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here in 1704.

He left some daughters, co-heirs, over the peaceful ashes of the forefathers of the one of whom married an ancestor of the Marquis hamlet.' Great taste has been displayed in planting of Downshire, in the possession of whose descen- Hackney churchyard with so many fine trees, but dants the Rowe Chapel has continued. Among the amongst them the yew-tree, with its sombre foliage, freeholders of Hackney, the Marquis of Downshire is nowhere to be found. Every visitor to this burialis mentioned as possessing “a freehold, fifteen feet ground must be struck with the curious and solitary square, in the old church yard;" this refers, of appearance of the old square grey tower, rearing course, to the above-mentioned burial-place of the its lofty walls, a singular relic of the ancient church Rowes, and it is added that it "descended to the of which nothing but this building now remains. marquis as an heir-loom.” A monument against We can only guess at the edifice, which must, in the interior south wall of the mausoleum is in- times long since passed away, have extended its scribed with the following quaint epitaph :- aisles and raised its sacred oriel for the devotions

of our ancestors. The marble tombs which once “Here (under fine of Adam's first defection) Rests in hope of happie resurrection,

must have filled the edifice with “hoar antiquity,' Sir Henry Rowe (sonne of Sir Thomas Rowe,

and the stone urn and animated bust,' which once And of Dame Mary, his deare yoke-fellowe,

told of the honoured dead, seem all swept away Knight and right worthy), as his father late

by the hand of oblivion-obscuring the humble Lord Maior of London, with his vertuous Mate and the great-yet Time, as if willing to spare us Dame Susan (his twice fifteen.yeres and seeven), Their issue five (surviving of eleven),

some resemblance of the older days, left only this Four named here, in these four names forepast,

old grey tower, as a conspicuous monument, which, The fifth is found, if eccho sound the last,

by its lonely desolation, tells so forcibly of the Sad Orphanes all, but most their heir (most debtor) terrible power which, by one fell swoop, has eradiWho built them this, but in his heart a better.

cated all besides. The bells whose music once Quam pie obiit Anno Salutis 1612 die Novembris 12, Ætatis 68.”

cheered or soothed the ears of those who have now

for some centuries slept the sleep of death around It is worthy of mention that John Strype, the its enduring walls, still remain and retain their antiquary, to whom we owe so much of the retro-vigorous tones in the same elevated chamber where spective portions of this work, was lecturer at this they have swung from the time of our Edwards church for thirty-six years, and died in 1737, at the and Henries. This tower must have sent forth great age of ninety-four.

its loud clamorous notes in the passing of many The reason why the tower of the old church was a royal progress, when banners and knights and permitted to remain was that the eight bells were ladies gay, “in purple and pall,' have circled past, believed to be too heavy for the tower of the new or when the proud and mitred abbot, with princely building; and as the parishioners were unwilling to train, passed to and fro from his princely abbey." lose their peal, it was decided that they should The new church of St. John, which stands at a retain their original position, but some years later short distance to the north-east of the old tower, they were moved to the new church, where they was built at the close of the last century, and is still remain. So there stand the weather-beaten constructed chiefly of brick, in the “late classical” old tower and the little Rowe Chapel, a few style of architecture. The plan, though pretending paces further to the east, amidst the graves of to be cruciform, is really an unsightly square; the the ancient inhabitants of Hackney, among which projecting face of the elevation of each front is a winding path leads to the more modern church, finished by a triangular pediment, the cornice of in which are preserved some of the tombs and which receives and terminates the covering of the carved work of the older edifice. It is recorded roof. There are five entrances, each of which that on the 27th of September, 1731, a sailor slid opens to a spacious vestibule, like that of a theatre down on a rope from the top of the church steeple, or a town-hall. The principal entrance is on the with a streamer in each hand.

north, and is protected by a semi-circular Ionic The old burial-ground has many walks through it, portico of Portland stone. The interior of the most of which are public thoroughfares, and occu- church is plain and utterly unecclesiastical, and is pied by the hurrying and thoughtless passengers. surmounted by a vaulted and stuccoed ceiling“Its numerous paths, all concentrating towards the certainly no improvement on the structure which it sacred edifice,” says Dr. Robinson, writing about was built to supersede. Some of the windows are forty years ago, “are lined with lofty trees, and in enriched with coloured glass, and that over the the summer season the vastly peopled city of the communion-table is painted with a design illustrative dead seems one beautiful verdant canopy stretching of the Scriptural verse, “Let there be light," &c.

Hackney:

THE NOTORIOUS JOHN WARD.

