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sculptured two winged angels, bearing the arms parish, who died in 1731. This monument was of Savage and Warham, successively Bishops of brought hither on the demolition of the old chapel London, the former of whom came to the see in at Highgate, where, as we have stated in a previous 1497. It is probable that both of these prelates chapter, Dr. Atterbury was for many years preacher. were contributors to the fabric. Some of the win- Samuel Buckley, the editor of Thuanus, who died dows of the present church are filled with stained in 1741, is commemorated by a monument; as

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glass, and among the monuments are a few pre- also is “ Master Richard Candish (Cavendish], of served from the older building. Among these is a Suffolk, Esq." An inscription in verse upon the large mural slab, on which are engraved the kneel latter monument informs us that “this memorial ing figures of a man, two females, and a boy; was promised and made by Margaret, Countess of the dress appears to be of the latter part of the Coberland, 1601." sixteenth century, and the monument was erected The churchyard is sheltered by rows of tall elms, to the memory of George Rey, of Highgate. A which impart to it an air of retirement and secluCorinthian column, surmounted with armorial bear- sion. Here, amongst other tombs, on the northern ings, commemorates Dr. Lewis Atterbury (brother side of the church, is that of the poet Rogers, of of the celebrated bishop), some time rector of the whom we have spoken in our account of St. James's Place.* It is an altar-tomb, resting on a high base, In this house his youngest daughter died, as above and surrounded by an iron railing. The following stated. are the inscriptions on the face of the tomb :-“In A native of Dublin and a son of Roman Catholic this vault lie the remains of Henry Rogers, Esq., parents, Moore came over to England when still of Highbury Terrace; died December 25, 1832, young to push his fortunes in the world of literaaged 58. Also of Sarah Rogers, of the Regent's ture, and became the poet laureate of Holland Park, sister of the above ; died January 29, 1855, House and of the Whig party. During his latter aged 82. Also of Samuel Rogers, author of the years he occupied Sloperton Cottage, a small house * Pleasures of Memory,' brother of the above-named adjoining Lord Lansdowne's park at Bowood, Henry and Sarah Rogers ; born at Newington near Calne, in Wiltshire, where he died in 1852, at Green, July 30, 1763, died at St. James's Place, the age of seventy-three. Lord Russell claims for Westminster, December 18, 1855." Near the Moore the first place among our lyric poets, but south-east corner of the churchyard an upright few will be willing to allow his superiority to Robert stone marks the grave of Anne Jane Barbara, the Burns, though he was certainly the English Beranger. youngest daughter of Thomas Moore, the poet. He was probably the best hand at improvised song

Amongst the rectors of Hornsey there have been writing on the common topics of every-day life, but a few who have become known beyond the circle he had no real depth of feeling. A refined, volupof the parish. Of these we may mention Thomas tuous, and natural character, equally frank and gay, Westfield, who resigned the living in 1637, after he passed, after all, a somewhat butterfly existence, wards Bishop of Bristol, and who is described as and has left behind him but little that will last “the most nervous of men.” His biographer says except his “Irish Melodies.” that "he never, though almost fifty years a preacher, Continuing along the pleasant lane westward went up into the pulpit but he trembled; and never from Lalla Rookh Cottage, we come to Muswell preached before the king but once, and then he Hill, a place which has now become familiar fainted.” “Yet he was held in such esteem by to Londoners-and, probably, to the majority of all parties," writes Mr. Howitt in his “Northern readers—from the fact that its summit and sides Heights of London," " that on May 13, 1643, the are for the most part occupied by the Alexandra committee for sequestrating the estates of delin- Palace and Park, which covers altogether an area quents, being informed that his tenants refused to of about five hundred acres. Before venturing to pay his rents as Bishop of Bristol, speedily com- give a description of this place of amusement, or pelled them, and granted him a safe conduct for a narrative of its unfortunate career, we may be his journey to Bristol with his family, being a man pardoned for saying a few words about the hill of great learning and merit, and advanced in years. whereon it is situated. His successor at Hornsey, Thomas Lant, did not Muswell Hill, then, we may observe, derives its meet with quite such agreeable treatment.

name from a famous well on the top of the hill, turned out of his living and house with great cruelty where formerly the fraternity of St. John of Jeruby the Puritans, who would not allow him even to salem, in Clerkenwell, had their dairy, with a large procure a place of retirement.

