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ade themymour's was as royalselt fate, could she ing

on his side, was descended from Henry VII., Downs. The latter intercepted the boat carrying and there were people who thought his claim Lady Arabella in the Calais roads, and after a better than James's, for Henry VIII. had settled sharp struggle the Frenchman struck, and gave up the descent, in case of failure of his own issue, the fugitive. The poor distracted Arabella was on his youngest sister, Mary, and her line, which carried back to London and committed to the was that of the Seymours. James fiercely repri- Tower, exclaiming that she could bear her own manded Seymour for presuming to ally himself fate, could she but be sure of the safety of her with royal blood, though Seymour's was as royal as husband. Her grief and despair soon deprived his own, and forbade them, on their allegiance, to her of her senses, and after a captivity of four years contract a marriage without his permission. But she died in the Tower, on September 27, 1615. Love laughed at James, as it is said to do at lock- Seymour, who was permitted to return to England smiths, and in 1610 it was discovered that they after his wife's death, did not die till 1660, nearly were really married. James committed Seymour half a century after the above romantic adventure. to the Tower, and Arabella to the custody of Sir Mr. Thorne, in his “Environs of London,” states Thomas Parry, in Lambeth ; but not thinking her that it was from the house of Mr. Thomas Conyers, safe there, he determined to send her to Durham, at East Barnet, that the Lady Arabella made her in charge of the bishop of that see. Refusing to escape, and not from Arundel House, as generally comply with this arbitrary and unjustifiable order, stated by biographers and topographers; but the she was suddenly seized by officers in her bed, latter tradition is too firmly grounded at Highgate and was carried thus, shrieking and resisting, to the to be lost sight of here. Thames, and rowed some distance up the river. Of the death of Lord Bacon, which occurred at She was then put into a carriage, and conveyed Arundel House in April, 1626, the following parforcibly as far as Barnet. But by this time her ticulars are given by John Aubrey :-“The cause agitation of mind had brought on a fever, and a of his lordship's death," he writes, “ was trying an physician called in declared that her life must be experiment, as he was takeing the aire in the coach sacrificed by any attempt to carry her farther. with Dr. Witherborne, a Scotch man, physitian to After some demur, James consented to her being the king. Towards Highgate snow lay on the brought back as far as Highgate. The account ground, and it came into my lord's thoughts why says that she was conveyed to the house of a Mr. flesh might not be preserved in snow as in salt. Conyers ; tradition asserts this house to be that They were resolved they would try the experiment. now called Arundel House. Probably it belonged Presently they alighted out of the coach, and went to a Mr. Conyers before it became the property of into a poore woman's house at the bottome of the Earl of Arundel, whose it was when Lord Highgate Hill, and bought a hen, and made the Bacon was its guest, fifteen years afterwards. Lady woman exenterate it (take out the entrails), and Arabella had leave to stay here a month, and this then stuffed the bodie with snow, and my lord did term was extended to two months, which she made help to doe it himself. The snow so chilled him use of to establish a correspondence with her that he immediately fell so ill, that he could not husband in the Tower, and to plan a scheme for return to his lodgings (I suppose then at Gray's their mutual escape. This plan was put into effect Inn), but went to the Earl of Arundel's house, at on June 3, 1611, the very day that the Bishop of Highgate, where they put him into a good bed, Durham had set out northward to prepare for her warmed with a panne, but it was a dampe bed, that reception."

had not been layn in for about a yeare before, How the Lady Arabella made her way, dis- which gave him such a colde, that in two or three guised as a man, down to Gravesend, where she dayes, as I remeinber, he (Hobbes) told me he expected to find her husband on board a French died of suffocation.” vessel, which was in waiting to receive them—how Bacon was attended in his last illness by his the captain, growing impatient, put to sea before ' near relative, Sir Julius Cæsar, the Master of the Seymour's arrival ; and how the latter engaged a Rolls, who was then grown so old that he was collier, and was conveyed safe to Flanders--are all said to be “kept alive beyond Nature's course by matters of history. Poor Arabella, as we read, was the prayers of the many poor whom he daily renot so fortunate as her husband; for no sooner had lieved.” At the dictation of the great ex-chancellor the escape of the two prisoners become known Sir Julius Cæsar wrote the following letter to Lord than there was a fearful bustle and alarm at Court. Arundel :A number of vessels of war dropped hastily down! “MY VERY GOOD LORD,—I was likely to have the Thames in pursuit, and another put out of the I had the fortune of Caius Plinius the elder, who




