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foreign division of the nave, where the French were defrayed, a balance of £213,300 was left organ took up the strain, and the delicate lady, over, to be applied to the promotion of industrial whose tempered sway is owned by a hundred millions of men, pursued her course amongst the | At the time when the Exhibition was over, so contributions of all the civilised world. As she firm a hold had the fairy-like palace obtained upon passed the gigantic equestrian figure of Godfrey de the good opinion of the public, that a general desire Bouillon, by the Belgian sculptor, Simonis, which for its preservation sprung up. Application was seems the very impersonation of physical strength, made to Government that it should be purchased we could not but be struck by the contrast, and by and become the property of the nation ; but it was the reflection how far the prowess of the crusader ruled otherwise. The building was, however, not is transcended by the power of well-defined liberty doomed to disappear altogether, for a few enterand constitutional law. The brilliant train having prising gentlemen having stepped forward, it was at length made the complete circuit of the building, rescued from destruction. It was decided that the Her Majesty again ascended the throne, and pro- building should be removed to some convenient nounced the Exhibition opened. The announce place within an easy distance of London, and acment was repeated by the Marquis of Breadalbane cordingly it was transferred to Sydenham, where a as Lord Steward, followed immediately by a burst fine estate of three hundred acres had been purof acclamations, the bray of trumpets, and a royal chased, on which the edifice was raised again in salute across the Serpentine. The royal party increased grandeur and beauty, and where, under then withdrew; the National Anthem was again the name of the Crystal Palace, it soon became repeated ; and the visitors dispersed themselves one of the most popular places of recreation in or through the building, to gratify their curiosity near the metropolis. without restraint."

The whole building was removed from Hyde It would be impossible, and indeed superfluous, Park before the close of 1852; and in the followwithin the space at our command, to attempt to ing year it was proposed to place upon the site give anything even like a résumé of the multifarious a memorial of the Exhibition, to include a statue articles here brought together; suffice it to say, of Prince Albert—the originator of this display of that the Exhibition comprised most of the best the industry of all nations. The spot ultimately productions in the different branches of art, manu- chosen for the memorial, however, is somewhat to factures, &c., from all parts of the civilised globe, the west of the ground covered by the Exhibition and that it became properly enough called the building ; in fact, it is just within the south“World's Fair,” for it attracted visitors from all eastern enclosure of Kensington Gardens, directly parts of the world. We have already mentioned opposite the centre of the Horticultural Gardens, the glass fountain in the transept; that object, from and looking upon the South Kensington establishits central position, was invariably fixed upon as ments, in the promotion of which the Prince the rendezvous, or meeting-place, by family groups Consort always took so deep an interest. The or parties of visitors, in case of their losing sight of memorial, which took upwards of twenty years one another in the labyrinth of tables and articles before it was completed, and cost upwards of which thronged the building. Another object, £130,000, was erected from the designs of Sir which we cannot well pass over, was the famous Gilbert Scott. It consists of a lofty and wideKoh-i-noor, or “Mountain of Light," which had spreading pyramid of three quadrangular ranges been specially lent by Her Majesty. This royal of steps, forming, as it were, the base of the gem-the value of which has been variously stated monument, which may be described as a colossal at from £1,500,000 to £3,000,000—appeared to statue of the Prince, placed beneath a vast and be one of the greatest curiosities of the Exhibition, gorgeous Gothic canopy, about thirty feet square, judging from the numbers congregated around it supported at the angles by groups of columns of during the day. The Exhibition was open for 144 polished granite, and “surrounded by works of days, being closed on the 11th of October. The sculpture, illustrating those arts and sciences which entire number of visitors was above 6,170,000, he fostered, and the great undertakings which he averaging 43,536 per day. The largest number originated.” The memorial partakes somewhat, of visitors in one day was 109,760, on the 8th in the richness of its colours, decorations, and of October; and at two o'clock on the previous mosaics, of the Renaissance Gothic style ; and its day 93,000 persons were present at one time. whole height from the roadway is 176 feet. The The entire money drawn for tickets of admission first flight of granite steps, forming the basement, amounted to £506,100; and after all expenses is 212 feet wide, with massive abutments of solid

Pimlico.]

DERIVATION OF “PIMLICO.”

