed, appears Road to Stamford Hill, on the high road from formerly to have been situated in a wood, which was London to Cambridge, and containing at that time a part of the great Middlesex forest already men- population of nearly 3,500 souls. The eastern side tioned by us. At the time when King Charles of this street is actually in the parish of Hackney, was beheaded there were still seventy-seven acres and from the western side, near the centre of it, of woodland in the parish. The timber of Stoke branches off a street, called Church Street, leading Newington probably helped to build again that to the parish church and the Green Lanes. London which had perished in the Great Fire of From the western end of Ball's Pond Road, a 1666, and possibly at an earlier date it furnished thoroughfare called Mildmay Park—a good roadfagots for the fires lit at Smithfield alternately by way lined on either side by private residences— the Protestants and the Catholics.

leads direct to Newington Green. This place, The old Roman road, known as the Ermine says the " Ambulator” just a century ago, “consists or Irmin Street, ran northwards through Stoke of a handsome square of considerable extent, Newington to Enfield, though its exact route is a surrounded by houses which are in general well subject of debate. Mr. Jackson, in his “Lecture built; before each side is a row of trees, and an on Stoke Newington," says :-“One boundary of extensive grass plat in the middle.” The green our Saxon manor is the Irmin Street, one of the is still surrounded with lofty elms, has an old central highways which our forefathers dedicated world appearance, and forms really a handsome, to the Hero-god, the illustrious War-man, or Man of though somewhat irregular square. It is situated Hosts, as his name literally means—that Herman partly in the parish of Newington, and partly in or Arminius, the mighty Cheruscan, who fought that of Islington, and is principally inhabited by the fight of Winfield on the Weser, who turned merchants and private families. back the tide of Roman invasion, routing Varus and In the “Beauties of England and Wales ” (1816), his legions, and delivering Germany from Italian we read of an old dwelling situated here, called despotism-a hero truly national, the benefactor Mildmay House, then a boarding-school for young and relative of us all. Coming a little down the ladies. It is said to have been, in the reign of stream of time, I find Newington Manor among the Charles I., the property of Sir Henry Mildmay, first of religious endowments in this country. ... who had acquired the estate by marriage with the I find the rents and profits of our lands, the fruits daughter and heiress of William Halliday, an of the fields that we daily tread, supporting the alderman of London. On one of the chimneymen who chanted at the funeral of Edward the pieces appeared the arms of Halliday; and the Confessor, and assisted at the coronation of William ceilings contained the arms of England, with the the Norman."

| initials of King James, and medallions of Hector, We read of Stoke Newington in the plays of Alexander, &c. Mildmay Park Road, mentioned the seventeenth century as a place of pleasant con- above, was so named from this house. viviality. Thus Beaumont and Fletcher, in the On the southern side of the green is an old Knight of the Burning Pestle, first published in mansion, now divided into two, which is tra1613, introduce Ralph, dressed as a king of the ditionally said to have been at one time a resiMay, who thus speaks :

dence of Henry VIII., when his Majesty wished

to divert himself with the pleasures of the chase, “ London, to thee I do present this merry month of May;

which about three centuries ago extended northerly Let each true subject be content to hear me what I say.

hence to Haringay and Enfield. On the ceiling March out and show your willing minds by twenty and by of the principal room in the house are to be seen twenty,

the armorial bearings and royal monogram of To Hogsdon (Hoxton) or to Newington, where ale and

| James I. This room contains a very fine and cakes are plenty."

lofty carved mantelpiece of the “Jacobean" style, Soon afterwards Stoke Newington appears, by not unlike that in the Governor's Room at the

porasant con- | above, was so named from this harian

Charterhouse. Most of the rooms have also their of the “late Decorated” style of architecture, built walls handsomely panelled in oak. It is probable in 1855 from the designs of Mr. A. D. Gough. It that this residence caused the adjoining fields to the was enlarged, and indeed almost reconstructed, in south to be called the King's Land-now abridged 1871. In connection with this church, but situated into Kingsland.

