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Camden Town.]

SIR HENRY BISHOP.

323

various subjects connected with the veterinary art. acres, is a large and commodious structure, in the The buildings are of plain brick, and have an ex- Grecian style. It was built about the year 1836. tensive frontage to the street, within which they Among the residents in Camden Town in former stretch back to the distance of more than 200 times, besides those we have named, was the yards. The theatre for dissections and lectures is veteran composer, Sir Henry Rowley Bishop-the judiciously planned ; and in a large contiguous | last who wrote English music in a distinctive apartment are numerous anatomical illustrations. national style, carrying the traditions of Purcell, The infirmary will hold about sixty horses. There Arne, Boyce, &c., far on into the present century. is likewise a forge, for the shoeing of horses on Born towards the close of the last century, he had the most approved principles, and several paddocks as his early instructor Signor Bianchi. In 1806 are attached to the institution.

he composed the music for a ballet performed at Not far from the Veterinary College lived, in Covent Garden Theatre, and shortly afterwards 1802, Mr. Andrew Wilson, a gentleman who is commenced to write regularly for the stage. From described as “ of the Stereotype Office," and who 1810 to 1824 he held the post of musical director took out a patent for the process of stereotyping. at Covent Garden, and subsequently became a He was not, however, the original inventor of director of the Concerts of Ancient Music. He the stereotypic art, nor was he destined to be the received the honour of knighthood in 1842, but it man who should revive it practicaily or perfect it. was a barren honour ; and in spite of a knighthood As early as the year 1711, a Dutchman, Van der and the Professorship of Music at Oxford, added to Mey, introduced a process for consolidating types the more solid rewards of successful authorship, after they had been set up, by soldering them his last days were spent in comparative poverty. together at the back; and it is asserted that the Such are the rewards held out in this country to process, as we now understand it, was practised in professional eminence! In every house where 1725 by William Gedd, or Gedde, of Edinburgh, music, and more especially vocal music, is welcome, who endeavoured to apply it to the printing of the name of Sir Henry Bishop has long been, and Bibles for the University of Cambridge. It is must long remain, a household word. Who has well known that the process was, half a century not been soothed by the melody of “Blow, gentle later or more, carried out into common use by the gales," charmed by the measures of “Lo! here the then Lord Stanhope, at his private printing-press gentle lark,” enlivened by the animated strains of at Chevening, in Kent.

“ Foresters, sound the cheerful horn,” or touched Pratt Street, as we have already stated, is so by the sadder music of “The winds whistle cold ? ” called after the family name of Lord Camden. Who has not been haunted by the insinuating This is one of the principal streets in Camden tones of "Tell me, my heart,” “Bid me discourse," Town, and connects Great College Street with the or “Where the wind blows," which Rossini, the High Street. In it is the burial-ground for the minstrel of the South, loved so well? Who has parish of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, together with a not felt sympathy with “As it fell upon a day, in chapel and residence for the officiating clergyman. the merry month of May," or admired that masterThe site formed originally two fields, called Upper piece of glee and chorus, “The chough and the Meadow and Upper Brook Meadow, and was crow," or been moved to jollity at some convivial purchased from the Earl of Camden and Dr. feast by “Mynheer von Dunck,” the most original Hamilton, Prebendary of Canteloes, in accordance and genial of comic glees? Sir Henry Bishop with the provisions of an Act of Parliament passed died in 1855, at his residence in Cambridge Street, for that purpose, and the cemetery was laid out Edgware Road. and consecrated by the Bishop of London in 1805. As we pass down Great College Street, we have Here lies buried Charles Dibdin, the author of on our left, stretching away towards Islington, a most of the best of our naval songs. Charles sort of “No man's land,” formerly known as Agar Knight speaks of him, somewhat sarcastically, it Town, and filling up a part of the interval between must be owned, as a man who,“ had he rendered the Midland and the Great Northern Railway, of a tithe of the services actually performed by him to which we shall have more to say in a future the naval strength of his country under the name chapter. On our right, too, down to a comparaof a ' Captain R.N.' instead of as a writer, he tively recent date, the character of the locality was would have died a wealthy peer instead of drawing not much better ; indeed, the whole of the neighhis last breath in poverty.”

bourhood which lay-and part of which still liesSt. Stephen's Church, in this street, with its between Clarendon Square and the Brill and St. adjoining parsonage and schools, covering several ' Pancras Road, would answer to the description of

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what Charles Dickens, in his “Uncommercial being in poor circumstances,” is one of the approTraveller,” calls a “shy neighbourhood,” abounding priate remarks of “Boz;" and another is to the in bird and birdcage shops, costermongers' shops, same effect—“Nothing in shy neighbourhoods perold rag and bottle shops, donkeys, barrows, dirty plexes me more than the bad company which birds fowls, &c., and with the inevitable gin-shop at keep. Foreign birds often get into good society, every corner. “The very dogs of shy neighbour- but British birds are inseparable from low assohoods usually betray a slinking consciousness of ciates."