39

granite. At the four corners of the second flight of state, and attired in his regal-looking robes of steps are gigantic square masses of carved as a Knight of the Garter. This great work was granite, occupied with colossal groups of marble | entrusted to Mr. Foley. The roof of the canopy statuary, emblematical of Europe, Asia, Africa, and is decorated with mosaics, representing the royal America, and executed respectively by Messrs. arms and those of the Prince on a ground of blue Macdowell, Foley, Theed, and Bell. Above the and gold. At the angles of the four arches above topmost flight of steps rises the memorial itself, the canopy are marble figures, life-size. The the podium or pedestal of which is carved with spandrils of the arches above the trefoil are filled nearly 200 figures, life-size, and all more or less in with rich and elaborate glass mosaics on a gilt in high relief. They are all portrait-statues of ground, portraying Poetry, Painting, Sculpture, celebrities in the different walks of art, literature, and Architecture. One of the main features of science, &c. At the four corners of this, again, the whole design is the beautiful spire, in which as on the base below, are allegorical groups of every portion of the metal surface is covered with statuary-one of Commerce, by Thornycroft; one ornament; the surface in many parts is coated of Manufactures, by Weekes; one of Agricul- with colours in enamel, with coloured marbles and ture, by Marshall; and one of Engineering, by imitation gem-work; and up to the very cross itself, Lawlor. The statue of the Prince—which was which surmounts the whole, there is the same not completed till early in the year 1876—is amount of extraordinary detail and finish, as if richly gilt, and rests upon a pedestal fifteen feet each part were meant for the most minute and bigh; it represents the Prince sitting on a chair' close inspection.

of Manufactures. Commerce, by Thorny groups of every

CHAPTER IV.

PIMLICO.
“I'll have thee, Captain Gilthead, and march up

And take in Pimlico."-Old Play.
Etymology of Pimlico-The Locality Half a Century Ago-Warwick Square-Vauxhall Bridge Road-The Army Clothing Depot-St. George's

Square-The Church of St. James the Less - Victoria Railway Station-New Chelsea Bridge--The Western Pumping Station, and Metro. politan Main-Drainage Works-St. Barnabas Church-St. Barnabas Mission House and Orphanage-Bramah, the Engineer and Locksmith - Thomas Cubitt, the Builder-The “Monster" Tavern--The “Gun," the “Star and Garter," and the “Orange" Tea-Gardens

“Jenny's Whim"-Tart Hall - Stafford Row-St. Peter's Chapel and Dr. Dodd-Richard Heber and his famous Library. The name Pimlico is clearly of foreign deriva- i knight is represented as sending his daughter to tion, and it has not a little puzzled topographers. Pimlico “to fetch a draught of Derby ale.” It is Gifford, in a note in his edition of Ben Jonson. antecedently probable, therefore, that the district tells us that “Pimlico is sometimes spoken of as a lying between Chelsea and St. James's Park should person, and may not improbably have been the have got the name from an accidental resemblance master of a house once famous for ale of a par- to its antipodes at Hoxton. And this supposition is ticular description;" and we know, from Dodsley's confirmed by Isaac Reed, who tells us, in Dodsley's “Old Plays," and from Ben Jonson's writings, that “Old Plays," how that “a place near Chelsey is still there was another Pimlico at Hoxton, or (as the called Pimlico, and was resorted to within these place was then termed) Hogsdon, where, indeed, few years on the same account as the former at to the present day there is a “Pimlico Walk.” It Hogsdon.” It may be added that Pimlico is still is evident, from a reference to The Alchemist of celebrated for its ales, and also that the district is Ben Jonson, that the place so named at “Hogsdon” not mentioned by the name of Pimlico in any was a place of resort of no very good repute, and constantly frequented by all sorts of people, | “At this time”-i.e. the reign of Charles I., from knights, ladies, and gentlewomen, down to writes Mr. Peter Cunningham—“Pimlico was quite oyster-wenches :

uninhabited, nor is it introduced into the rate“Gallants, men, and women,

books of St. Martin's (to which it belonged) until And of all sorts, tag-rag, been seen to Nock here, the year 1680, when the Earl of Arlington — In these ten weeks, as to a second Hogsdon,

previously rated as residing in the Mulberry In days of Pimlico.”

Gardens—is rated, though still living in the same In another play of about the same period a worthy house, under the head of Pimlico. In 1687,

- .. and long before known as Tart Hall." | Clothina

seven years later, four people are described as Vauxhall Bridge, and so on to Kennington and living in what was then called Pimlico—the Duke the southern suburbs of London. Of Vauxhall of Grafton, Lady Stafford, Thomas Wilkins, and Dr. Bridge, and of Trinity Church, in Bessborough Crispin. The Duke of Grafton, having married the Gardens, close by, we have already spoken. I only child of the Earl of Arlington, was residing Not far from St. George's Square stands an in Arlington House ; and Lady Stafford in what extensive range of buildings, known as the Army was then and long before known as Tart Hall." | Clothing Depôt—one of the largest institutions Arlington House, as we have seen,* was ultimately that has ever been established for the organisation developed into Buckingham Palace.