Samuel Bendy, farm adjacent. Here they built a chapel for the rector in 1659, petitioned the committee, setting benefit of some nuns, in which they fixed the image forth that his income was only £92, out of which of Our Lady of Muswell. These nuns had the sole he had to pay £16 to the wife and children of the management of the dairy; and it is singular that late incumbent. The committee made him recom- the said well and farm do, at this time, belong to pense.” The Rev. William Cole, the Cambridge the parish of St. James, Clerkenwell. The water antiquary, and the friend and correspondent of of this spring was then deemed a miraculous cure Horace Walpole, held the rectory for about a year for scrofulous and cutaneous disorders; and, as in the middle of the last century.

tradition says, a king of Scotland—whose name, by At the end of the lane running west from the the way, does not transpire-being afflicted with a church, and at the foot of Muswell Hill, is Lalla painful malady, made a pilgrimage hither, and was Rookh Cottage, where Moore was residing in 1817 perfectly cured. At any rate, the spring was much when he wrote, or, at all events, when he published, resorted to, and became an object of pilgrimage in the poem bearing the title of "Lalla Rookh,” for the Middle Ages ; indeed, for some considerable which, as we learn from his “Life," he received time there was a great throng of pilgrims to the £3,000 from Messrs. Longmans, the publishers. shrine of Our Lady, who came laden with their

offerings and buoyed up with their hopes from all • See Vol. IV., pp. 172-175

parts of the country.

He was




Lysons, writing in 1795, remarks that "the well style ; and round the eight columns which supstill remains; but,” he somewhat naïvely adds, "it ported the great central dome were ranged groups is not famed, as I find, for any extraordinary virtues." of statuary surrounded by flowers. Behind this Muswell farmhouse, with the site of the chapel, ornamental walk were placed the cases for the together with the manor of Muswell, was alienated exhibitors, mixed, as in the nave itself, with flowers in 1546 by William Cowper to William Goldynge, and statuary. Then there were a variety of courts and, after a few other changes of ownership, passed -such as the glass court, china court, furniture into the hands of the Rowes, in whose pos- court, courts for French goods, courts for American, session it continued at the end of the seventeenth Indian, Italian-in short, all the courts which we century. It soon afterwards came into the family are accustomed to find in a regular exhibition. At of Pulteney; and, according to Lysons, on the the north end of the centre transept was built a death of Lady Bath, devolved, under Sir William splendid organ by Willis, decorated in a style to Pulteney's will, on the Earl of Darlington. Muswell be in harmony with its surroundings, and in front Hill, it may be added, was in former times called of this was the orchestra. A large concert-room also Pinsenhall Hill.

was in another part of the building. Then there Shortly after the close of the second International was a theatre capable of holding 2,000 spectators, Exhibition (that of 1862) at South Kensington, it and having a stage as large as that of Drury Lane was resolved to erect on this spot a place of popular Theatre. entertainment for the working classes of northern During the progress of the building, sundry London, which should rival the Crystal Palace at stoppages and hindrances arose from various Sydenham. To the great mass of people in the causes; and in the grounds great difficulty was north of London the Crystal Palace, except on great at times experienced through the subsidence of occasions and great attractions, is so distant as to the soil ; indeed, to use the words of one of the be almost inaccessible; and it is reported, as was contractor's foremen, the hills round Muswell had proved by railway returns, it is mainly the south during one winter "been slipping about like anyLondon population which keeps up the great build- thing." Strange as such a statement may seem, it ing over the water." There seemed no valid is literally true. The hills, it is asserted, had been reason, therefore, why the north of London, with moving in all sorts of directions. They are mostly at least three times the number of inhabitants, of gravel, but resting, at about twenty feet deep, should not be able to support a Crystal Palace of on a two-feet seam of soapy clay, which, when the its own. It was considered, moreover, that the superincumbent mass was thoroughly penetrated by Alexandra Palace—for such the building was to be the constant rain, allowed it to slip. Fortunately, named, in honour of the Princess Alexandra-would the Alexandra Palace was so deeply moored in its not be dependent on support from local influences. foundations that it never shifted or showed the The rare beauty of its site, which probably has not slightest signs of any subsidence or yielding in any its equal anywhere round London, together with direction; yet a very formidable landslip took the special attractions in the building, would be place close by it, and in one night between three sure to make it a universal favourite with both the and four acres slipped quietly down a few feet. north and south of the metropolis.