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“The rev'rend spire of ancient Pancras view,

To ancient Pancras pay the rev'rence due ;
Christ's sacred altar there first Britain saw,
And gazed, and worshipp'd with an holy awe,
Whilst pitying Heaven diffused a saving ray,

And heathen darkness changed to Christian day."-Anon.
Biographical Sketch of St. Pancras-Churches bearing his Name-Corruption of the Name - The Neighbourhood of St. Pancras in Former

Times - Population of the Parish-Ancient Manors-Desolate Condition of the Locality in the Sixteenth Century-Notices of the Manors in Domesday Book and Early Surveys-The Fleet River and its Occasional Floods—The “Elephant and Castle" Tavern-The Workhouse - The Vestry--Old St. Pancras Church and its Antiquarian Associations-Celebrated Persons interred in the Churchyard-Ned Ward's Will-Father O'Leary-Chatterton's Visit to the Churchyard-Mary Wollstoncraft Godwin-Roman Catholic Burials-St. Giles's Burial. ground and the Midland Railway-Wholesale Desecration of the Graveyards—The “Adam and Eve" Tavern and Tea-gardens-St.

Pancras Wells--Antiquities of the Parish - Extensive Demolition of Houses for the Midland Railway. BEFORE venturing to set foot in either of the be as well to say something about the parish of “shy” localities to which we have referred at St. Pancras generally—the mother parish, of which the close of the previous chapter, it would, perhaps, Camden, Kentish, Agar, and Somers Towns may

St. Pancras.)

THE PATRON SAINT OF CHILDREN.

325

be said to be, in a certain sense, the offspring, or, Lewes, in Sussex, was dedicated to his honour; at all events, members. It is pleasant, at length, and besides the church around which this particular after so many chapters descriptive of a district district grew up, there are at least eight other which is thoroughly modern, to find ourselves churches in England dedicated to this saint, and at a spot which actually has its annals, and in several in Italy-one in Rome, of which we which the biographical element blends itself with read that mass is said in it constantly for the the topographical. One can scarcely help feeling repose of the souls of the bodies buried here. weary after reading accounts of parishes and The parish of St. Pancras contains two churches vicinities which have about them nothing of past dedicated to the saint—the new parish church, of

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interest beyond tea-gardens and road-side inns; which we shall speak when we come to Euston and therefore we welcome our return at St. Pancras Square ; and the ancient or Old St. Pancras, in into a region of history, where the memorials of St. Pancras Road. Of the other churches in past celebrities abound. In fact, it must be owned England dedicated to this saint, we may mention that the whole of the district through which we one in the City-St. Pancras, Soper Lane, now have travelled since we quitted Kensington, and incorporated with St. Mary-le-Bow ; Pancransweek, crossed the Uxbridge Road, is extremely void of Devon; Widdecome-in-the-Moor, Devon ; Exeter; interest, as, indeed, is nearly the whole of the Chichester ; Coldred, in Kent ; Alton Pancras, north-western district of London, a geographical Dorset ; Arlington, Sussex ; and Wroot, in Linentity which we owe to Sir Rowland Hill and the colnshire. authorities of the General Post-Office.

In consequence of the early age at which he St. Pancras, after whom this district is named, suffered for the faith, St. Pancras was subsequently was a young Phrygian nobleman who suffered regarded as the patron saint of children. “There martyrdom at Rome under the Emperor Diocletian was then," as Chambers remarks in his “Book of for his adherence to the Christian faith; he became Days," "a certain fitness in dedicating to him the a favourite saint in England. The Priory of first church in a country which owed its conversion

of which Moune mucha!