and utilisation of women's work. “Previous to The district of Pimlico may be regarded as the year 1857," observes a writer in the Queen embracing the whole of Belgravia, which we have newspaper, "all the clothes for the British army already dealt with in a previous chapter, as well were made by contractors, whose first thought as the locality extending from Buckingham Palace seemed to be how to amass a fortune at the Road to the Thames, and stretching away west expense of the makers and the wearers of the ward to Chelsea. This latter portion includes the clothes primarily, and of the British public inGrosvenor Road and the Eccleston sub-district directly. But in that year the Army Clothing of squares, terraces, and streets, nearly all of which Depôt was established, somewhat experimentally, have sprung up within the last half-century. in Blomberg Terrace, Vauxhall Road; the experi

In the map appended to Coghlan's “Picture of ment answering so well, that an extension of the London,” published in the year 1834, the whole of premises became imperative. In 1859 the present this division of Pimlico, between Vauxhall Bridge depôt was opened, although since then it has Road and Chelsea (now Buckingham Palace) largely increased, and has not yet, apparently, come Road, appears unbuilt upon, with the exception to the full stage of its development. The whole of of a few stray cottages here and there, and a few the premises occupy about seven acres, the long blocks of houses near the river ; the rest of the block of buildings on the one side being used as space is marked out as gardens and waste land, the Government stores, while the corresponding intersected by the Grosvenor Canal, the head of block consists of the factory. The main feature which, forming an immense basin, is now entirely of the latter is a large glass-roofed central hall of covered by the Victoria Railway Station. Its three storeys, with spacious galleries all round on rustic character at the above date may be inferred each storey. The ventilation is ensured by louvres, from the fact, that a considerable portion of the so that the whole atmosphere can be renewed in space between the two roads above mentioned the space of five minutes or so; the temperature is is described as “osier beds," whilst a straight kept at an average of 60° to 63°, and each operative thoroughfare connecting the two roads is called enjoys 1,200 cubic feet of air, so that we have at Willow Walk. These osier beds are now covered the outset the three requirements of light, air, and by Eccleston Square and a number of small streets warmth, in strongly-marked contrast to the crowded adjacent to it; whilst “Willow Walk” has been rooms of the contractor, or the more wretched transformed into shops and places of business, and chamber of the home-worker. Five hundred and is now known as Warwick Street. On the north twenty-seven women are at present working in the side of Warwick Street, covering part of the “old central hall, and five hundred in the side rooms, Neat House " Gardens, to which we have already which also accommodate about two hundred men. referred, t is Warwick Square, which is bounded on This forms the working staff of the factory, which the north-east by Belgrave Road, and on the comprises, therefore, what may be called the pick south-west by St. George's Road. In Warwick of the sewing-machine population in London. It Square stands St. Gabriel's Church, a large build- may well be imagined that the prospect of so ing of Early English architecture, erected from the comfortable an abiding place would attract great designs of Mr. Thomas Cundy, who was also the numbers of workpeople; and, indeed, this has architect of St. Saviour's Church, in St. George's been so much the case that very rigorous rules Square, close by. Vauxhall Bridge Road, which have been obliged to be made to guard against dates from the erection of the bridge, about the unworthy admissions. “The good of the public year 1816, is a broad and well-built thoroughfare, service' is the motto of the factory, and everything opening up a direct communication, by way of else must yield to that; so that, both for in-door Grosvenor Place, between Hyde Park Corner and and out-door hands, all candidates must first of

• See Vol. IV., p. 62.

See Vol. IV., p. 3.

See Vol. IV., p. 9.

Pimlico.)

THE MAIN-DRAINAGE WORKS.

41

all appear before a committee, consisting of the London Bridge and Holborn Viaduct, and also matron, the foreman cutter, the foreman viewer, serves as the joint terminus of the Brighton Railand the instructor, who are held responsible for way, and of the London, Chatham, and Dover the selection of proper persons. In-door candidates Railway. Like the stations at Charing Cross and as needlewomen must be healthy and strong, and, Cannon Street, which we have already described, if single, between the ages of seventeen and thirty; the Victoria Railway Station has a “monster” if married or widows, they must have no children hotel—“The Grosvenor"_built in connection with at home young enough to demand their care. it. The lines of railway, soon after leaving the These points being settled, the candidates are station, are carried across the Thames by an iron examined as to any previous training or fitness for bridge of four arches, called the Victoria Bridge, . army work, and are required to show what they and then diverge. can do. If all these requirements are satisfactory, On the western side of the railway bridge is the matron inquires into their character, and finally a handsome new bridge, which now connects they are examined by the doctor, who certifies to this populous and increasing neighbourhood with their fitness, after which they are placed in a trial Battersea and Vauxhall. The railway bridge somedivision in the factory for further report and pro- what mars the structural beauty of the one under motion."

notice; but when looked at from the embankSt. George's Square, with its trees and shrubs, ment on either side, “above bridge,” or, better presents a hсalthful and cheering aspect, almost still, from a boat in the middle of the river, the bordering on the Thames, just above Vauxhall bridge appears like a fairy structure, with its towers Bridge. It covers a considerable space of ground, gilded and painted to resemble light-coloured and is bounded on the north side by Lupus bronze, and crowned with large globular lamps. Street- a thoroughfare so called after a favourite The bridge, which is constructed on the suspension Christian name in the Grosvenor family, per- principle, is built of iron, and rests upon piers of petuating the memory of Hugh Lupus, Earl of English elm and concrete enclosed within iron Chester after the Norman Conquest. St. Saviour's casings. The two piers are each nearly ninety Church, which was built in 1865, is in the Deco- feet in length by twenty in width, with curved cutrated style of Gothic architecture, and with its waters. The roadway on the bridge is formed by elegant tower and spire forms a striking object, as two wrought-iron longitudinal girders, upwards of seen from the river..