Another hill came forward as much as three inches With regard to the palace itself, it was decided in a single night, but beyond this landslip none of to purchase some portion of the materials of the the hills round the palace have moved to any International Exhibition, and with them to erect material extent, except where the viaduct for the the building on the summit of Muswell Hill, in railway crosses over a small valley just before the same manner as the originators of its prototype arriving at the palace. at Sydenham had purchased for that purpose the After a delay of some six or seven years beyond materials of the Great Exhibition of 1851. The the first appointed time, the palace and grounds new palace, therefore, was almost entirely built out being all but completed, the place was opened to the of the materials of the Great Exhibition of 1862, public on the 24th of May, 1873. The proceedbut totally altered and improved in their re-con- ings, though not graced by the presence of royalty, struction. It had only one of the noble domes in were as successful an inauguration of a national the centre transept, with two less lofty octagon institution as could possibly have been expected. towers at either end. It had one main nave, exclu- The opening was inaugurated by a grand concert, sive of the entrances, about 900 feet long, and presided over by Sir Michael Costa, in which some three cross transepts of about 400 feet each. The of the leading singers of the day took part. But, building was beautifully decorated in the Renaissance alas ! about mid-day on the 9th of June the whole


building fell a prey to the flames, and all that was great beauty in connection with the surrounding left was a melancholy and gutted ruin. The fire scenery; a number of Swiss chalets and other originated at the base of the great dome, where rustic buildings, also horticultural gardens, with some workmen had been employed in “ repairing extensive ranges of glass houses. At the foot of the roof," and had, possibly, let some lighted the hill on which the palace stands there is a racetobacco fall into a crevice. During the brief period course upwards of a mile in length, and the grand the palace was open (fourteen days only) it was stand is one of the handsomest and most subvisited by as many as 124,124 persons, and its stantial buildings of its kind in this country. success was no longer doubtful. Thus encouraged, There is also a trotting ring on the American the directors resolved at once to rebuild the palace, principle, and, in connection therewith, an extenand in its re-construction they availed themselves sive range of stabling for several hundred horses, of the experience so dearly purchased, particularly thus rendering the property well adapted for horse with reference to arrangements for protection from and agricultural shows; and a grand stand and fire.

paddock. The cricket-ground is ten acres in The new building, which was opened on the ist extent, with two pavilions, and every convenience of May, 1875, occupies an area of about seven for cricketers. There is also a Japanese village, acres, and is constructed in the most substantial comprising a temple, a residence, and a bazaar. In

It contains the grand hall, capable of the bazaar articles of Japanese work were offered seating 12,000 visitors and an orchestra of 2,000; for sale. A circus for equestrian performances was the Italian garden, a spacious court in which are likewise erected in the grounds, together with a asphalte paths, flower-beds, and a fine fountain ; spacious banqueting hall, an open-air swimmingalso the concert-room, which has been erected on bath, and other novel features. Besides all these the best known acoustic principles, and will seat attractions, there is a charming and secluded nook 3,500 visitors. The conservatory is surmounted by in the grounds, called the Grove, bordering on the a glass dome, and in close proximity are two spa- Highgate Road. In a house here, Thrale, the cious halls for the exhibition of works of art; also brewer, is reported to have lived, and to have had the corridor for displaying ornamental works. The among his guests the great lexicographer of the reading-room is a very comfortable apartment, and Georgian era, as is testified to this day by a pathnear thereto are the modern Moorish house and way shaded by trees, called Dr. Johnson's Walk. an Egyptian villa. The theatre is of the most The Grove has been described by an able writer perfect kind, and will seat more than 3,000 persons. as “a wild natural garden, clothed with the The exhibition department is divided into two i utmost beauty to which the luxuriance of our parts, the space occupied being 204 feet by 106 northern vegetation can attain. On one side a feet. The bazaar department is 213 feet by 140 low, thick hedge of holly, pillared by noble oaks, feet. The frontage of the stalls is upwards of flanks a great terrace-walk, commanding a noble 3,000 feet, and they are so arranged as to give view over a slope which descends rapidly from the the greatest facility of access to visitors and pur- prickly barrier. Very few such oaks are to be chasers. The picture-galleries are on the northern found within this island : lofty, sturdy, and wellside of the building, and comprise six fine, large, grown trees, not marked by the hollow boles and well-lighted rooms. The refreshment department distorted limbs of extreme old age, but in the very is of the most complete and extensive character, prime of vegetable manhood. Turning at right including spacious grill and coffee rooms, two angles, at the end of this semi-avenue, the walk banqueting rooms, drawing, billiard, and smoke skirts a rapid descent, clothed with turf of that rooms, and private rooms for large or small silky fineness which denotes long and careful parties, and the grand dining saloon, which will garden culture, and set with a labyrinth of trees, accommodate as many as 1,000 persons at table. each one of which is a study in itself. A noble For the efficient supply of this vast establishment, cedar of Lebanon rises in a group of spires like a the plan of the basement is considered to be the foreshortened Gothic cathedral. A holly, which, most perfect as well as the most extensive of its from its perfect and unusual symmetry, deceives kind ever yet seen. Also, within the building, are the eye as to size, and looks like a sapling close at numerous private offices for manager and clerks, hand, has a bole of some fifteen feet girth, rising and a spacious board-room.