in Mildmay Park, near Newington Green, is a large At the north-west corner of the green there building known as the Conference Hall. formerly stood a large building, called Bishop's Dr. Robinson, in his “ History of Stoke Newing. Place; it is said to have been the residence of ton,” describes Bishop's Place as having been a Percy, Earl of Northumberland, when he wrote quadrangular building of wood and plaster, and as the memorable letter disclaiming any mátrimonial | having had a square court in the centre, with concontract between himself and Queen Anne Boleyn, munications to the various apartments all round by referred to in our account of Hackney Church, and means of small doors opening from one room into which was dated from Newington Green the 13th another. The house, prior to its demolition, had of May, in the 28th year of Henry VIII. “This been for many years divided into a number of: house," writes the author of the “ Beauties of small tenements, occupied by poor people. When England and Wales," " was popularly reported to the house was taken down, some parts of the old have been occupied by Henry VIII. for the con- wainscot were found to be richly gilt, and ornavenience of his irregular amours. The tradition mented with paintings, but well-nigh obliterated is supported chiefly by the circumstance of a from the effects of time. pleasant winding path, which leads to the turn Newington Green, in its time, seems to have pike road by Ball's Pond, bearing the name of had among its residents many members of the * King Henry's Walk.'” Mr. Jackson, in his nobility and of the world of letters. An old house “Lecture on Stoke Newington," thus muses on on the western side, not far from that above this old mansion in connection with Bluff King described, was for many years the residence of Hal :—“Let us imagine that we see him, blunt, big, Samuel Rogers, the poet. The building, though and sturdy, with his feet wide apart, and his chin substantially the same as when inhabited by himalready doubling, sallying forth with a crowd of self and his family, has been considerably altered obsequious attendants from the house afterwards in appearance by its subsequent owners. The called Mildmay House, or from that just mentioned, hall, mentioned by him in his “Pleasures of to disport himself in the woodlands of Newington. Memory," and the little room on the first floor Is Catharine of Arragon his queen, or the hapless | in which he used to sit and write, still remain, and Anne, of the swan-like neck, or Jane Seymour, the three rooms on the ground floor, facing the who died so young? Is he plotting the death of south and the sunny garden, remain unchanged. a wife, or of his chancellor? Look at him as | But the hall is lined with modern canvas, spread represented in the portraits of Holbein. His eye over the old panelling, and has lost its venerable good-natured ; his mouth indicative of an iron and appearance. The plane-tree, under which the poet unscrupulous will ; his brow strong. in intellectual would sit and entertain his friends in summer vigour; his whole physiognomy sensual and selfish. I evenings, is still there ; but the greater part of the Can you not suppose that you meet him in some of little paddock in the rear is gone, and a new street our by-lanes wondering at the changes which have has been carried across the poet's garden, destroying passed upon the London of the sixteenth century, a part—but a part only of the mushroom-beds or musing on the suspicions which he entertained which he cultivated with such care and pride. respecting a contract of marriage presumed to have Though nearly a quarter of a century has passed been made between the Earl of Northumberland since Samuel Rogers was its master, the house still and Anne Boleyn previous to her marriage with bears tokens of his former presence; and it requires the king. Poor earl ! he writes to Lord Cromwell no great stretch of imagination to picture the from his house on Newington Green a letter of venerable face and figure of the author of “The such abject earnestness, that one would imagine Pleasures of Memory" seated in his arm-chair his neck already felt the halter, or his eye caught here among his books and his friends. the cold gleam of the executioner's axe, while he Although the poem is stated by the author to denies with the greatest solemnity the fact of any refer to “an cbscure village,” there can be little such contract."

doubt in the minds of those who read the “PleaIn King Henry's Walk, at the corner of Queen sures of Memory” with attention, that many of Margaret's Grove, and near the North London the opening lines reflect the old house at Stoke Railway, stands St. Jude's Church, a large edifice Newington :

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