519

Near the church, on the west side, formerly At the upper end of Mare Street, close by stood an ancient mansion called the “Black and Dalston Lane, in a large house which remained

It appears to have been built in standing till comparatively recently, and known as the year 1578 by a citizen of London, whose arms, “ Ward's Corner,” lived in the last century a man with those of the Merchant Adventurers and the who was noted for his great wealth and insatiable Russian Company, appeared over the chimney in avarice—the famous and infamous John Ward, one of the principal rooms, and also in the windows member of Parliament, pilloried to all posterity in of the great parlour; other armorial bearings also two stinging lines by Pope, who linked him with occurred in some of the windows. In the seven the infamous Colonel Francis Chartres, and a teenth century the house was the residence of kindred worthy, Waters :the Vyner family, and the building was enlarged “Given to the fool, the mad, the vain, the evil, and considerably repaired in 1662 by Sir Thomas To Ward, to Waters, Chartres, and the devil.” Vyner. At the close of the last century, when it John Ward was prosecuted by the Duchess of was pulled down, it had been for many years used Buckingham for forgery, and being convicted, exas a boarding-school for girls.

pelled the House of Commons, and stood in the Hackney in former times seems to have been pillory in March, 1727. He was suspected of noted for its boarding-schools for young ladies. In joining in a conveyance with Sir John Blunt to the Tatler, No. 83, there is this reference to them :- secrete £50,000 of that director's estate, forfeited “For the publication of this discourse, I wait only to the South Sea Company by Act of Parliament. for subscriptions from the undergraduates of each The company recovered the £50,000 against university, and the young ladies in the boarding- Ward; but he set up prior conveyances of his real schools at Hackney.” Again, “Don Diego," in estate to his brother and son, and concealed all Wycherly's Gentleman's Dancing Master, makes his personal, which was computed to be £150,000. this remark :-“If she be not married to-morrow These conveyances being also set aside by a bill (which I am to consider of), she will dance a corant in Chancery, Ward was imprisoned, and amused in twice or thrice teaching more; will she not? himself in confinement by giving poison to cats for 'tis but a twelvemonth since she came from and dogs, in order that he might watch their dying Hackney School." Shadwell also, in The Hu- agonies. To sum up the worth of this gentleman mourists, makes “Striker” (a haberdasher's wife) at the several eras of his life : at his standing in give vent to the following ejaculation :—“Good, the pillory he was worth above £200,000 ; at his Mistress Gig-em-bob ! your breeding ! ha! I am commitment to prison he was worth £150,000; sure my husband married me from Hackney School, but has been so far diminished in his reputation where there was a number of substantial citizens' as to be thought a worse man by fifty or sixty daughters. Your breeding!” These three quota thousand. After his death, a most characteristic tions we owe to the care and research of the late

prayer was found among his papers. The old Mr. Peter Cunningham.

sinner did not pray for forgiveness of his sins, but But we must not linger here. Sutton Place, on in this fashion :-"O Lord, Thou knowest I have the south-east side of the churchyard, reminds us of nine estates in the City of London, and likewise a great and good man, whose latter days were passed that I have lately purchased an estate in fee-simple at Hackney; for at his house here died, on the 12th in the county of Essex. I beseech Thee to preserve of December, 1611, Thomas Sutton, the worthy and the two counties of Middlesex and Essex from benevolent founder of the hospital and school of fire and earthquake; and as I have a mortgage the Charterhouse, of whom we have already spoken in Hertfordshire, I beg of Thee likewise to have at some length in a previous part of this work,* an eye of compassion on that county; and for the and whom we shall again have occasion to mention rest of the counties Thou mayest deal with them when we come to Stoke Newington.

as Thou art pleased.” He then prays for the bank, Close by the “Three Cranes," in Mare Street, that his debtors may be all good men; and for the stood, till recently, another ancient hostelry, called death of a profligate young man, whose reversion the “Mermaid," which in its time was noted for he had bought—"as Thou hast said the days of its tea-gardens and its assembly-room. Modern the wicked are but short”-against thieves, and shops have now taken the place of the old tavern, for honest servants. and its gardens have been covered with rows of Tradition says that an old building close by the private houses.

spot, nearly opposite Dalston Lane, which was

not completely pulled down till 1825, was the * See Vol. II., p. 383-8.

Templars' House. It may have occupied the site, but could scarcely have been the identical 1583, to Sir Rowland Hayward. It was subedifice; for it was built with projecting bays, in sequently possessed by Fulke Greville (afterwards what is called the Renaissance style. About the Lord Brooke) and by Sir George Vyner. Under middle of the last century it was a public-house, date of May 8, 1654, John Evelyn, in his “Diary," the “Blue Posts ;” afterwards it was known as gives us the following note of a visit he paid to “Bob's Hall,” and the road between the church this place :-"I went to Hackney,” he writes, “to yard and Clapton Square was styled Bob's Hall see my Lady Brooke's garden, which was one of Lane.