lost his life by trying an experiment about the have mentioned above. Sir Sydney Waterlow was burning of the mountain Vesuvius. For I also was Lord Mayor of London in 1872–3; he was repredesirous to try an experiment or two touching the sentative of the county of Dumfries in the House conservation and induration of bodies. For the of Commons, in 1868-9; and in 1874 he was experiment itself, it succeeded remarkably well; returned as one of the members for the borough but in the journey between Highgate and London of Maidstone. His mansion here was named after I was taken with a fit of casting, as I know not that of his late father-in-law, Mr. William Hickson, whether it was the stone, or some surfeit, or cold, of Fairseat, Wrotham, Kent. or, indeed, a touch of them all three. But when At the back of Sir Sydney Waterlow's house, and I came to your lordship’s house, I was not able covering a greater part of the slope of the hill lookto go back, and therefore was forced to take up ing towards Kentish Town, is Highgate Cemetery, my lodging here, where your housekeeper is very of which we shall give a description in the following careful and diligent about me, which I assure my chapter. self your lordship will not only pardon towards We find but very scanty mention of this neighhim, but think the better of him for it. For, indeed, bourhood (and, indeed, of all the northern suburbs) your lordship's house was happy to me; and I kiss in the Diaries of Pepys and Evelyn. The former, your noble hands for the welcome which I am sure however, incidentally states, under date January, you give me to it.”

1660-1, that Highgate was for two or three days the This letter shows that at the moment when he head-quarters of sundry “fanatiques at least 500 dictated it Bacon did not suppose himself to be on strong," who raised the standard of rebellion, avowhis death-bed; but he must have died in the arms ing a belief that “the Lord Jesus would come here of his friend, Sir Julius Cæsar, very shortly after and reign presently.” They appear to have routed the epistle was penned.

the king's life-guards and train-bands, and to have Arundel House was originally a mansion in the killed twenty persons, before they were captured Elizabethan style, with spacious windows com and their outbreak suppressed. Again, Pepys menmanding a magnificent view of the surrounding tions the fact that on the 4th of August, 1664, he country. It was partially pulled down in the year and a friend went to see a play at “the King's 1825, but the present building still bears the name, House,” one of the best actors of which, named and the walls which are left standing of the old Clun, had been waylaid, and killed in a ditch by house bear evidences of great antiquity.

| the roadside between Kentish Town and Highgate. On the opposite side of the roadway, and ad- 1 The following day the little secretary and his cousin joining the remains of Andrew Marvell's cottage, is Joyce, mounted upon two horses which had been Fairseat, the residence of Sir Sydney Waterlow, lent them for this purpose by Sir W. Warren, rode Treasurer of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, whose out of town towards Highgate, to inspect the scene gift of Lauderdale House to that institution we of the murder.


HIGH GATE (continued).

“They bury their dead in the fairest suburb of the city.” Swaine's Lane-Traitors' Hill, or Parliament Hill - St. Anne's Church, Brookfield - Dr. Coysh-Highgate Cemetery-Arrangement of the Grounds

- The Catacombs-A Stroll among the Tombs-Eminent Persons buried here-Stray Notes on Cemeteries-Sir William Ashurst's MansionCharles Mathews, the Actor-Anecdotes of Mathews-Ivy Cottage-Holly Lodge, the Residence of Lady Burdett-Coutts-Holly Village