for twenty-four feet before it breaks into branches. The park is richly timbered, and of a pleasingly Farther on, the walk is bordered by laurel hedges, undulated surface, intersected by broad carriage and overlooks a wide sweep of country, undulated, drives, and there are several ornamental lakes of wooded, and studded by many a spiry steeple




to the north; and here we meet with an elm, murder of his steward, for which he was executed at standing alone on the turf, as perfect in its giant Tyburn.* His conduct even whilst here was most symmetry as the holly we have just admired. eccentric, and such as might fairly have consigned Then, perhaps, the monarch of all, we come upon him to a lunatic asylum. He mixed with the lowest a gigantic chestnut, which seems as if, like the company, would drink coffee out of the spout of trees once in the Garden of Eden, no touch of a kettle, mix his porter with mud, and shave one iron had ever fallen upon its limbs.” Notwith- side of his face. He threatened more than once standing all these varied attractions, the Alexandra to “do for” his landlady, and on another occaPalace has never yet answered the expectations of sion he violently broke open on a Sunday the its promoters, and has more than once been stable where his horse was locked up, knocking offered for sale by auction and withdrawn, the down with his fist the ostler's wife when she asked offers falling far short of the value put upon the him to wait a few minutes while her husband property by its owners.

brought the key. The view from the top of the hill on which the Another resident at Hornsey in former times palace stands is, perhaps, unrivalled for beauty was the learned John Lightfoot, the commentator, within many miles of London. At our feet, look- who selected this spot in order that he might have ing northwards, is Southgate, of which Leigh Hunt access to the library at Sion College. Lightfoot,' wrote that it was a pleasure to be born in so sweet who was born at the beginning of the seventeenth a village, cradled, not only in the lap of Nature, century, is stated to have published his first work, which he loved, but in the midst of the truly entitled “Erubhim; or, Miscellanies Christian and English scenery which he loved beyond all other. Judaical,” in 1629, the next year after settling at “Middlesex is,” he adds, “a scene of greenery and Hornsey. He was a strong promoter of the Polynestling villages, and Southgate is a prime specimen glott Bible, and at the Restoration was appointed of Middlesex. It is a place lying out of the way of one of the assistants at the Savoy Conference. In innovation, and therefore it has the pure sweet air 1675 he became Vice-Chancellor of the University of antiquity about it.” And the remark is true, of Cambridge. with a few exceptions, of all the towns and villages Crouch End, which lies to the south-west of the of this district. Look along the line of railway village, is connected with the Highgate Archway that branches off at Wood Green, and you will see Road by the sloping lands of Hornsey Rise. the Enfield where Keats grew to be a poet, and Stroud Green, of which we have spoken in our where Charles Lamb died. Look a little to the account of the manor of Highbury, f is in this left, and there is Colney Hatch Asylum, with its district ; and although it is fast being encroached two thousand inmates. A little farther on lies upon by the demon of bricks and mortar, it has Hadley Wood, a lovely spot for a picnic; and still some few shady lanes and “bits” of rural there rises the grey tower of Barnet Church, re- scenery left. On rising ground on the south side minding you of the battle of Barnet, fought but a of Crouch End stands Christ Church, one of the little farther on. A little on our left is Finchley district churches of Hornsey. It was built in 1863, Common, where they still show us Grimaldi's from the designs of Mr. A. W. Blomfield, and is a Cottage and Dick Turpin's Oak. If we look over neat edifice, in the Gothic style of architecture. Wood Green, now a town, but a short time back The church was enlarged about ten years later, a wild common, we see in the far distance Totten- when a tower and spire were added. St. Luke's ham and Edmonton, and what remains of Epping Church, Hornsey Rise, built in 1861, from the Forest. Hornsey, with its ivy tower, is just be designs of Mr. A. D. Gough, is a respectable neath; to our right is Highgate ; and a little farther common-place modern Gothic building; and conon is Hampstead Heath.

sists of a nave with side aisles, transepts, and Johnson's friend, Topham Beauclerc, it may be chancel with side chapels. added, lived for some time on Muswell Hill; and

At the beginning of 1877 a handsome Gothic Sir Robert Walpole, it is asserted, also resided at church was consecrated here; it is dedicated to one time in this locality. Boswell is silent as to the Holy Innocents, and stands near the railway the connection of the former with this place, and station. This church was the third which had been for the residence of Sir Robert Walpole here we built during the incumbency of Canon Harvey, in have only a local tradition.

which period Hornsey has grown from a mere Among its inhabitants during the last century village into a town of some 10,000 inhabitants. was Lawrence, the “mad" Earl Ferrers, who lodged here for some months previous to committing the • See ante, p. 192.

| Sec Vol. II., p. 275.

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