the neatest and most celebrated in England; the On the south side of the road to Clapton for- house well furnish'd, but a despicable building." merly stood a mansion called “Brooke House,” At the end of the seventeenth century this and at one time the “ King's House,” the manor- manor became part of the Tyssen property, of house of the manor termed King's Hold. It is which we shall have occasion to speak more fully said to have belonged originally to the Knights hereafter. Templars; and after the dissolution of the order When Lord Brooke sold the manor of King's to have been granted, in common with other Hold, he reserved the mansion, which, it is stated, possessions, to the monastery of St. John of continued vested in his family, and at the comJerusalem. On the dissolution of the latter order mencement of this century was the property of the the estate appears to have been granted to Henry, Earl of Warwick. The author of the “Beauties of Earl of Northumberland, who possibly died here, England and Wales," writing in 1816, says: “ This since he was buried, as we have seen, at Hackney. house has experienced considerable alterations, This earl was the person employed, in conjunction but large portions of the ancient edifice have been with Sir Walter Walsh, to arrest Cardinal Wolsey at preserved. These consist principally of a quadhis house at Cawood. He had, as every reader rangle, with internal galleries, those on the north of English history knows, been, in his youthful and south sides being 174 feet in length. On the days, a lover of Anne Boleyn (then one of the ceiling of the south gallery are the arms of Lord maids of honour to Queen Catherine), but with Hunsdon, with those of his lady, and the crests of drew his suit in consequence of the interference both families frequently repeated. The arms of of his father, who had been purposely made ac- Lord Hunsdon are likewise remaining on the quainted with the king's partiality to that lady. ceiling of a room connected with this gallery. It When the inconstant monarch's affection for Anne is therefore probable that the greater part of the Boleyn (then his queen) began to decline, a sup- house was rebuilt by this nobleman during the posed pre-contract with the Earl of Northumber- short period for which he held the manor, a term land was made the pretence for a divorce, though of no longer duration than from 1578 to 1583. the earl, in a letter to Secretary Cromwell (dated The other divisions of this extensive building are Newington Green, May 13th, 1537), denied the of various but more modern dates.” At the time existence of any such contract in the most solemn when the above description was written, the house

Henry, Earl of Northumberland, died," seems to have been occupied as a private lunatic says the account of his funeral in the Heralds' asylum. College, “at his manor of Hackney, now the King's Several of the nobility and wealthy gentry, inHouse, between two and three in the morning, on deed, appear to have chosen Hackney for a resithe 29th of June, 1537 ; 29 Hen. VIII.” The dence. There is a record of a visit to Hackney by earl, as we have stated above, was buried in the old Queen Elizabeth, but to whom is not certain, in church close by. The estate afterwards reverted 1591. The son and daughter of her dancing chanto the Crown, and was granted by Edward VI., cellor, Sir Christopher Hatton, were both married in 1547, to William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. in Hackney Church, so that he, too, probably lived The house occupied by Lord Pembroke is de here. Vere, Earl of Oxford, the soldier and poet, scribed in the particulars for the grant of the who accompanied Leicester on his expedition to manor, as “a fayre house, all of brick, with a Holland, who supplied ships to oppose the Armada, fayre hall and parlour, a large gallery, a proper and sat on the trials of Mary Queen of Scots and chapel, and a proper gallery to laye books in,” &c. the Earls of Arundel, Essex, and Southampton, It is also stated to be “situated near the London was, in his latter days, a resident of Hackney. It road,” and to be "enclosed on the back side with is also said that Rose Herbert, a lady of noble a great and broad ditch."

family, and one of the nuns who at the ReformaA few years later it was purchased by Sir Henry tion were turned adrift upon the world from the Carey, Lord Hunsdon, who again conveyed it, in Convent of Godstow, near Oxford, died here

manner.

Hackney.)

JOHN HOWARD'S HOUSE.

521

towards the end of Elizabeth's reign, in a state of chapel in the centre, the following inscription :destitution, at the age of ninety-six.

For the Glory of God, and the comfort of twelve Early in the seventeenth century, George Lord widows of Dissenting Ministers, this retreat was Zouch, a noted man in his day, and Lord Warden erected and endowed by Samuel Robinson, A.D. of the Cinque Ports, had a house at Hackney, 1812." where he amused himself with experimental gar- Homerton High Street leads direct to Hackney dening. He died there, and was buried in a small Marsh, where, says the “Ambulator" of 1774, chapel adjoining his house. Ben Jonson, who was “there have been discovered within the last few his intimate friend, discovered that there was a years the remains of a great causeway of stone, hole in the wall affording communication between which, by the Roman coins found there, would the last resting-place of Lord Zouch and the wine appear to have been one of the famous highways cellar, and thereupon vented this impromptu :- made by the Romans." The Marsh Road, too, “ Wherever I die, let this be my fate,

leads straight on to Temple Mills, of which we To lye by my good Lord Zouch,

have already had occasion to make mention: That when I am dry, to the tap I may hye,

The City of London Union covers a large space And so back again to my couch.”