ected

was 2.4.. After age of r that he bells,

to three children”-alluding, of course, to the fair humorous description of a journey hither, by way children whom Gregory saw in the streets of of Islington, in which the author thus speaks of Rome, the sight of whom had moved the Pope to the name of the place :-“From hence (i.e., from send St. Augustine hither. “But there was also Islington] I parted with reluctance to Pancras, as · another and closer link which connected the first it is written, or Pancridge, as it is pronounced; but church built in England by St. Augustine with which should be both pronounced and written PanSt. Pancras, for,” adds Mr. Chambers, “the much- grace. This emendation I will venture meo arbitrio : loved monastery on the Colian Mount, which Tây, in the Greek language, signifies all; which, Gregory had founded, and of which Augustine was added to the English word grace, maketh all grace, prior, had been erected on the very estate which or Pangrace: and, indeed, this is a very proper had belonged anciently to the family of Pancras.” | appellation to a place of so much sanctity, as The festival of St. Pancras is kept, in the Roman Pangrace is universally esteemed. However this Catholic Church, on the 12th of May, under which be, if you except the parish church and its fine day his biography will be found in the “Lives of bells, there is little in Pangrace worth the attention the Saints,” by Alban Butler, who tells us that he of the curious observer.” We fear that the derivasuffered martyrdom at the early age of fourteen, tion proposed for Pancras must be regarded as at Rome, in the year 304. After being beheaded utterly absurd. for the faith, he was buried in the cemetery of Many of our readers will remember, and others Calepodius, which subsequently took his name. will thank us for reminding them, that the scene His relics are spoken of by Gregory the Great. of a great part of the Tale of a Tub, by Swift, St. Gregory of Tours calls him the Avenger of is laid in the fields about “Pankridge.” Totten Perjuries, and tells us that God openly punished Court is there represented as a country mansion false oaths made before his relics. The church at isolated from all other buildings; it is pretended Rome dedicated to the saint, of which we have that a robbery is committed "in the ways over spoken above, stands on the spot where he is the country," between Kentish Town and Hampsaid to have suffered; in this church his body is stead Heath, and the warrant for the apprehension still kept. “England and Italy, France and Spain of the robber is issued by a “Marribone” justice abound,” adds Alban Butler, “in churches bearing of the peace. his name, in most of which relics of the saint were Again, we find the name spelt as above by kept and shown in the ages before the Reformation. George Wither, in his “ Britain's Remembrancer" The first church consecrated by St. Augustine at|(1628): Canterbury is said by Mr. Baring Gould, in his “Those who did never travel till of late “Lives of the Saints,” to have been dedicated to Half way to Pankridge from the city gate." St. Pancras. In art, St. Pancras is always reprenor

- In proof of the rural character of the district some sented as a boy, with a sword uplifted in one

three centuries ago, it may be well to quote the hand and a palm-branch in the other; and it may I words of the actor Nash, in his greetings to Kemp be added that the seal of the parish represents the lin

ne in the time of Elizabeth : “As many allhailes to saint with similar emblems. There is a magni

"thy person as there be haicockes in July at Panficent brass of Prior Nelond, at Cowfold, in Sussex,

credge” (sic). where St. Pancras is represented with a youthful

Even so lately as the commencement of the countenance, holding a book and a palm-branch,

reign of George III., fields, with uninterrupted and treading on a strange figure, supposed to be

views of the country, led from Bagnigge Wells intended to symbolise his triumphs over the arch

northwards towards St. Pancras, where another enemy of mankind, in allusion to the etymology

well and public tea-gardens invited strollers within of the saint's name. The saint figures in Alfred

its sanitary premises. It seems strange to learn Tennyson's poem of “Harold,” where William

that the way between this place and London was Duke of Normandy exclaims

particularly unsafe to pedestrians after dark, and “ Lay thou thy hand upon this golden pall; that robberies between this spot and Gray's Inn Behold the jewel of St. Pancratius

Lane, and also between the latter and the “ Jew's Woven into the gold. Swear thou on this.”

Harp” Tavern, of which we have spoken in a preThat the name, like most others in bygone days, vious chapter, were common in the last century. did not escape corruption, may be seen from the St. Pancras is often said to be the most populous way in which it is written, even towards the close parish in the metropolis, if taken in its full extent of the last century. In Goldsmith's “Citizen of as including “a third of the hamlet of Highgate, the World" (published in 1794), is a semi- | with the other hamlets of Battle Bridge, Camden

Cowfold, a magni- / in the time of ctor Nash, in

8t Pancras.]

POPULATION OF ST. PANCRAS.