Highgate Ponds—The “ Fox and Crown" Public house-West Hill Lodge—The Hermitage. LEAVING the main street of Highgate by Dart- | name of Traitors' Hill, from being the rendezvous, mouth Park Road, of which we have made mention real or reputed, of the associates of Guy Fawkes. in the preceding chapter, and passing in a south- It is traditionally stated that it was upon this spot west direction, we find ourselves at the entrance of that the conspirators anxiously awaited the exa narrow thoroughfare called Swaine's Lane (for- pected explosion on the 5th of November, 1605. merly Swine's Lane), which branches off from the It was called also Parliament Hill. “The more Highgate Road just on the outskirts of Kentish common tradition,” says Mr. Thorne, “is that it was Town. This lane runs along the base of that part called Parliament Hill, from the Parliamentary of Highgate which was formerly known by the generals having planted cannon on it for the defence of London.” To the left of Swaine's Parliament in 1839; and the cemetery itself was Lane stands St. Anne's Church, Brookfield, a large one of the first which was actually established by and handsome edifice erected by a Miss Barnett to the Burial Act of 1835, which “ rung the death-knell the memory of her brother. The fine peal of bells of intramural interments.” The London Cemetery in the tower was the gift of Miss (since Lady) Bur- Company were among the early promoters of that dett-Coutts. In Swaine's Lane lived the celebrated reform which, as we have stated in our account of medical practitioner, Dr. Coysh, as is certified by Kensal Green Cemetery,* was so long needed. It the following memorandum from the Court Rolls of was founded by Mr. Stephen Geary, who also acted the Manor of Cantelowes :-“These very ancient as architect to the Company, and who was buried copyhold premises were formerly in the possession here in 1854. and occupation of Dr. Elisha Coysh, who, at the By the artist-like arrangement of the landscape time that the plague of London prevailed, in the gardener, Mr. Ramsey, the grounds are so disposed year 1665–6, was very famed in his medical practice that they have the appearance of being twice their and advice in cases of that dreadful malady, and actual size ; this effect is produced by circuitous was much resorted to at this his copyhold residence roads, winding about the acclivity, and making the (modernly called Swaine's Lane) formerly called ascent more gradual. Besides the carriage road, Swine's Lane, Highgate." The house in which he the footpaths in all directions encircle the numerous resided has long since been pulled down, but a plantations and power-beds. On the left of the portion of the ancient garden wall is standing. entrance is the chapel, a spacious and lofty build

Passing up Swaine's Lane, we soon arrive at ing, well adapted and fitted up for its solemn purthe entrance to Highgate Cemetery. This is a pose. The absence of all unnecessary ornament showy composition, in the pointed or Old English produces an effect of appropriate simplicity. A bier style ; for the most part machicolated, and flanked stands at the western end, which can be lowered with turrets and octagonal buttresses, pierced with through an aperture in the floor by hydraulic preswindows or panelled, the former capped with sure. The object of this bier is to convey the coftin cupolas and finials, and the latter surmounted with to a subterranean passage below, at the termination pinnacles and finials. In the centre is a Tudor- of the service in the chapel, so as to facilitate its arched gateway, above which is an apartment, conveyance to the new ground on the opposite side lighted at each end by a bay window; the roof of the lane; for it may be here stated that the terminating with two bold pointed gables, bearing original ground being now fully occupied, an addiin its centre an octangular bell-tower of two storeys, tion to the cemetery has been made, and this too enriched with pinnacles, and surmounted with a is now being rapidly filled up. On leaving the cupola and finial. The right wing contains the lodge chapel we pass by the lodge of the superintendent, and clerk's office; and the left wing is appropriated and ascend a flight of broad stone steps which as a chapel, the windows being filled with stained lead up towards the higher and more distant parts glass. The cemetery covered originally about of the grounds. About half way up the hill, the twenty acres of ground on the southern slope of the roads gradually descend again to the entrance of hill, between the east and west bays; but a further a tunnel or passage, called the Egyptian Avenue. extension has since been made, as we shall presently The angular aperture at the entrance of this avenue, show. This cemetery possesses many natural with its heavy cornice, is embellished with the beauties which are not enjoyed by any other rival winged serpent and other Oriental ornaments; the of Père la Chaise in or out of London. The beauty Egyptian pillars and the well-proportioned obelisks of the situation would naturally lead to the supposi- that rise gracefully on each side of the entrance tion that it had been previously a park or garden of recall to the imagination the sepulchral temples some nobleman ; and such, indeed, we find to be at Thebes described by Belzoni. The group the case, for in Mr. Prickett's “History of Highgate” around this entrance is one of the most artistic it is stated that it comprises part of the grounds' points in the cemetery. The solemn grandeur of belonging to the mansion of Sir William Ashurst. this portion of the cemetery is much heightened by The irregularity of the ground, here rising into a the gloomy appearance of the avenue, which is one terrace, and there sinking into a valley, together hundred feet long ; but, as the road leading through with its many winding paths and its avenues of dark it is a gentle ascent, the perspective effect makes it shrubs and evergreen trees, combine to impart to appear a much greater length. There are numerous this hallowed spot a particularly charming effect. square apartments, lined with stone, on each side

· The ground is the property of the London Cemetery Company, which was incorporated by Act of

* See ante, p. 220.