1,400 feet, which extend the whole length of the In Upper Garden Street, which runs parallel bridge, and are suspended by rods from the chains. with Vauxhall Bridge Road, is the Church of St. At either end of the bridge are picturesque lodgeJames the Less, built in 1861, from the designs of houses, for the use of the toll-collectors. The Mr. G. E. Street, R.A. The edifice was founded by bridge was built from the designs of Mr. Page, the daughters of the late Bishop of Gloucester and and finished in 1857, at a cost of £88,000. Bristol (Dr. Monk) as a memorial to their father, Nearly the whole of the river-side between who was also a Canon of Westminster. It is con- Vauxhall Bridge and Chelsea Bridge forms a broad structed of brick, with dressings of stone, marble, promenade and thoroughfare, very similar in its and alabaster; and it consists of a nave, side aisles, construction to the Victoria Embankment, which a semi-circular apse, and a lofty tower and spire. we have already described, and of which it is, so The roof of the chancel is groined, and is a to speak, a continuation—the only break in the combination of brick and stone. A very consider- line of roadway being about a quarter of a mile able amount of elaborate detail pervades the between Millbank and the Houses of Parliament, interior. The chancel is surrounded by screens where the river is not embanked on the north side. of brass and iron, and over the chancel-arch is a This roadway is known partly as Thames Bank, or well-executed fresco painting, by Mr. G. F. Watts, Thames Parade, and partly as the Grosvenor R.A., of “Our Saviour attended by Angels.” Some Road. One of the principal buildings erected of the windows are filled with stained glass. The upon it is the Western Pumping Station, which building, including the decorations, cost upwards was finished in 1874-5, completing the mainof £9,000.

drainage system of the metropolis. The foundaThe Victoria Railway Station, situated at the tion-stone of the structure was laid in 1873, and northern end of Vauxhall Bridge Road, covers, as the works cost about £183,000. This station we have stated above, a considerable portion of the provides pumping power to lift the sewage and a basin of the old Grosvenor Canal ; it unites the part of the rainfall contributed by the district, West-end of London with the lines terminating at together estimated at 38,000 gallons per minute, a

eA veryades the betwere the river

height of eighteen feet in the Low Level Sewer, below the entablature which surmounts the shaft. which extends from Pimlico to the Abbey Mills Altogether, this chimney really makes a most conPumping Station, near Barking, in Essex. The spicuous and beautiful object as one comes down requisite power is obtained from four high-pressure the river. The foundations of this great pile of condensing beam-engines of an aggregate of 360- brickwork are carried down into the London clay, horse power. Supplementary power, to be used in and even then bedded in a mass of concrete case of accident to the principal engines, or on cement 35 feet square. any similar emergency, is provided by an additional The system of the main-drainage of London, high-pressure, non-condensing engine of 120-horse which has been carried out by the Metropolitan

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power, supplied from two boilers similar to those | Board of Works, comprises 117 square miles of for the principal engines. This engine and its sewers, and, as each was concluded, it added to boilers are erected in a separate building to the the health and comfort of the inhabitants of the rear of the main buildings, near the canal. The metropolis. The main sewers are eighty-two miles works further comprise coal vaults, settling pond, long, and cost about £4,607,000 ; and the local and reservoirs for condensing water, repairing-shops, boards and vestries assisted in completing the stores, and dwelling-houses for the workmen and work, which comprised 635 miles of sewers. superintendent in charge of the works. In all they At the western extremity of Buckingham Palace cover nearly four acres. The principal engine- Road, near Ebury Square, stands a handsome house is situate facing the main road and river, Gothic church, built in the severest Early English and the height of this building rises to upwards of style, which has acquired some celebrity as “St. seventy-one feet. But all this is dwarfed by the Barnabas, Pimlico.” It was built in 1848-50, as a chimney-shaft, which is very nearly the height of chapel of ease to St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, under the Monument, being only ten feet short of it. the auspices of its then incumbent, the Rev. W. The shaft is square, and the sides are relieved by J. E. Bennett. Attached to it are large schools, three recessed panels, arched over a short distance a presbytery or college for the officiating clergy,

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