327

Town, Kentish Town, Somers Town, all Totten-century, is emphatically described by Norden in ham Court Road, and the streets east and north of his work above mentioned. After noticing the Cleveland Street and Rathbone Place,” besides— solitary condition of the church, he says: “Yet if we may trust Lysons—part of a house in Queen about the structure have bin manie buildings, now Square. Mr. John Timbs, in his “Curiosities of decaied, leaving poore Pancrast without companie London," speaks of St. Pancras as “the largest or comfort.” In some manuscript additions to parish in Middlesex,” being no less than “ eighteen his work, the same writer has the following obsermiles in circumference;" and he also says it is vations :—“Although this place 'be, as it were, the most populous parish in the metropolis. Mr. forsaken of all, and true men seldom frequent the Palmer, however, in his history of the parish, pub- same, but upon deveyne occasions, yet it is visayed lished in 1870, says that “its population is esti- by thieves, who assemble not there to pray, but to mated, at the present day, at a little over a quarter waite for prayer; and many fall into their handes, of a million, its number being only exceeded of all clothed, that are glad when they are escaped the metropolitan parishes by the neighbouring one naked. Walk not there too late." of Marylebone.” He adds that it is computed to As lately as the year 1745, there were only two contain 2,700 square acres of land, and that its or three houses near the church, and twenty years circuit is twenty-one miles. From the “Diary” of later the population of the parish was under six the vestry for the year 1876-7 we learn that the hundred. At the first census taken in the present area of the parish is 2,672 statute acres. The century it had risen to more than 35,000, and in population of St. Pancras parish in 1881 amounted 1861 it stood at very little under 200,000. There to 236,209, and the number of inhabited houses has, however, been a decrease since that time on to 24,655. There are 278 Parliamentary and account of the extensive clearances made for the municipal boroughs in England and Wales, ex- terminus of the Midland Railway, of which we clusive of the metropolis, and only five of these— shall speak presently. viz., Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Pancras is mentioned in “Domesday Book," and Sheffield-contain a larger population; and where it is stated that “the land of this manor is of there are twenty-two counties with a less population one caracute, and employs one plough. On the in each than St. Pancras.

estate are twenty-four men, who pay a rent of thirty There are four ancient prebendal manors in the shillings per annum.” The next notice which we parish, namely, Pancras; Cantlowes, or Kentishfind of this manor is its sale, on the demise of Lady Town; Tothill, or Tottenham Court; and Rugge- Ferrers, in 1375, to Sir Robert Knowles; and in mure, or Rugmere. The holder of the prebendal 1381 of its reversion, which belonged to the Crown, stall of St. Pancras in St. Paul's Cathedral was to the prior of the house of Carthusian Monks also, ex officio, the “Confessarius" of the Bishop of of the Holy Salutation. After the dissolution London. Among those who have held this post of the monasteries it came into the possession of may be enumerated the learned Dr. Lancelot Lord Somers, in the hands of whose descendants Andrews, afterwards Bishop of Winchester-of the principal portion of it—Somers Town — now whom we shall have more to say when we come remains. to his tomb in St. Saviour's, Southwark ; Dr. Sher Of the manor of Cantelows, or Kennestoune lock, and Archdeacon Paley; and in more modern (now, as we have already seen, called Kentish times, Canon Dale.

Town), it is recorded in the above-mentioned The church had attached to it about seventy survey that it is held by the Canons of St. Paul's, acres of land, which were let in 1641 for £10, and and that it comprises four miles of land. The nearly two hundred years later, being leased to a entry states that “there is plenty of timber in the Mr. William Agar, formed the site of Agar Town, hedgerows, good pasture for cattle, a running as mentioned in the previous chapter. Norden brook, and two 2od. rents. Four villeins, together thought the church “not to yield in antiquitie to with seven bordars, hold this land under the Paules in London :” in his “Speculum Britanniæ” Canons of St. Paul's at forty shillings a year rent. he describes it as “all alone, utterly forsaken, old, In King Edward's time it was raised to sixty and weather-beaten.”

shillings.” Brewer, in his “ London and Middlesex," says : In the reign of Henry IV., Henry Bruges, Garter "When a visitation of the church of Pancras was King-at-Arms, had a mansion in this manor, where made in the year 1251, there were only forty on one occasion he entertained the German Emhouses in the parish.” The desolate situation of peror, Sigismund, during his visit to this country. the village, in the latter part of the sixteenth The building, which stood near the old Episcopal

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