Highgate. )



of the avenue; these sepulchres are furnished with Palermo and at Syracuse there are similar recesses. stone shelves, rising one above the other on three In the island of Malta catacombs are found at Città sides of the sepulchre, capable of containing twelve Vecchia cut into the rock in which that old town coffins, in addition to those which could be placed stands. They occur again in the Greek islands of upon the floor. The doors of the sepulchres are of the Archipelago. At Milo there is a mountain cast iron; they are ornamented with a funeral device completely honeycombed with them. In Egypt of an inverted torch. At the termination of the they occur in all parts of the country where there avenue is a circular road five hundred feet in circum- is rock; and in Peru, and in some other parts of ference; on each side of the road are sepulchres South America, catacombs have been discovered. similar to those already described ; the inner circle “Many names familiar to London ears," writes forms a large building, flat at the top, which is the author of " Northern Heights," " present themplanted with flowers and shrubs ; from the midst selves on the tombs as you wander through this rises the magnificent cedar of Lebanon. The city of decomposition ; and some of considerable avenue, the sepulchres in the circles, with the distinction. The French have found their Montelegant flights of steps leading to the upper ground martre or Père la Chaise ; Germans, their Friedhof; of the cemetery, form a mass of building in the and natives of countries still more distant lie Egyptian style of architecture that, for extent and scattered here and there. Perhaps no tomb has grandeur, is perhaps unequalled.

ever, as already stated, attracted so many thousand The lower parts of the grounds are striking, from visitors as that of Tom Sayers, bearing on it his own their beauty of situation and tasteful arrangement; portrait and that of his dog.* Wombwell, with his but the view of the upper plantations, on ascending lion standing over him, as if to say, “Well, he kept from the sepulchre, is still more so. Here we have me cramped up for many years in his vans, but I an architectural display of another character: a long have got him safe under my paw at last,' was, in its range of catacombs, entered by Gothic doorways, newness, a thing of much note; but it never had and ornamented with buttresses, the whole sur- a charm for the pugnacious populace of London mounted with an elegant pierced parapet. Above like the tomb of the great boxer.” the catacombs is a noble terrace, which communi. It would be impossible, and indeed superfluous, cates with the centre ground by an inclined plane to give here anything like a complete list of the and a flight of steps. The view from this terrace various personages who have been buried in this on a clear day is extensive and beautiful : the fore- cemetery ; but a few of the inost important may be ground is formed by the cemetery gardens, and the mentioned. pleasure grounds of the suburban villas, beyond Here reposes Michael Faraday, the celebrated which are seen the spires, domes, and towers of chemist and philosopher,t already mentioned by the great metropolis, backed by the graceful sweep us in our account of the Royal Institution, and of of the Surrey hills.

North Marylebone. He died in August, 1857, and, The Gothic Church of St. Michael at the summit being a Sandemanian of the mystic school, he was of the hill, with its lofty spire rising from amid the laid in his grave without any service, not even a surrounding trees, forms a prominent and interesting prayer or a hymn. H. Crabb Robinson, the friend feature in the background as the cemetery is viewed of Coleridge, Goethe, Wordsworth, Lamb, Flaxman, from Swaine's Lane. On the upper terrace above- and Clarkson, and the author of a most interesting mentioned is the long range of Gothic catacombs, Diary, who died in February, 1867, aged ninetyimmediately beneath this church, presenting one of one, was here interred. Here, too, lie Mr. and the most ingenious points of design in the architec- Mrs. John Dickens, the father and mother of Charles tural arrangement of the cemetery, of which the Dickens, together with the latter's little daughter church appears to be an integral part, though such Dora. Sir John Gurney, a Baron of the Court of is not the case. We may here remark, en passant, Exchequer, was buried here in 1845. Sir Thomas that catacombs are found in most parts of the world. Joshua Platt, also a Baron of the same Court, who The catacombs of Rome, at a short distance from ' died in 1862, lies here ; here too repose the remains the city, are very extensive, and have evidently been of Judge Payne, and those of John Singleton Copley, used as burying places and as places of worship. Lord Lyndhurst, thrice Lord Chancellor of Great The catacombs of Naples are cut under the hill Britain, who was buried here in 1863. Admiral called Corpo di Monte ; the entrance into them is Lord Radstock was interred here in 1857. rendered horrible by a vast heap of skulls and Of the artists buried in Highgate Cemetery, we bones, the remains of the victims of a plague which

* See ante, p. 370.

See Vol. IV, p. 297, and ante, p. 260, desolated Naples in the sixteenth century. At

See Vol. IV., p. 322.

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