of ground to the north-east of Hackney churchOwen Rowe, one of those who sat as “judges” yard, abutting upon Templar Road. Northward at the trial of King Charles, died and was buried lies the rapidly extending hamlet of Lower Clapton. at Hackney, in 1660, the year in which Monk Here, in a curious old house, which was pulled brought back the second Charles.

down many years ago, was born, in the year 1727, Another memorable inhabitant of Hackney at John Howard, the future prison reformer and this time was Susanna Prewick, or Perwick, a philanthropist. The house had been the country young musical phenomenon, whose death, at the residence" of John Howard's father, who was an age of twenty-five, in 1661, was celebrated in upholsterer in London; and it descended to the some lengthy poems, chiefly commendatory of her son, who sold it in 1785. In an article in the personal graces. We have no means of judging Mirror in 1826, this house, so interesting to of her musical powers, which created an extra- humanity, is said to have been taken down some ordinary sensation at the time; but it is gratifying years ago.” Much of Howard's early life seems to to know that

have been passed here; and his education, which “ All vain, conceited affectation

was rather imperfect, was gained among one of the Was unto her abomination.

Dissenting sects, of which his father was a member. With body she ne'er sat ascue,

On the death of his father he was apprenticed to a Or mouth awry, as others do."

wholesale grocer in the City. On quitting business Defoe, who at one time lived at Stoke Newing. he indulged in a tour through France and Italy. ton, in all probability also was a resident here ; for He subsequently, for the benefit of his health, took in 1701 his daughter Sophia was baptised in lodgings at Stoke Newington. We shall have Hackney Church ; and in 1724, an infant son, more to say about him on reaching that place. named Daniel, after his distinguished father, was The old house at Clapton where Howard was buried in the same church.

born is said to have been built in the early part Eastward of Hackney churchyard, lies Homer- of the last century; it had large bay-windows, a ton, which, together with Lower Clapton, may be pedimented roof, numerous and well-proportioned said to form part of the town of itself. Hackney rooms, and a large garden. The site of the house Union is here situated on the south side of the was afterwards covered by Laura Place, and its High Street.

memory is now kept up by the name of Howard In 1843 a college was founded close by, for Villas, which has been given to some houses the purpose of giving unsectarian religious training lately erected on the opposite side of the road. to young men and women who wish to become view of the house in which Howard was born teachers in Government-aided schools.

will be found in “Smith's Historical and Literary Homerton was noted in the last and early part Curiosities," and also in the seventh volume of the of the present century for its academy for the Mirror. education of young men designed for Dissenting At no great distance from the site of Howard's ministers. The late Dr. John Pye Smith was some old house, but on the west side of the road, time divinity tutor here.

was a school, known by the name of Hackney A row of almshouses in the village, termed the School, which had flourished for upwards of a Widows' Retreat, has upon the front of a small century on the same spot. This academy was long under the direction of the Newcome family. fortune by manufacturing and selling sundry articles “It was celebrated," says Mr. Lysons, "for the of bed-room ware adorned with the head of Dr. excellence of the dramatic performances exhibited Sacheverell. “ The date of its erection is not every third year by the scholars. In these dramas exactly known; but it probably was after the year Dr. Benjamin Hoadly, author of the Suspicious 1710, because the trial of Sacheverell did not take Husband, and his brother, Dr. John Hoadly, a place till the February or March of that year. . . dramatic writer also, who were both educated at There are at the present time (1842),” he adds, this school, formerly distinguished themselves." "two urns with flowers, surmounting the gate-piers

In 1813, the London Orphan Asylum was in at the entrance." The building was subsequently

[graphic][merged small]

stituted at Lower Clapton ; but about the year converted into an Asylum for Deaf and Dumb 1870 its inmates were removed to new buildings Females. erected at Watford, in Hertfordshire

, and the Among the historical characters connected with edifice here became converted into the Metro- this place whom we have not already named, was politan Asylum for Imbeciles. The grounds be- Major André, hanged by Washington as a spy; he longing to the institution are some seven acres was born at Clapton. He was originally intended in extent; and the building, which consists of a for a merchant; but being disappointed in love for centre, with a spacious portico and wings, is Honora Sneyd (the friend of Anna Seward), who separated from the roadway by an extensive lawn became afterwards the mother-in-law of Miss Maria and light iron railing,

Edgeworth, he entered the army, and ultimately Dr. Robinson, in his “History of Hackney,” met with the fate above mentioned. says that on the west side of the road, nearly To go back a little into the reign of antiquity, opposite the Asylum for Imbeciles, stands an old we may remark that, though far removed from the house, which many years ago was known by a crowded city, and generally considered a salubrious very vulgar appellation, from the circumstance of spot, Hackney suffered much from visitations of the the person who built it having made a considerable plague, which in 1593 carried off 42 persons; in

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